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MAXWELLS EQUATIONS

(1873)

James Clerk Maxwell


(1831-1879)

Charles Augustin
de Coulomb
1736 -1806

Michael Faraday
1791 1867
Johann Carl
Friedrich Gauss
1777 - 1855

Andr-Marie Ampre
1775 1836

Electromagnetics
Electromagnetic theory is the study of
charges at rest and in motion which
produce currents and EM fields.

Electromagnetic field vectors

: Electric field intensity vector, Volt/m

: Magnetic field intensity vector, Ampere/m

: Electric flux density vector, Coul/m2

: Magnetic flux density vector,


Weber/m2=Tesla
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Sources of an EM field

: Electric current density, Ampere/m2


: Electric charge density, Coul/m3
distribution

Charge density

Current density

volume

(Coul/m3)

surface

s (Coul/m2)

Js

along a line

l (Coul/m)

point charge

q (Coul.)

(Amp/m2)
(Amp/m)
(Amp)

Direction is specified by
a dl vector 4

Maxwells Equations in differential form


describes and relates the field vectors, current
densities and charge densities at any point in space at
any time

Br , t
E r , t
t

Dr , t
H r , t J r , t
t
Dr , t r , t

Br , t 0

(1) (Faradays induction law)

(2) (Generalized Amperes


circuital law)
(3) (Gauss law)
(4) (Conservation of magnetic flux)

There are no magnetic charges in nature


Maxwells equations as given above are in the most general form, in the
sense that they are valid in any kind of medium.

Dr , t
H r , t J r , t
t
include impressed
sources, as well as
induced ones

Displacement current
in Amp/m2

Remark: For Maxwells equations expressions to be


valid, it is assumed that the field vectors are single
valued, bounded, continuous functions of position and
time and exhibit continuous derivatives. EM field
vectors possess these characteristics except where
there exist abrupt changes in charge and current
densities.
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Maxwells equations include the information contained in the

continuity equation

r , t
J r , t
t

(5) (Conservation of charge)

Continuity equation is not an independent relation, it can be


obtained from Maxwells 2nd and 3rd equations.
(show this as an exercise)
Alternatively, Maxwells two divergence equations can be
deduced directly from curl relations with the aid of continuity
equation.
(derivation in class)

In addition to Maxwells equations, the following


force law holds concerning the force on a
charge q moving with velocity v through an
electric field E and a magnetic field B

F q E vB

Lorentz Force Equation

Maxwells Equations in integral form

describes the relations of the field vectors, current densities and


charge densities over an extended region of space. These are more
general than the equations in differential form, since the fields and their
derivatives do not need to possess continuous distributions.

E dl
B ds
t

ds n ds

(1)

D
H dl J ds
ds
t

D ds dv
S

S
C

(2)

dl
(3)

ds n ds

B ds 0

(4)

d
S J ds dt V dv

(5)
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d
C E dl dt S B ds
Where magnetic flux linking C is

vind

d m

dt

m B ds
S

Faradays law: emf appearing at the open circuited


terminals of a loop is equal to time rate of decrease of
magnetic flux linking the loop.

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D
H dl J ds
ds Ienc I d,enc
t
C
S
S

Ienc

Id ,enc

Amperes law: Line integral of magnetic field over


closed path is equal to the current enclosed

D ds dv Q

enc

Qenc

Gauss law: Total electric flux through a closed


surface is equal to the total charge enclosed
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B ds 0
S

Net magnetic flux leaving a closed surface is zero

dQenc
d
S J ds dt V dv dt
Law of conservation of charge

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Differential and integral forms of


Maxwells equations can be obtained from
each other by using Stokes Theorem and
Divergence Theorem. (Show as an exercise)

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MAXWELLS EQUATIONS
In Differential Form

Br , t
E r , t
t
Dr , t
H r , t J r , t
t

In Integral Form

d
C E dl dt S B ds
d
H dl J ds
D ds
dt

Dr , t r , t

D ds dv

Br , t 0

B ds 0

Continuity Equation

r , t
J r , t
t

d
S J ds dt V dv

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BOUNDARY CONDITIONS
Region 1

E1 , H 1
Region 2

E2, H 2

n E1 n E 2

n D1 D2 s

n H1 H 2 Js

n B1 n B2

where J s is surface current density


flowing on S
where

is surface charge density on S

(derivation in class)
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Maxwells Equations

Boundary Conditions

Br , t
E r , t
t

n E1 E 2 0

Dr , t
H r , t J r , t
t

n H1 H 2 J s

Dr , t r , t

n D1 D 2 s

Br , t 0

n B B 0
1

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