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Sri Balaji P.G.College,

(Affiliated to Sri Krishna Devaraya University)

Anantapur(Dt)-Andhra Pradesh.

2008 - 2010

This is to certify that the project entitled “A STUDY ON RECRUITMENT AND TRAINING IN SREE

BALAJI TMT ROD MILLS PRIVATE LIMITED” is bonafied work record work done by

MR.K.SREEKANTH REGISTER NO: 80312047 in the partial fulfillment for award of the degree of





This is to certify that project entitled “A STUDY ON RECRUITMENT AND TRAINING IN SREE

BALAJI TMT ROD MILLS PVT LTD” is bonafied record work done by MR.K.SREEKANTH

REGISTER NO: 80312047 under my guidance and supervision in the partial fulfillment forward of the


affiliated to SRI KRISHNA DEVARAYA UNIVERSITY”, ANANTAPUR. We also confirm that this

project work has not been submitted for the award of any degree.

Place: Project Internal Guide



I here by declare that the project report titled “RERUITMENT AND TRAINING IN SREE BALAJI

TMT ROD MILLS PVT LTD” submitted by me to the department of business management under the

guidance of MR.RAJESH Head of Department of Business Administration, Sri Balaji PG college, Sri

Krishna Devaraya University, Anantapur bonafide work under taken by me and it is not submitted to

any other university or institution for the award of any other degree /the discipline/ certificate or

published any time before.


I am grateful to Prof. K.Manmadheshwar reddy., principal of Sri Balaji PG College for their
encouragement in this academic pursuit.

I am very thankful to Rajesh shyam MBA, Head of the Department of Business

Administration Sri Balaji PG College and my internal guide for their valuable help.

I am deeply beneficiated to Mr.Krishna, HR manager Sri Balaji TMT rod mills Pvt ltd for their
valuable guidance and necessary encouragement in completing of the project work successfully

I shall be failing in my duty if I do not express my special gratitude to my beloved family

members, my friends and well wishers for their continuous encouragement and help for completion of
this work.


Chapter 1: Review of literature

Chapter 2: Company Profile

Chapter 3: Industry profile

Chapter 4: Research methodology

Chapter 5: Data Analysis and Interpretation

Chapter 6: Findings and suggestions

Chapter 7: Bibliography
People are the most important assets of any organization. So recruiting the appropriate and required
number of employees and utilizing them for company’s objectives is more important. Once the required
number and kind of human resources are determined, the management has to find the places where
required human resources will be available and also find the means of attracting them towards the
organization before selecting suitable candidates for jobs. All this process is generally known as

Some people use the term ‘Recruitment’ for employment. These two are not one and others use
the term ‘Recruitment’ for selection. These two terms are also not one. Technically speaking the
function of recruitment precedes the selection function and it includes only finding, developing the
sources of prospective employees and attracting them to apply for jobs in an organization, whereas the
selection is the process of finding out most suitable candidate to the job out of the candidates attracted.
Formal definition of recruitment would give clear cut idea about the function of recruitment.


Recruitment is defined as, ”a process to discover the sources of manpower to meet the requirements of
staffing schedule and to employ effective measures for attracting that manpower in adequate numbers to
facilitate effective selection of an efficient workforce”.

Edwin B.Flippo defined recruitment as “the process of searching for prospective employees and
stimulating them to apply for jobs in the organization.”


There are four sub systems in recruitment which can be divided into further sub-systems.

1) Finding out and developing the sources,

2) Developing sources to attract candidates,

3) Employing the technique

4) Stimulating candidates and making them to apply for jobs.


Both the internal and external factors affect the recruitment. The external factors include supply
of and demand of human resources, employment opportunities and/or unemployment market conditions,
political, legal requirement and government policies, social factors, information systems.

The internal factors include the company’s pay package, including salary, fringe benefits and
incentives, quality of work life, organizational culture, career planning and growth opportunities, size of
company, company services etc.


Recruitment policy of any organization is derived from the personnel policy of the same
organization. In other words the former was the part of the later. However, recruitment by itself should
take into consideration, the governments reservation policy, policy regarding sons of soil etc, Personnel
policies of other organizations regarding merit, internal sources, social responsibility in absorbing
minority sections, women etc.

Recruitment policy should commit itself to the organizations personnel policy like enriching the
organization human resources or serving the community by absorbing the weaker sections and
disadvantaged people of the society, motivating the employees through internal promotions improving
the employee loyalty to the organization by absorbing retrenched or laid off employees or temporary
employees or dependents of present or former employees.

The following factors should take into consideration in formulating recruitment policy.

a) Government policies

b) Personnel policies of other organizations

c) Recruiting sources

d) Recruitment cost

e) Selection criteria and preference etc.


The sources of recruitment are broadly divided into internal and external sources. Internal
sources are the sources within the organizational pursuits. Eternal sources are sources outside the
organizational pursuits

INTERNAL SOURCES: Internal sources include

a) Present permanent employees

b) Present temporary/ casual employees

c) Retrenched or retired employees

d) Dependents of deceased, disabled, retired and present employees.

PRESENT PERMANENT EMPLOYEES: Organizations consider the candidates from the this source
for higher level jobs due to

i) Availability of most suitable candidates for jobs relatively or equally to external sources

ii) To meet the trade unions demands

iii) To the policy of organization to motivate the present employees.

PRESENT TEMPORARY/CASUAL EMPLOYEES: Organizations find this source to fill the

vacancies relatively at the lower level owing to availability of suitable candidates or trade union
pressures or in order to motivate them on the present job.

RETRENCHED OR RETIRED EMPLOYEES: Generally a particular organization retrenches the

employees due to lay off. The organization takes candidates for employment from the retrenched
employees due to obligation, trade union pressure and the like. Sometimes the organization prefers to re-
employ their retired employees as a token of their loyalty to the organization or to post pone some inter
personal conflicts for promotion etc.

DEPENDENTS OF DECEASED, DISABLED EMPLOYEES: Some organizations with a view to

develop the commitment and loyalty of not only the employee but also his family members and build up
image provide employment to dependents of deceased, disabled, and present employees. Such
organizations find this source as and effective source of recruitment.

EXTERNAL SOURCES: External sources are those sources which are outside the organization
pursuits. Organizations search for the required candidates from these sources for the following reasons.

a) The suitable candidate with skill, talent, knowledge is generally available.

b) Candidates can be selected with out any conceived notion and reservation.

c) Expertise, experience and excellence in other organizations can be easily brought into the

d) Human resources mix can be balanced with different back ground, experience, skill etc.

e) Latest knowledge, skill, innovative, or creative talent can also be flowed into organization.


1) Campus recruitment

2) Private employment agencies

3) Public employment exchanges

4) Professional associations

5) Data banks

6) Casual applicants

7) Similar organizations

8) Trade unions.

CAMPUS RECRUITMENT: Different types of organizations like industries, business firms, and
service organizations, social or religious organizations can get inexperienced candidates of different
types from various educational institutions like colleges and Universities imparting education in science,
commerce, arts, engineering and technology etc and trained candidates in different disciplines. Most of
the organizations use this source perform the functions of selection after completing recruitment in the
campus of the institute itself with a view to minimize time and to secure the cream before it is attracted
by some other organizations.

PRIVATE EMPLOYMENT AGENCIES: Private employment agencies or consultants like ABC

consultants in India perform the recruitment functions on behalf of a client company by charging fee.
But due to limitations of high cost, ineffectiveness in performance, confidential nature of this function,
managements some times do not depend on this source for highly specialized positions and executive

PUBLIC EMPLOYMENT EXCHANGES: The Government set up public employment exchanges in

the country to provide the information about the vacancies to the candidates and to help the
organizations in finding out suitable candidates. The Employment Exchange Act, 1959 makes it
obligatory for public sector and private sector enterprises in India to fill certain types of vacancies
through public employment exchanges.

