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Tempel van Dakka

Tempel von ed-Dakka

Relief des Thot als Pavian, der die lwengestaltige Tefnut


anbetet, in der Rmischen Kapelle im Tempel von ed-Dakka

Allerheiligstes des Augustus und des Tiberius im Tempel von


ed-Dakka

Tempel von el-Maharraqa

Hof im Tempel von el-Maharraqa

In 1,5 km Entfernung zum Tempel von Wd es-Seb befindet sich heute der
griechisch-rmische Tempel von ed-Dakka (arab. , ad-Dakka), dem
antiken Pselkis (Pselchis), der dem Thot von Pnbs (Sykomore), dem Gott
der Weisheit, geweiht ist. Er war ursprnglich 40 km sdlich seines
jetzigen Standorts gelegen. Der jetzige Tempel hatte zwei Vorgngerbauten:
ein erster Tempel aus der 18. Dynastie und ein Schrein fr Thot von Pnbs
des thiopenknigs Ergamenes (Arkamani), letzterer war Zeitgenosse
Ptolemaios IV. Ptolemaios VII. erweiterte diesen Schrein um einen Vorraum
und den Pronaos. Eine letzte Erweiterung gab es unter den rmischen Kaisern
Augustus und Tiberius, die ein zweites Sanktuar (Allerheiligstes) anfgten.
Man betritt die Tempelanlage, ursprnglich im Norden, durch den ca. 24 m
breiten und 12 m hohen Sandstein-Pylon, an dessen Rckseite Horus, Isis und
Osiris ausgemacht werden knnen. ber den heute zerstrten Vorhof gelangt
man zur Vorhalle (Pronaos) Ptolemaios VII., an dessen Fassade
Ptolemaios VII. und Kleopatra III. im Ritualhandlungen vor mehreren
Gttern dargestellt sind. Die Vorhalle trgt vergleichbare Darstellungen,

die sich jetzt aber auf den rmischen Kaiser Augustus beziehen. In der sich
anschlieenden Querhalle ist nur die Rckseite mit Opferdarstellungen des
Knigs und Nil- und Feldgttern ausgeschmckt. In der rechten hinteren Ecke
gelangt man zum Treppenraum.
Danach betritt man die sog. Ergamenes-Kapelle, das ursprngliche Sanktuar.
Man sieht hier an beiden Wnden Ergamenes bei Opferhandlungen vor
verschiedenen Gottheiten, auf der rechten Wand im zweiten Register sieht
man ihm, wie er einen Halskragen an Amun-Re, Mut und Chons, wie er einen
Wasserkrug an Amun und Satis und wie er Wein an den Pharao von Biga und
Anukis opfert. Auf der linken Seite gelangt man zu zwei schmalen
Seitenrumen. Im hinteren Raum, der sog. Rmischen Kapelle erkennt man gut
erhaltenen Darstellungen im Relief: die Seitenwnde zeigen in zwei
Registern Opferdarstellungen des Knigs vor verschiedenen Gttern, An der
Rckseite sind in vier Registern dargestellt: zwei Ibisse auf Schreinen mit
Lwinnen zu beiden Seiten, der Pavian-gestaltige Thot, der die
lwengestaltige Tefnut anbetet, zwei Falken, die mit ihren Flgeln die
Kartuschen des Knigs schtzen und zwei sitzenden Lwinnen. Die Szenen
spielen wohl auf den Mythos der Heimholung des Sonnenauges hin.
Am Ende befindet sich das Sanktuar des Augustus und des Tiberius, das
zahlreiche Opferhandlungen des Knigs zeigt. In der Mitte befindet sich ein
groer Granitschrein, der wohl ebenfalls von Augustus stammt.
Der Tempel wurde zwischen 1961 1965 von der gyptischen Antikenverwaltung
hierher versetzt.

