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# MAXWELLS EQUATIONS

(1873)

## James Clerk Maxwell

(1831-1879)

Charles Augustin
de Coulomb
1736 -1806

1791 1867
Johann Carl
Friedrich Gauss
1777 - 1855

Andr-Marie Ampre
1775 1836

Electromagnetics
Electromagnetic theory is the study of
charges at rest and in motion which
produce currents and EM fields.

## : Magnetic flux density vector,

Weber/m2=Tesla
3

Sources of an EM field

## : Electric current density, Ampere/m2

: Electric charge density, Coul/m3
distribution

Charge density

Current density

volume

(Coul/m3)

surface

s (Coul/m2)

Js

along a line

l (Coul/m)

point charge

q (Coul.)

(Amp/m2)
(Amp/m)
(Amp)

Direction is specified by
a dl vector 4

## Maxwells Equations in differential form

describes and relates the field vectors, current
densities and charge densities at any point in space at
any time

Br , t
E r , t
t

Dr , t
H r , t J r , t
t
Dr , t r , t

Br , t 0

## (2) (Generalized Amperes

circuital law)
(3) (Gauss law)
(4) (Conservation of magnetic flux)

## There are no magnetic charges in nature

Maxwells equations as given above are in the most general form, in the
sense that they are valid in any kind of medium.

Dr , t
H r , t J r , t
t
include impressed
sources, as well as
induced ones

Displacement current
in Amp/m2

## Remark: For Maxwells equations expressions to be

valid, it is assumed that the field vectors are single
valued, bounded, continuous functions of position and
time and exhibit continuous derivatives. EM field
vectors possess these characteristics except where
there exist abrupt changes in charge and current
densities.
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## Maxwells equations include the information contained in the

continuity equation

r , t
J r , t
t

## Continuity equation is not an independent relation, it can be

obtained from Maxwells 2nd and 3rd equations.
(show this as an exercise)
Alternatively, Maxwells two divergence equations can be
deduced directly from curl relations with the aid of continuity
equation.
(derivation in class)

## In addition to Maxwells equations, the following

force law holds concerning the force on a
charge q moving with velocity v through an
electric field E and a magnetic field B

F q E vB

## describes the relations of the field vectors, current densities and

charge densities over an extended region of space. These are more
general than the equations in differential form, since the fields and their
derivatives do not need to possess continuous distributions.

E dl
B ds
t

ds n ds

(1)

D
H dl J ds
ds
t

D ds dv
S

S
C

(2)

dl
(3)

ds n ds

B ds 0

(4)

d
S J ds dt V dv

(5)
9

d
C E dl dt S B ds
Where magnetic flux linking C is

vind

d m

dt

m B ds
S

## Faradays law: emf appearing at the open circuited

terminals of a loop is equal to time rate of decrease of

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D
H dl J ds
ds Ienc I d,enc
t
C
S
S

Ienc

Id ,enc

## Amperes law: Line integral of magnetic field over

closed path is equal to the current enclosed

D ds dv Q

enc

Qenc

## Gauss law: Total electric flux through a closed

surface is equal to the total charge enclosed
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B ds 0
S

## Net magnetic flux leaving a closed surface is zero

dQenc
d
S J ds dt V dv dt
Law of conservation of charge

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## Differential and integral forms of

Maxwells equations can be obtained from
each other by using Stokes Theorem and
Divergence Theorem. (Show as an exercise)

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MAXWELLS EQUATIONS
In Differential Form

Br , t
E r , t
t
Dr , t
H r , t J r , t
t

In Integral Form

d
C E dl dt S B ds
d
H dl J ds
D ds
dt

Dr , t r , t

D ds dv

Br , t 0

B ds 0

Continuity Equation

r , t
J r , t
t

d
S J ds dt V dv

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BOUNDARY CONDITIONS
Region 1

E1 , H 1
Region 2

E2, H 2

n E1 n E 2

n D1 D2 s

n H1 H 2 Js

n B1 n B2

flowing on S
where

## is surface charge density on S

(derivation in class)
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Maxwells Equations

Boundary Conditions

Br , t
E r , t
t

n E1 E 2 0

Dr , t
H r , t J r , t
t

n H1 H 2 J s

Dr , t r , t

n D1 D 2 s

Br , t 0

n B B 0
1

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