PROFESSIONAL ORGANIZATIONS: Professional organizations or associations maintain complete

bio data of their members and provide the same to various organizations on required time. They also act
as an exchange between members and recruiting firms in exchanging information, clarifying doubts etc.
Organizations find this source more useful to recruit the experienced and professional employees like
executives, managers, engineers etc.

DATA BANKS: The management can collect the bio -data of the candidates from different sources like
Employment exchanges, Educational institutions, training institutes etc and feed them in computer. It
will become another source and company can get
the particulars as and when it needs to recruit.

CASUAL APPLICANTS: Depending upon the image of the organization, its prompt, response,
participation in local activities, level of un-employment, candidates apply casually for jobs through mail
or handover the applications in personal department. This would be a suitable source for temporary and
lower level jobs.

SIMILAR ORGANIZATIONS: Generally experienced candidates are available in organizations

producing similar products or are engaged in similar business. The management can get suitable
candidates from this source. This would be the most effective source for executive positions or for
newly established organizations.

TRADE UNIONS: Generally, unemployed or underemployed persons put a word to trade union leaders
with a view to get suitable employment. As such the trade union leaders are aware of the availability of
candidates. In view of this fact and in order to satisfy trade unions, management enquires trade unions
for suitable candidates.


Recruitment techniques are the means of media by which management contracts the prospective
employees or provides necessary information or exchange ideas or stimulate the candidates to apply for
jobs. Management uses different types of techniques to stimulate internal and external candidates.
Techniques used to stimulate external candidates are

i) Promotions and

ii) Transfers

Techniques useful to stimulate external candidates are

i) Present employees

ii) Scouting

iii) Advertising

PROMOTIONS: Most of the internal candidates would be stimulated to take up higher responsibilities
and express their willingness to be engaged in the higher level jobs if management gives them the
assurance that they will be promoted to the next higher level.

TRANSFERS: Employees will be stimulated to work in the new sections or places if management
wishes to transfer them to new places of their choice.

RECOMMENDATIONS OF PRESENT EMPLOYEES: Management can contact, persuade the

outsides so apply for jobs in the organization through the recommendations to the candidates by present
employees, trade union leaders etc.
SCOUTING: Scouting means sending the representation of the organization to various sources of
recruitment with a view to persuading or stimulating the candidates to apply for jobs. The
representatives provide information about the company and exchange information and ideas and clarify
the doubts of the candidates.

ADVERTISING: Advertising is widely accepted technique of recruitment, though it mostly provides

one way communication. It provides the candidates in different sources, the information about the job
and company and stimulates them to apply for jobs. It includes advertising through different media like
newspapers, magazines of all kinds, radio, television etc.

The technique of advertising should aim at

a) Attracting the attention of the prospective candidates

b) Creating and maintaining interest

c) Stimulating action by the candidates.


A number of modern sources and techniques are being used by corporate sector in additional to
traditional sources and techniques. They are as follows

i) WALK-IN: The busy organizations and the rapidly changing organizations do not find the time
to perform the various functions of recruitment. Therefore, they advise the potential
candidates to attend for and interview and without a prior application on a specific date and
time and at a specified place. The suitable candidates from among the interviewers will be
selected for appointment after screening the through tests and interviews.

ii) CONSULT IN: The busy and dynamic organizations encourage the potential job seekers to
approach them personally and consult them regarding the jobs. The companies select the
suitable candidates from among such candidates through the selection process.

iii) HEAD HUNTING: The companies request the professional organizations to search for the best
candidates particularly for senior executive positions. The professional organizations search
for the most suitable candidates and advise the company regarding the filling up of the
positions. Head hunters are also called as search consultants.

iv) BODY SHOPPING: Professional organizations and the hi-tech institutes develop the pool of
human resources for the possible employment. The prospective employees contact these
organizations to recruit the candidate. Otherwise the organizations themselves approach the
prospective employees to place their human resources. These professional and training
institutions are called body shopping.

v) BUSINESS ALLIANCES: Business alliances like acquisitions, mergers and takeovers help in
getting human resources. In addition the companies do also have alliances in sharing their
human resources on ad hoc basis.

vi) TELE-RECRUITMENT: The technological revolution in telecommunication helped the

organizations to use internet as a source of recruitment. Organizations advertise the job
vacancies through the internet. The job seekers send their applications through e-mail, or
internet. Alternatively, job seekers place their cv’s in the internet, which can be drawn by the
employers depending on their requirements.
Organization and individual should develop and progress simultaneously for their survival and
attainment of mutual goals. So every modern management has to develop the organization through
human resource development. Employee training is the important sub system of human resource
development. The day to day developing technology has mad training as important function. Employee
training is a specialized function and is one of the fundamental operative functions for human resource

MEANING: After an employee is introduced into the organization, he or she must be provide with
training facilities. Training is the act of increasing the knowledge and skill of an employee for doing a
particular job. Training is a short term for educational process and utilizing a systematic and organized
procedure by which employees learn technical knowledge and skill for a definite purpose.

DEFINITION: Dale S. Beach defined the training as, “the organized procedure by which people learn
knowledge and skill for a definite purpose.

Training refers to the teaching and learning activities carried on for the primary purpose of helping
members of an organization to acquire and apply the knowledge, skills, abilities and attitudes needed by
a particular job and organization.

Thus, training bridges the differences between job requirements and employees present specifications.



 Leads to improved profitability and more positive attitudes towards profits orientation.

 Improves job knowledge and skills at all levels of organization.

 Improves morale of the organization.

 Improves morale of the work force

 Helps people identify with organizational goals

 Helps to create a better corporate image.

 Improves the relationship between boss and subordinates.

 Aids in organizational development

 Improves labour management relations

 Helps to prepare guidelines for work.

 Helps employees adjust to change.


 Helps the individual in making better decision and effective problem solving.

 Aids in encouraging and achieving self development and self confidence.

 Helps a person handle stress, tension, frustration and conflict.

 Increases job satisfaction and recognition.

 Moves person towards personal goals while improving interactive skills.

 Helps eliminate fear in attempting new tasks.

 Develops a sense of growth in learning.


Training is not something that is done once to new employees. It is used continuously in every well run
establishment. Further technological changes, automation, require updating the skills and knowledge. As
such an organization has to retrain the old employees. Specifically, the need for training arises due to
following reasons.

An employee’s specification may not exactly suits to the requirements of job and the
organization irrespective of his past experience, qualifications, skills, knowledge etc. Training is needed
to fill these gaps by developing and moulding the employee’s skills, knowledge, attitude, behavior etc to
the tune of the job requirements and organizational needs.


The primary goal of most of the organizations is their viability is continuously influenced by
environmental pressure. If the organization does not adapt itself to the changing factors in environment,
it will lose its market share. If organization desires to adapt to these changes, first it has to train its
employees to impart specific skills and knowledge in order to enable them to contribute to the
organizational efficiency and to cope with process and development.

TEHCNOLOGICAL ADVANCES: Every organization in order to survive and to effective should

adopt the latest technology i.e, mechanization, computerization and automation. Adoption of latest
technological means and methods will not be complete until they are manned by employees possessing
skill to operate them. So organization should train the employees to enrich them in the areas of changing
technical skills and knowledge from time to time.

ORGANIZATIONAL COMPLEXITY: With the emergence of improved mechanization and

automation, manufacturing of multiple products and by-products or dealing in services diversified lines,
extension of operations to various regions the country or in overseas countries, organization of most of
companies has become complex. Companies constantly look for opportunities training to improve
organizational effectiveness. Training is responsible for planned change and effectiveness in
organization as it prepares the people to be the change agents and to implement the programmes of

HUMAN RELATIONS: Trends in approach towards personnel management has changed from the
commodity approach to partnership approach. So today managements of most of organizations has to
maintain human relations besides maintaining sound industrial relations, So training in human relations
is necessary to deal with human problems and to maintain human relations.