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Pylne
Cour
Vestibule
Saint-des-saints
Chapelle romaine

Plan

The temple of Dakka, dedicated to Thoth of the Sycamore Fig, was originally
located about 100 kilometers south of the Aswan High Dam in what we refer
to today as Nubia, though much of that ancient land is covered by Lake
Nasser. El-Dakka was known to the Egyptians as Pselqet and to the Greeks as
Pselchis. Because of the impending flooding of the region as a result of
the High Dam, it was moved to the site of el-Sebua, about 40 kilometers
upstream, between 1962 and 1968.
The temple we see today was actually begun by the Meroitic (Nubian) king,
Akamani, who the Greeks called Ergamenes, in about 220 BC, though this date
is somewhat disputed, with
some scholars maintaining
that it dates as earlier as
Ptolemy II Philadelphus 282246. However, it is more
likely that, while Akamani
may have been alive early in

the reign of Ptolomy II Philadelphus, it is more likely that the temple


dates to the reign of Ptolomy IV Philopator (222-205). Irregardless,
together with his son named Arka (probably Argamani, Greek Ergamenes II),
it's construction appears to have become a combined effort between these
Nubian kings and the line of Greek Pharaohs in Egypt, probably commencing
with Ptolomy IV, though its construction continued through the reigns of
Ptolemy VIII Euergetes II and into the Roman rule of Augustus and Tiberius.

Above Left: One of the Capitals that fron the Temple of Thoth pronaos
Above Right: A depiction of Anqet, the Goddess of the Nile at Aswan
Below Left: The pharaoh offers the goddess Ma'at, a personification of universal order
Below Center: An old photograph showing the axis of the temple through the pylon

Below Right: The god, Khnoum, one of the decorations provided by Augustus

Today, Dakka sits dramatically on a small bluff. This is the only Nubian
temple with a facade that faces to the north and oriented north-south to
parallel the course of the Nile. The pylon of the temple is now separated
from the remainder of the temple due to the missing enclosure walls of the
open court. Above the entrance in the pylon, a solar disk with a uraeus
extends its wings. On the southern side of the temple, a small entrance
leads into the interior of the pylon and to a stairway that communicates
with several internal rooms.

After the open courtyard, the facade of the


pronaos is adorned with reliefs of a Ptoemaic King
sacrificing to various deities. The portal of this
section of the temple is engaged to two columns

that support an architrave. Beyond the pronaos, the temple has two
sanctuaries, which include that built by Arkamani and then a second one
added by Augustus. By far the Nubian reliefs within the temple are the most
interesting. They are small and precise in detail, depicting the Nubian
king making offerings to local gods of Aswan. Some of these best of these
reliefs portray Anqet, the goddess of Aswan with her elaborate feathered
headdress, and the lion-headed goddess Sekhmet. Other scenes depict the
king making offerings to not only Thoth, but also Isis and Tefnut.
When the temple was moved, it was discovered to contain a number of reused
blocks from an earlier structure dedicated to Horus of Baki (Quban) that
was built by Hatshepsut and Tuthmosisi III, though this earlier New Kingdom
temple may have been constructed on the opposing shore of the Nile.
However, unlike many New Kingdom temples built in Nubia that seem to have
been constructed more as symbols of power, but isolated and having perhaps
no real public worship functions and limited
priesthood, this temple was apparently built
in an urban center were an active cult was
more likely.
It should also be noted that at the modern
site of the el-Dakka temple, not only do we
find the temple of el-Sebua, but also the
small Maharraka temple, dating from Roman times and dedicated to Serapis
and Isis. Interestingly, this small temple contains the only spiral
staircase in any Nubian temple. However, this temple's decorative theme was
never competed. It to was moved to this location from its original site
about 81 kilometers to the north.

Left: Agustus wearing the Red Crown of Lower Egypt and presenting three ostrich feathers
to, perhaps Osiris and Isis or Hathor; Right: A relief of the Lioness Sekhmet as she
angrily faces a baboon from a small chamber within the temple