Providing training in the knowledge of different skills is a complex process. A number of principles
have been evolved which can be followed as guidelines by trainees.

i) MOTIVATION: As the effectiveness of an employee depends on how well he is motivates by

management, the effectiveness of learning also depends on motivation. In other words, the
trainee will acquire a new skill or knowledge thoroughly and quickly if he or she is highly
motivated. The trainer should find out the proper ways to motivate experienced employees
who are already enjoying better facilities in case of re-training.

ii) PROGRESS INFORMATION: It has been found by various research studies that there is a
relation between learning rapidly and effectively and providing information specifically and
as such the trainer should not give excessive information or information that can be mis-
interpretated. The trainee also wants to learn a new skill without much difficulty. So trainer
has to provide progressive information to trainee.

iii) REINFORCEMENT: The effectiveness of the trainee in learning new skills and acquiring new
knowledge should be reinforced by means of rewards and punishments. Examples of positive
reinforcement are promotions, rise In pay, praise etc. Punishments are also called negative
reinforcements. Management should take care to award the successful trainees.

iv) PRACTICE: A trainee should actively participate in the training programmes in order to make
the learning programme an effective one. Continuous and long practice is highly essential for
effective learning.

v) FULL VS PART: It is not clear whether it is best to teach the complete job at a stretch or
dividing the job into parts and teaching each part at a time. If a job is complex and requires
little too long to learn, it is better to teach the part of the job separately ad then put the parts
together into an defective complete job.

vi) INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES: Individual training is costly and group training is

economically viable and advantageous to organization. But individual vary in intelligence
and aptitude from person to person. So the trainer has to adjust the training programme to the
individual abilities and aptitude.

Organizations provide training to their candidates in the following areas.

i) Company policies and procedures

ii) Specific skills

iii) Human relations

iv) Problem solving

v) Managerial and supervisory skills and apprentice training.

a) COMPANY POLICIES AND PROCEDURES: This area of training is to be provided with a

view to acquainting the new employee with the company rules, practices, procedures, tradition,
management, organization structure, environment products/services offered by the company etc.
This acquaintance helps the new employee to adjust himself with the changing situations
regarding company rules and polices creates favorable attitudes of confidence in minds of new
employee about the company and its product services as well as it develops in him a sense of
respect for the existing employees of the company.

b) TRAINING IN SPECIFIC SKILLS: This area of training is to enable more effective on the
job. The trainer trains the employee regarding various skills necessary to do the actual job.

c) HUMAN RELAITONS TRAINING: Human relations training assume greater significance I

organization as employees have to maintain human relations not only with other employees but
also with their customers. Employees are to be trained in the areas of self learning, interpersonal
competence, group dynamic, perception, leadership styles, motivation etc. This training enables
the employees for better team work, which lead to improved efficiency and productivity of the

d) PROBLEM SOLVING TRAINING: Most of the organizational problems are common to

employees dealing the same activity at different levels to organization. Further some of the
problems of different managers may have the same root cause. Hence, management may call
together all managerial personnel to discuss common problems so as to arrive at effective
solutions across the table. This is now only helps in solving the problems, but also serves as a
forum of exchange of ideas and information that could be utilized.

e) MANAGERIAL AND SUPERVISORY TRAINING: Even the non manages some times
perform managerial and supervisory functions like planning, decision making, organizing,
maintaining interpersonal relations directing and controlling. Hence management has to train the
employee in managerial and supervisory skills also.

f) APPRENTICE TRAINING: The Apprentice Act 1961 requires industrial unity of specified
industries to provide training in basic skills and knowledge in specified trades to educated un-
employees with a view to improve their employment opportunities or to enable them to start their
own industry. This training is generally used for providing technical knowledge in the areas like
trades, crafts etc.


As a result of research in the field of training, a number of programmes are available. Some of these are
new methods, while some are improvements over traditional methods. The training programs commonly
used to train operative and supervisory personnel are discussed below. The training methods are divided
into on-job-training methods and of-job training methods.


This type of training, also known as job instruction training is the most commonly used method. Under
this method, the individual is placed on a regular job and taught the skills necessary to perform the job.
On-the-job training has the advantage of giving first hand knowledge and experienced under the actual
working conditions. On the job training methods include

a) JOB ROTATION: This type of training involves the movement of the trainee from one job to
another. The trainee receives job knowledge and gains experience from his supervisor or trainer
in each of the different job assignments. Though this method of training is common in training
manages for general management position, trainees can also be rotates from job to job in
workshop jobs. This method gives an opportunity to trainee to understand problems of other
b) COACHING: The trainee is placed under a particular supervisor functions as a coach in training
the individual. The supervisor provides feed back to trainee on his performance and offers him
some suggestions for improvement. Often the trainee shares some of duties and responsibilities
of the coach and relieves him of his burden. A limitation of this method is that the trainee may
not have the freedom to express his ideas.

c) JOB INSTRUCTION: This method is known as training through step by step. Under this
method, trainer explains the trainee the way of doing the jobs, job knowledge and skills and
allows him to do the job. The trainer appraises the performance of the trainee, provides feed back
information and corrects the trainee.


Step 1: Prepare the employee for instruction.

Step 2: Present the job. Explain and demonstrate one step at a time.

Step 3: Have him to do the job. Correct errors and omissions as he makes them. Encourage him.

Step 4: Follow through. Put him on his own. Encourage questions.

If the learner has not learnt, correct him and teach him frequently.

d) COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS: Under the committee assignment, group of trainees are given
and asked to solve an actual organizational problem. The trainees solve the problem jointly. It
develops teamwork.


Under this method of training, trainee is separated from the job situation and his attention
is focused upon learning the material related to his future job performance. There is an
opportunity for freedom of expression for trainees. These include

1) VESTIBULE TRAINING: In these methods, actual work conditions are stimulated in a class
room. Material, files and equipment that are used in actual job performance are also used in
training. This type of training is commonly used for training personnel for clerical and semi-
skilled jobs. The duration of this training ranges from days to few weeks.

2) ROLE PLAYING: It is defined as a method of human interaction that involves realistic

behavior in imaginary situations. This method of training involves action, doing and practice.
The participants play certain types of characters. This method is mostly used for developing
interpersonal interactions and relations.

3) LECTURE METHOD: The lecture method is a traditional and direct method of instruction.
The instructor organizes the material and gives it to a group of trainees in the form of a talk. To
be effective, the lecture must motivate and create interest among the trainees. An advantage of
lecture method is that it is direct and con be used for al large group of trainees. Thus, cost and
time are reduced.

4) CONFERENCE OR DISCUSSION: It is a method in training the clerical, professional and

supervisory personnel. This method involves a group of people who pose ideas, examine and
share facts, ideas and data, test assumptions and drawn conclusions, all of which contribute to the
improvement of job performance.

5) PROGRMMED INSTRUCTION: In recent years, this method has become popular. The
subject matter to be learned is presented is presented in as series of carefully planned sequential
units. These units are arranged from simple to more complex levels. The trainee goes through
these units by answering questions or filling the blanks. This method is expensive and time


The important steps in training procedure are discussed below.

a) PREPARING THE INSSTRUCTOR: The instructor must know both the job to be taught and
how to teach it. The job must be divided into logical parts so that each can be taught at proper
time without the trainee losing plan. For each par one should have in mind the desired technique
of instruction, that is, whether a particular point is best taught by illustration demonstration or
A serious and committed instructor must:

i) Know the job or subject he is attempting to teach,

ii) Have the aptitude and abilities to teach,

iii) Have willingness towards the profession,

iv) Have a pleasing personality and capacity for leadership,

v) Have the knowledge of teaching principles and methods

vi) Be a permanent student in the sense that he should equip himself with latest concepts and

b) PREPARING THE TRAINEE: As in interviewing, the first step in training is to attempt to

place the trainee at ease. Most people are some what nervous when approaching an unfamiliar
task. Though the instructor may have executed this training procedure, many times he or she
never forgets its newness to trainee. The quality of empathy is a mark of the gook instructor.

c) GETTING READY TO TEACH: This stage of the programme is class hour teaching
involving the fo9llowing activities.

• Planning the programme

• Preparing the instructor outline.

• Do not try to cover too much material,

• Keep the session move along logically,

• Discuss each item in depth,

• Repeat, but in different words,

• Take the material from the standardized text when it is available,

• Remember your standard before you teach,

• Take periodical progress of the trainees and application into account.

d) PRESENTING THE OPERATION: There are various alternative ways of presenting the
operation like explanation, demonstration etc. An instructor mostly uses these methods of
explanation. In addition, one may illustrate various points through the use of pictures, charts,
diagrams and other training aids. Demonstration is an excellent device when the job is essentially
physical in nature. The following sequence is a favourite with some instructors.

i) Explain the sequence of entire job,

ii) Do the job step by step according to procedure,

iii) Explain the step he is performing,

iv) Have the trainee explain the entire job.

e) TRY OUT THE TRAINEES PERFORMANCE: As a continuation of the presentation

sequence given above, the trainee should be asked to start the job or operative procedure. Some
instructors prefer that the trainee explains each step before doing it, particularly if the operation
involves any danger. The trainee through repetitive practice will acquire more skill.

FOLLOW UP: The final step in most training procedures is that of follow up. When people are
involved in any problem or procedure, it is unwise to assume that things are always constant.
Follow up can be adopted to a variable reinforcement schedule as suggested in the discussion


The process of training evaluation gas been defined as, “any attempt to obtain information on the effects
of training performance, and to access the value of training in the light of that information.” Evaluation
leads to controlling and correction the training programme. Hamblin suggested five levels at which
evaluation of training can take place like reactions, learning, job behavior, organization and ultimate

i) REACTIONS: Training programme is evaluated on the basis of trainees reactions to the

usefulness of coverage of the matter, depth of the course content, method of presentation,
teaching methods etc.
ii) LEARNING: Training programme, trainers ability and trainee ability are evaluated on the basis
of quantity of content learned and time in which it is learned and learner’s ability to use or
apply the content he learned.

iii) JOB BEHAVIOUR: This evaluation includes the manner and extent to which the trainee has
applied his learning to his job.

iv) ORGANIZATION: This evaluation measures the use of training, learning, and change in the
behavior of the department/organization in the form of increased productivity, quality,
morale, sales turn over and the like.

v) ULTIMATE VALUE: It is the measurement of ultimate result of the contributions of the

training programme to the company goals like survival, growth, profitability etc and to the
individual goals like development of personality and social goals like maximizing social


1) Support through out the evaluation.

2) Existence of open communication channels among top management, participants and those who
provide data.

3) Existence of sound management process.

BASES OF EVALUATION: Training programme can be evaluated on the basis of various factors like
production factor, general observation, human resource factor, performance, tests, cost-value
relationship etc.

PRODUCTION FACTORS: In operative training, the prime measure of worth is that productivity.
Productivity rates covering both quantity and quality are good indicators of the values of training,
Management will generally look first at production and wastage rates to determine the worth of
operative training.
GENERAL OBSERVATIONS: General observation should be overlooked as a means of training
evaluation. The immediate supervisor is often a gook judge of the skill level of his subordinates, the
efficient supervisors observes accurately the trainee during the training programme.

HUMAN RESOURCE FACTORS: training programme can also be evaluated on the basis of the
employee satisfaction which in turn can be viewed on the basis of

 Decrease in employee turn over

 Decrease in absenteeism

 Decrease in number and severity of accidents

 Betterment of employee morale

 Reduction in time to earn piece rates

PERFORMANCE TESTS: In the immediate sense, the specific course of training can be evaluated in
terms of written and performance tests, the test is supported by a sample of what the trainee know or can
do. Successful accomplishment of the tests would indicate successful training. It is dangerous to relay
upon tests alone to demonstrate the true value of training. Performance appraisal on the job before and
after training may be supplemented to the tests.

COST VALUE RELATIONSHIP: Cost factor in training should taken into consideration in evaluation
the training effectiveness. Cost of various techniques and their value in the form of reduced learning can
be taken into account. Cost of training includes cost of employing trainees, and trainers, providing the
means to learn etc. The value of the training includes increasing value of human resources of both the
trainee and trainer and their contribution to raise production, reduce wastage, breakage etc. cost value
relationship is helpful in

 Determining the principles of learning

 Making the employee and job through training

 Determining the work of management sacrifices

 Choosing the right training method.


industries. A group with a strong foundation, good ideals driven towards a better tomorrow.

Making the mighty steel for the magnificent constructions is the mission of Sree Balaji Tmt rod
mills private ltd. An ISO certified 9001:2000 for quality management and the product is registered with
Beuarue of Indian standards for ISI marking. The mission got accomplished by setting state of the art
facilities with high quality measures and with the people who are driven by clear vision.

TMT (thermex) bar is the new latest generation steel with high strength, different from
traditional bar. Its manufacturing is different from other traditional bars in its combination of properties.
This specially designed and made for construction of products. Presently operating from its state of the
art manufacturing unit, based at Kurnool.


Thermo mechanical treatment involves the simultaneous application of heat and deformation
process to an alloy in order to change its size and refine the micro structure .Thus hot rotting of metals, a
well established industrial process is a thermo mechanical treatment which plays an important role in the
processing of many steels from low carbon mild steels to high alloyed stainless steels.. The traditional
manufacturing route involves the casting of ingots from 1 to 30 tons which are soaked at very high
temperature (120c-1300c) then progressively, hot rolled to billets, bars and sheets. Thus leas to the
breaking down of the original coarse cast structure by repeated recrystallisation steel while in the
austenitic condition and by the gradual reduction of homogeneities of composition caused by
segregation during casting. Also the inevitable non metallic inclusions .i.e., oxides, silicates aluminates
and sulphides are broken up deformed and distributed throughout the steel in a more uniform manner.

Mechanical treatment involves the simultaneous application of heat and deformation process to
an alloy in order to change its shape and refine the microstructure. Thus, hot rolling of metals, a well
established industrial process is a thermo mechanical treatment which plays an important part in the
processing of many steels from low carbon mild steels to high alloyed stainless steels.

Property and element

Is1786fe-415 Tiscon TMT Dm488EURO

Carbon% 0.30max 0.17-0.24 0.17-0.26 0.22

Sulphur% 0.060max 0.050max 0.060max 0.055

Phosphorus% 0.060max 0.050max 0.060max 0.055

Yield stress 415 415 430 420

Tensile strength 485 485 500 500

Elongation 14.5 18 18 10


There are three important stages in TMT manufacturing process.

1. Quenching: - Rapid water cooing applied on the bar with high accuracy thermex system produces
very rapid cooling in the bar surface to form martensite surface layer.

2. Tampering: - Rapid cooled martensite surface rod is exposed to air for tempering. This ensures
ductility while maintaining high yield stress.

3. Final cooling: - In the precisely calculated cooling bed further cooling takes place for a semi iso
thermal transformation of the still untransformed austenite in the core of the bar. The bar cross section
consist a peripheral layer of martensite mixed bainitic inner layer and the core of pearlite-ferrite.

The company believes in implementing high quality standards with the state of the art facilities in the
plant. Since it is integrated steel plant, they take utmost care in raw material in both sponge and billet to
produce TMT rods. To ensure the high quality standards, the process is monitored at every stage of the


Sree Balaji Tmt rod mills private ltd – to reduce the impact of green house effect gases is manufacturing
BUL TMT rods with zero emission by putting up a state of the art gasifier to produce gas furnace to
reheat the billets. The project is first of its kind funded by IREDA out of 2 nd line credit of the World
Bank. This contributes in saving of precious natural resources, foreign exchange and cost, apart from
stupendous job of zero emission.


 Higher strength, ductility and toughness.

 More elongation than ctd bars.
 Adequate corrosion resistance.
 High thermal stability.
 Excellent weldability.
 Earth quake proof due to higher elongation.
 Deeper ribs for blinding strength.
 Lower consumption because of higher strength.
 Admirable straightness.
CUSTOMER BENEFITS: They always derive pleasure by satisfying their customers by ensuring
better quality products and timely dispatches. They take strict cost cutting measures in process to deliver
value to the customer.


COUNTS sales,marke SAFETY,





The KPS group of industries of Gooty, Anantapur district , Andhrapradhesh includes oil milling, power
generation, plantation, sugar manufacturing and transformers manufacturing. The group have their
solvent extraction plants and like refinery plants located in Gooty. Biomass power plant at kurnool,
plantation projects at pattikonda and sugar plant at Nandyal-Kurnool districts and transformers
manufacturing unit at Gooty-Anantapur district.

The group companies has industrial track record of over 40 years which has started its carrier as
a small like millet and has established the biggest oil complex in rayalaseema region first being ITC
Agrotech limited, The group has established seed decorticators, oil mills, edible oil refining plant and
two solvent extraction plants. It is an accepted phenomena that the margins in the edible oil industry are
very thin, the risks of price fluctuation is very high and is subjected to various government controls and
seasonal factors. Further no other commodity has so many substitutes as the oil industry has with so
many negative features, the group has sustained continuous growth and meticulous commitment towards
financial institutions/banks. It has been successfully competing with cheap imports of de-oiled cake in
the region. It has effectively encountered many crises.

The various corporate organizations of the group and their capability is as under.



Sree Rayalaseema industries ltd(SRIL) is incorporated for the purpose of established mini
integrated steel plant at kurnool, In the 1st phase of implementation along with waste heat recovery
boiler of 10 ton capacity are being installed at a total project cost of over rs.19 crores, In this term of
rs.12.60 crores was sanctioned by syndicate bank, Nandyal. The major raw material required is iron ore,
coal and dolomite. Iron ore is available in veldurthy mandal and Bellary, Coal is available with singareni
collieries and imported cola from Chennai port. Dolomite is available locally.

Technology for the plant is sourced from industrial projects and services, popular consultants and
HIQ power Associates ltd with when the group has been associated since last 5 years.

During the manufacturing of sponge iron in the kiln (main equipments) waste gases are released
to the tune of amount 22000 to 26000 NM3 per hour at a temperature of 950c to the 1000c. Normally
these gases ate being cooled and are let out into atmosphere involving substantial costs. The same gases
are passes through a waste heat recovery bler that generates steam and the gases will be cooled. The
steam from the waste heat recovery boiler can be used for further requirements. SRIL proposes to sell
the steam generated to SREE RAYALASEEMA GREEN STELOY LTD by which SRIL would earn
additional revenue of rs.650 to 700 per ton of sponge iron produced totaling to rs.2.58 crores in year of
operation costs for cooling the gases.

Major utility in SRIL is power which is available in adjacent SRGEL as the unit was setup
adjacent to Sree Rayalaseema Green Steloy ltd. If a green field power generation unit is to be set up for
waste heat recovery gases an amount of rs.10 crores would have to be additionally invested. Apart from
other major formalities like having power purchases agreement with power buyers etc,,would have to be
compiled further, it would be unavailable to operate a 2MW power plant as the investment per MW is
almost double and the operation and maintenance cost of generation are almost equivalent to that of an
operation and maintenance cost of independents power produces with much higher capacity. The
additional cost of waste Heat recovery boiler systems is just 1/3rd of cost of a new power plant without
any operation cost the revenue earned is equivalent to that installing a power plant. Apart from this
existing infrastructure of Sree Rayalaseema Green steloy limited can be used for sree Rayalaseema
industries limited.

Sree rayalaseema green energy limited (SRGEL)is a 5.5 MW biomass power plant, promoted by KPS
group situated in Kurnool of Andhra Pradesh. The unit is first of its kind in the region.

The unit has been put into operation in a record time of 9 months against projection of 18 month
gestation and industry norm of 24 months. The unit has started its operation from 2001 and every since
commencement of its operation, the unit has recorded a plant load factor (PLF) of more than 95%.The
following are the PLfs achieved during the last 3 years of operation and fuel consumptions per annum.

PLF (%) Fuel consumption (M.Ts)

2001-02 95.40% 56613

2001-03 97.20% 59087

2003-04 99.00% 52427

Being situated on riverbank of Hundri, the unit is blessed with abundant water source. Unlike most of
other Biomass power, plants, the unit is having potentiality of multi biomasses availability like paddy
husk,GN shell, sunflower waste, jowar husk, castor shell, Bengal gram husk, cotton and chilly stalk etc,.
The unit is having the advantage of III party sale and wheeling its power to private parties by achieving
better realization.

The unit is financed by IREDA with 1500 lakhs of term loan has commenced and installments of
RS 53.00 lakhs have been as scheduled. The company has been regular in payment of interest and

Being situated in rural areas where various agri wastes are either burnt for disposal at cost by
farmers, the unit has provided an opportunity to farmers to earn additional money by way of selling their
biomass. Apart from this, the unit has generated employment opportunities to 200 members directly and
to 150 members indirectly.
SREGL is a thermal power plant using biomass as fuel against coal or oil as in case of
convention power plants. Biomass means agri wastes and is renewable source of energy which is
normally disposed by the farmers and agro industries by burning it, The biomass burnt with improper
combustion could result of carbon monoxide The conventional fuels like coal and oil used in power
generation also release carbon monoxide which is a major cause for the green house effect. But biomass
used as fuel in the power plants is fired under proper combustion; hence carbon dioxide is released in
place of carbon monoxide. SREGL has installed steam generating unit of 5.4MW capacity and turbo
Generator of 7.5 MW capacity. In boiler biomass fuels are burnt and steam is generated which is used
for rolling the Turbine and thereby power is generated. There is a 2.1 MW spare capacity in turbine
SREGL is envisaging to establish a sponge Iron plant, there by this spare capacity of Turbine can be
utilized to the extent of 100%.

The following are the advantages for SREGL on establishing Sponge Iron plant with waste heat
recovery boiler system.

1) A.100 TPD sponge iron plant with waste heat recovery boiler system would generate 9 tons of
steam per hour which is sufficient for generating 2 MW power.
2) As there is spare capacity in Turbine, steam from Sree Rayalaseema Industries would be directly
connected to the Turbine along with SREGL steam that would generate 2 MW of additional
power without incurring any major capital expenditure. This would led to substantial decrease in
overall cost of power of generation.
3) Alternatively, purchase of fuel from the market can be reduced by 40% thereby having better
bargaining capacity and sustaining capability during off season.


Sree rayalaseema sugars and energy limited is a company floatd by KPS group on, acquition of Nandyal
co-operative sugars limited, nandyal, a 1600 TCD sugar plant spread over 125 acres of prime land at
nandyal. The unit was under co-operative sector and closed for the last 7 years before acquition by
SRSEL. This is the first sugar unit that is revived after private acquition among the co-operative that
were privatized
The unit being an existing unit on bank of K.C canal is blessed with best infrastructure like water,
transportation, power etc., and major irrigation sources like K.C canal, telugu ganga canal, SRBC the
unit is having very good potentiality for cane development in and around 50 KMs radius. Apart from
this, the unit has special allocation of 1 TMC of water from velugodu balancing reservoir through
special canal viz., sugar cane canal. With respect to the power requirements, one 1.8 NW co-generation
plant is existing with the plant to meet the entire power requirements of the plant.

The first season of operation has been completed in the year 2003. The acquisition formalities
were completed in October 2003 and immediately the unit was brought into operation out of the cane
that were grown with the support of SRSEL since 2002. In the first year of operation 70,000 Mts of cane
was crushed with 9% recovery and quality of sugar was comparable to the best unit of the industry. As
there is no other sugar mill in the region, sugar realization has been highest compared to that of any
sugar mill with in Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka. Apart from this the surplus bagasse of SRSEL will be
supplied to its sister concern sree Rayalaseema Green Energy limited where bagasse is used as fuel to
boiler. SRSEL is envisaging crushing 100000 MTS of sugar cane in 2004-05 seasons with a recover
between 9.5% to 10.00%.

On reviving the unit, SRESL has created employment opportunities to around 1500 people directly and
indirectly to around 1000 people, thereby a substantial contribution to rural development in the region.

The project was financed by syndicate bank, Nandyal with a term loan of RS.311.00 lakhs out of total
project cost of 925.84 lakhs and 250 lakhs cc limits.


Having its origin and base from the multi resource self sourcing company sree rayalaseema green
energy ltd transformers division of SREGL is achieving very good results.

The unit, situated in Gooty, Anantapur District of Andhra pradhesh. Two main highways NH-7
and NH-32 passes through the town. The unit was setup in an area of 10 acres facilitating stock of
materials as well as finisehed gooks with al amenities available. The unit having the capacity to
manufacturing 500 transformers per month of various from 10 KVA to 160 KVA.

The unit was has successfully completed 4000 No’s of 15 KV distribution transformers under
HVDS systems to APSPCDCl. The unit has bagged an order from APNPDCL to supply 3300 NOs of 25
distribution transformers and has already supplied 1500 no’s to them. The unit also bagged another order
from APNPDCL to supply 1000 no’s of 25 KVA transformers. The unit has no term loan and has only
SOD of 100 lakhs and bills discounting facility of 88 lakhs from syndicate bank, nandyal.

In tiny town of Gooty where neither industrial development nor agricultural development, the
unit has created employment opportunities to more than 250members thereby contributed substantially
to the society.


MSEPL has established a 125 TPD solvent extraction at Gooty in 1991 with a total capacity
outlay of rs.200 lakhs. The plant was successfully commissioned in 1991 and thereafter exported its
procedure of deoiled cake to various middle-east countries.


VIL is an in house developed solvent extraction plant of 50 TPD which runs on the surplus
consumables of Madhu solvent extractions pvt ltd. The plant was established in 1996 with total capital
outlay of rs.125.00 lakhs.

The story of sponge iron also known as Direct Reduce Iron (DRI) industry is vey interesting as
for as India goes. The three-decade old, this industry came into existence all on sudden when mini steel
plants were looking out for raw materials randomly. Since, India has adequate coal deposits, its
utilization for steel plant was considered of prime importance. Production of coal based sponge iron in
the beginning was taken as vital option. Sponge iron industry grew at slow speed till the mid of 1980
due to government restrictive licensing. The year 1985 proved as a historical for the industry in general
and the steel industry in particular. In this year the DRI production was de-licensed and since then the
industry started growing rapidly to reach today’s level. DRI is a high quality metallic product obtained
form iron-ore, pellets etc as a feed stock in the Electric Arc Furnaces (EAF), blast furnaces (BF) as well
as other iron and steel making process.


Since 1980, the sponge iron industry took a “U” turn and the players of the industry were very
reluctant to contribute significantly for steel making looking at bright prospects of the steel industry in
India and neighboring countries. Keeping the growth momentum in the iron and steel sector, India has
emerged as the largest producer of sponge iron. Sponge iron India ltd was outcome of player’s
enthusiasm who accepted the challenge for DRI production. This was the first sponge iron plant in the
country which was setup at palvancha in Andhra pradhesh with a capacity of 0.039 MTPA in 1980.
Between 1980 and 1988, there was only three plants setup namely Orissa sponge iron ltd-capacity of 0.1
MTPA and sunflag iron steel ltd- capacity of 0.09 MTPA Ipitata sponge iron ltd- capacity of 0.09
MTPA. In 1989, the first merchant sponge iron plant is Bihar sponge iron ltd with a capacity of
0.15MTPA was setup. In the late eighties, domestic producers were enthused by the discovery of large
reserves of natural gas, started setting up gas based sponge iron plants. The first one was set up by Essar
steel ltd at Hazira in Gujarat in 1990. Jindal steel and power ltd is the largest producer of coal based
sponge iron in Asia and second largest in the world.

QUANTUM: It is hard to reach a particular figure which indicates the total number on sponge iron units
exists in India because 60% of the sponge iron units are coming from small scale industries. Many of
them are from unorganized sector too. There are certain unreported fly by night companies, hence, it is
quite impossible to ascertain the total number.
OUTPUT: The installed production capacity of sponge iron in India has increased from 1.52 MTPA in
1990-91 to over 7 MTPA in 2003-03. The country produced 9.37 million tone of sponge iron in 2004 as
compared with 7 million tones in 2003.

Venezuela produced – 8.09 million tone

Mexico produced - 6.65 million tone

Iran produced - 6.4 million tone

Thus industry grew approximately at the rate of 30 percent. All these point out to the substantial growth
in the demand of sponge iron in the country.

RAW MATERIALS: The major raw materials required for production of sponge iron are oxides of
iron in the form of lump iron, pellets, non-coking coal and fluxes ( lime stone and dolomite). Some
precaution is necessary in selecting the iron reliability for easy reduction. Use of high purity of lump are,
pellets with low phosphorus at and economic price helps in the cost effective production of sponge iron.
As far as chemical composition for sponge iron goes for maximum yield, the metallic iron content
sulphur and phosphorus as low as possible. The gauge content should preferably be with 2 percent and
silica less than3% to ensure lower slag volume, less power consumption and for achieving higher

LAND MARKS: India became the largest producer in the world in 2002; a performance repeated two
tears in succession with an output of 6.53 MT. According to an expert of industry, a few new steel
ventures in the secondary sector are coming up with combined installed capacities of about 6 MTPA.
The indigenous demand for sponge iron has been estimated to reach the level of 17.77 MT. India has
once again emerge as the largest producer of sponge iron in the world for the year 2003 with a record
production of 77 million tones, showing a significant growth of 17.5%. The world production of sponge
iron too has risen from 45.10 million tones to 49.45 tons.

INCONVINIENCE FACED BY THE INDUSTRY: The sponge iron industry in India is facing
tremendous problems or which mounting cost of basic inputs, high cost of capital are of primary
importance. The demand was in recession in the immediate past years, however it has recovered now
and the industry is enjoying healthy demand for the last few months. But the industry is afraid of
continuing the scenario in future as steel scrap imports is increasing voluminously. High quality iron ore
are supplied to them. Premium grade iron ore which has more than 60% of iron content is preferably
exported. High prices of natural gas in India as compared to the global market are increasing the cot of
production of the gas based producers.

POWER GENERATION: Power generation through waste gases at very low cost is one of the biggest
advantages, the sponge iron industry is enjoying with. This provides power at the low cost per unit
which helps the unit to generate more profit than the sale of sponge iron in real sense. That means
electrical power could become prime product with sponge iron. And as tariff for power to near by high,
these units can sell the power to near by small industries at lower rates and can earn revenue from
power. Although globally iron ore is the major feedstock for blast finance, steel making through which
is an early process currently producing 57% of the world crude steel. The steel technologist found
sponge iron as a suitable charging material for the EAF’s

ON THE GLOBAL FRONT: The steel industry globally using about 25% of the alternative iron
sources like DRI/HRI, merchant pig iron and hot metal to produce high quality steels in the EAF’s. the
global supply of sponge iron is expected to reach 55MTPA at present liquid hot metal and solid pig iron
would also be used to a large extent. At the same time, the quality scrap is not like to show any major
improvement in future. The developing countries lead the race with Mexico, Venezuela, India and Iran
together produce over 50% of the total production of DRI in the world. India was the third largest
producer of sponge iron in the world in 1998 went one step ahead to grab the second position in 1999,
slipped to third position again in 2000, but left all countries behind to reach the top in 2001.

FUTURE: Sponge iron an steel making industries go hand in hand, hence, its quite difficult to assume
the future of sponge iron industry without steel and vice versa Therefore, the future of sponge iron
depends on steel demand coupled with the availability of substitute ie, steel scrap producing this
material saves a lot of revenue loss in the form of high foreign currency demand and long gestation
period to obtain subsequently. Hence, these producers are lobbying from liabilities and overheads.


Kiran kumar, assistant environmental officer of the Karnataka state pollution control Board (KSPCB)
based at the office of the District Pollution control Board (DPCB) in Bellary, explains that around a year
and a half ago, none of the sponge iron units had any pollution control equipment like electrostatic
precipitating devices (ESP). These are highly efficient filtration devices that remove fire particulate
matter like dust from the air stream. Persuasion by the board resulted in just four units operating within
the hospet road area to regularly run ESP’s. Kumar says, “I have been trying to convince the KPSCB to
compel the units to install an interlocking system between the power supply and the kiln. This
mechanism will ensure the regular use of pollution control equipments it automatically disconnects
power supply if ESP is off.

According to pollution control norms, sponge iron units are supposed to carry out ambient air
quality checks every month, for 24 hours and forward the data to the pollution control board via testing
centers. But there are always delays in submitting reports, which when they finally reach the office, are
outdated. To avoid delays in monitoring, the DPCB came up with a facility allowing online reporting of
air quality. But even this does not appear to be working,. thanks to conventional mindset to the industry.
There is simply no interest being displayed by the sponge iron units to try and help control pollution.

“First of all they do not submit reports, even if they do, the actual concentration of suspended
particulate matter is never brought out in the reports submitted.” Says a senior official. He adds “we all
know the concentration level is very high, any one can feel it. But the reports show that everything is
fine with air quality.” The only testing lab in the area is in dharwad where the ambient air quality
standard data is sent.

Illegal iron ore mining

Hospet and Sandur are hotspots of illegal mining; they supply cheap iron ore to the sponge iron
units in Bellary. During a raid on illegal iron ore mines, in the month of June, an investigating team
comprising the deputy commissioner of the DPCB and other officials, also inspected Bellary Steel on
Anantpur Road. The unit failed to produce a purchase invoice for the iron ore found lying around the
plant’s compound. Most sponge iron units thrive on buying illegal iron ore in the open market. Some
industries, mainly large ones like Jindal Steel Works, carry out captive mining in collaboration with the
state mining corporation. In the raid, the deputy commissioner highlighted the fact that an estimated Rs
230 crore was being lost to roads that were destroyed due to heavy transport being used to carry the
illegally mined ore.

Ahiraj, an activist and newspaper correspondent, says: “Since July 2006, there have been 221 iron ore
crushers in the district. The report of a taskforce investigation, set up by the state government on illegal
mining, highlighted the fact that the crushers operate without permission on agricultural land, and
without proper machinery. Moreover, the overall iron ore feed source of these crushers is from illegal
mining. The taskforce report declared that 150 crushers had violated the rules, and suggested their
shutdown. Today, they operate in Malappangudi, in Andhra Pradesh, just 10 km from Bellary.”

The taskforce report may also have impacted political equations in the district and the state. The
portfolios of the revenue ministry as well as the ministry of tourism and infrastructure development were
shuffled in the May 2008 state assembly elections, says Ahiraj.

LOCAL IMPACT OF INDUSTRY: Professor satyanarayan, a retired English professor and ex-
KPSCB member, is a concerned man. “The city of Bellary is finished. The air has become heavy due to
extreme pollution from the sponge iron plants. Earlier, we were fighting against unregulated iron ore
mining. Now the sponge iron industry has become big menace. Black smoke, dust, road accidents, fat
depleting greenery and excessive use of water just the tip of ice berg.’

The village of Halkundi is situated just 10 km from the city centre, on the Bangalore-Mumbai highway
(NH4). More than 13 sponge iron units operate here, barely a kilometre from the highway; one can in
fact see a sea of coal dust from the highway. Environmental activist Santosh Martin says: “Most of the
land in this village close to the plant has been bought by industrialists and put to industrial use without
changing the status of land use from agriculture to industrial use. Excess land is being used as a
dumping ground for raw and waste material. Moreover, none of the plants use the main stack to release
air emissions but use ABC chambers (bypass pipes) that divert the emissions towards the ground, with
the help of ID fans that diffuse the smoke. This serves two purposes -- one, it saves power and cost; two,
it helps avoid the use of ESPs. But the pollution remains.”

Dr.Arvind patil, a general physician with a passion for tree planting, claims that the sponge iron
industry’s green area development record has been abysmal. The KPSCB’s condition of maintaining
five rows of trees inside and outside the boundary wall of the unit is not being seriously followed.
“Regular attempts to convince the units to allot us to plant tress have proved unsuccessful simply
because they are not interested.” Dr. patil adds. He explains that the health of workers in the units is
dismal. Their lungs are al but destroyed and their life expectancy low.
Ground water extraction is an important issue. Due to units coming up within city limits, water scarcity
has become the norm. each sponge iron unit has three to five bore wells.” Now, even the sponge iron
plants are finding it difficult to get water because the number of plants has increased recent years.” Says
Kotresh Deputy environmental officer, Bellary. “They wee managing water supply through bore wells
and tanker water, but it is becoming expensive to buy tanker water for all the units.” The district sponge
iron industries association has come up with a plant o allocate sewage water to the sponge iron units
after it is treated. But the irrigatin department is taking its time deciding on the matter as, in recent years,
this has been a major source of water allocated to agriculture.

Kumar explains that, until recently, plants were using power from the Karnataka Power Transmission
Corporation (KPTC), and generators. But after recent guidelines from the Central Pollution Control
Board (CPCB), plants with a capacity of over 200 tonnes per day are going ahead with their own captive
power plants. The CPCB guidelines will only enhance their profits as they will now sell the extra power
to other industries. All plants in the district are coal-based; they import coal from South Africa. Kumar
adds: “The game is played around money and political power only. We wanted to shut these SIUs on
grounds of pollution and violation of norms, since we have a case against every operating unit. But
political pressures work better than us.”

NO LET UP IN ENVIRONMENTAL NORMS: It is worth noting that the growth scenario in the
sponge iron industry has not changed despite repeated threats of closure. Because of its pollution impact
the sponge iron industry falls in the red category in the ministry of environment and forests list of

Protests against the industry have sprung up across the country in the past five years. On june 2 2008 a
meeting of concerned citizens and the member of the CPCB was held. The CPCB accepted the fact that
the owners of sponge iron units had been unsuccessful in controlling pollution. But, irrespective of
strong evidence and studies done on the issue by various pollution control boards, the CPCB has been
unable to tackle the issue of restrictions in its official mandate. Moreover, the guidelines for pollution
control were notified only in may this year, after a delay of three years. And still they are not the same
as were earlier proposed. They have been so badly diluted that they are now too weak to be of any use.
Earlier amendments, in 2006, to the Environmental impact Assessment notification had already taken
away the space for public participation in environmental clearances.
Against this back drop, and considering India’s slack environmental norms and absence of strict
pollution control guidelines, it is extremely hard to believe that the country chairs the Inter
Governmental panel on climate change (IPC) at international level.

Data Source

Primary: - Through Questionnaires

Secondary: - Through Internet, Journals, News papers and Misc.

Data Collection Procedure: - Survey

Research Instrument: - Structured Questionnaire.

Sample Size: - 30


Every task is undertaken with an objective. Without any objective a task is rendered
meaningless. The main objectives for undertaking this project are:

o To understand the internal Recruitment in the organization.

o To identify areas where there can be scope for improvement

o To give suitable recommendation to streamline the hiring process.

o To know the effectiveness of the training programme conducted by the company

o To whether the employees are aware about their responsibilities and authorities or not.

o To improve organizational climate and increase the morale of employees.

o To know whether training programme is conducted successfully or not.

o To know about the work culture of the organization.

o To know about sources of recruitment to the organization.

o To know about the recruitment policy of the organization.

o To suggest new ideas to the organization.


Every organization desires that it will grow continuously and make and retain its position in the

competitive and continuously changing market environment. For this purpose the employees of the

organization must be skilled and talented. But all the employees may not have the desired skills. It is the

function of the HR head to identify and recruit the talented people with multiskills. Their skills can be

improved with the help of training programs. It is an important activity for the origination to conduct

appropriate and related programme for its employees, so that may be able to understand the terms

required for the completion of his job. This also helps the employees of the organization to know about

his job and organization very well. This also helps in better communication and relation among the

organization wants to grow rapidly, then it is essential for it to conduct periodically training programmes

for its employees to improve the skills and knowledge.

So the top management must concentrate on the training programs and organize them in

such a way that maximum number of employees wants to attend these programs. These must be related

to employees and their jobs.

1. Provided training is enough to improve your skills to do your job.



AGREE 25 92








The above table predicts that the organization is providing the good training to their employees to
improve their skills. 25 respondents agreed strongly and 6 respondents agreed that the organization is
providing them good training.

So, total respondents (100%) have mentioned that the organization is providing the good training
to employees.

2. Do you satisfy with the training programmes conducted by organization?



AGREE 26 83







The above table depicts the information about the training programmes conducted by the
organization. 26 respondents agreed and 5 respondents strongly agreed that the training
programmes conducted by the organization are satisfying them.

3. The methods implemented in training are enough to increase your skills.


AGREE 27 90






From the above table we find that 27 respondents have agreed for the statement and 4 members
have strongly agreed and 2 respondents have disagreed with the statement.

The most of employees have agreed that the training methods implemented by the organization
are enough to increase the skills to do the job.

4. Do you have freedom to express your views during training programmes?



AGREE 15 82




pe rcentage
No.of respondents

s trongly agree Agre e Dis agree Strongly disagree


From the above table we can know that 15 members agree for the statement and 2 members are strongly
agree and 2 members disagreed.

Most of the members are agreed that their views and opinions are also considered and given importance
during training period.

5. Your training environment is safe.



AGREE 25 90


40 percentage
30 No.of respondents
Strongly Agree Disagree strongly
agree disagree


From the above table we can know that 25 members agreed for the statement and 6 members strongly
agree and no members were disagreed.

Most of the members are agreed that the training environment is safe.

6. Your training period is enough to learn all things.



AGREE 20 85


40 percentage
30 No.of respondents
strongly agree disagree strongly
agree disagree


From the above table it is clear that 6 members strongly agreed and 20 members agreed and 4 members
are disagreed for the statement.

Majority of the employees are agreed that the training period is enough to learn all the things to do the
job perfectly.

7. You satisfied with your trainer.



AGREE 25 90


40 percentage
30 No.of respondents
Strongly Agree Disagree strongly
agree disagree


From the above table we can know that 25 members agreed for the statement and 6 members strongly
agree and no members were disagreed.

Most of the employees are agreed that they are satisfied with their trainer.

8. Evaluation of training programmes is good.



AGREE 26 83




From the above table we can know that 26 employees are agreed and 5 members are strongly agreed
with the statement and nobody disagreed with the statement.

Majority of the employees agreed that the evaluation of training programme is good.

9. Your job satisfaction is increased after training.



AGREE 25 90


40 percentage
30 No.of respondents
Strongly Agree Disagree strongly
agree disagree


From the above table we can know that 25 members agreed for the statement and 6 members strongly
agree and no members were disagreed.

Most of the employees agreed that their job satisfaction is increased after training.

10. Training methods are good.



AGREE 26 83




From the above table we can know that 26 employees are agreed and 5 members are strongly agreed
with the statement and nobody disagreed with the statement.

Majority of the employees agreed that the training programmes are good and enough to increase their


The organization philosophy should be kept in mind while formulating the recruitment procedure. The
HR department would set the recruitment norms fore the organization. However, the credit of effective
implementation and compliance with the process rests with the heads of respective functions and
departments who are involved in the recruitment. The process is aimed at defining the series of activities
that needs to be performed by different process involved in the process of recruitment, the checks and
control measures to be adopted and information that has to be captured.

Recruitment in the organization is conducted by the

• HR manager
• Functional head
RECRUITMENT POLICY: For any organization, formulating a recruitment policy is most important.
The recruitment policy of this organization is giving preference to sons of soil, i.e., local people.
Recruiting according to government reservations. As it is an iron industry that involves work with heavy
machines, women are not preferred in this organization.



1) The manpower planning process for the year would commence with the company’s budgeting
activity. The respective functional heads would submit the manpower requirements of their
respective function/departments to the board of Directors as discussion with the head of human
resource function along with detailed notes in support of the projected numbers assumptions
regarding the direct and indirect salary costs for each position.
2) A copy of duly approved man power plan would be forwarded by the HR department for their
further actions during the course of the year. The annual budget would specify the manpower
requirements of the entire organization at different levels in various functions/departments. It would
also specify the requirements budget, which is the cost allotted towards the recruitment of budgeted
3) Then the HR manager would undertake the planning activity and necessary preparations in advance
of the anticipated requirements on the basis of approved budget.
4) The vacancies sought to be filled or being filled shall always be within the approved annual
manpower budget and no recruitment process shall be initiated without the formal concurrence of the
head of regional HR at any circumstance.


Review of manpower budgets shall take place on a quarterly basis. In the event of any new position or
changes to the original plans, details of positions may be forwarded to VP-HR along with the adequate
support information The recommendations would normally require a formal approval of managing
Director. Alternately, VP-HR may record the summary of his discussion with the managing director and
the MD’s approval on the recommendations. To signify the final decision taken regarding the


Regional HR world tap various sources/ channels for getting right candidate. Depending on the
nature of the position/grade, volumes of recruitment and any other relevant factors, the Regional HR
would use any one multiple sources such as

 Existing database
 Employee referral as per any company scheme
 Similar organizations
 Campus recruitment
The norms for using any of the sources are not water tight. Number of positions, criticality of positions
and the urgency of the positions, confidentiality, requirements, relative efficacy and cost considerations
would play a role in the choice of appropriate sourcing mechanism.

SELECTION OF SOURCES: The organizations have both the internal sources and external sources.
The internal sources include the following

1) PRESENT PERMANENT EMPLOYEES: The organization considers the permanent employees

in the company for recruitment.
2) RETIRED EMPLOYEES: The organization would consider the dependents of retired employees
of their organization for recruitment.
The above two are main internal sources.

The external sources of recruitment include the following.

a) CAMPUS RECRUITMENT: The organization would go for campus recruitments also for suitable
b) CASUAL APPLICANTS: Company considers the casual applicants also.
c) SIMILAR ORGANIZATIONS: The authorities of this organization consider the managers of other
similar organizations for candidates. Generally this source is useful for executive posts.


ADVERTISEMENTS: - Advertisements are the main recruitment techniques followed by the company.
They are either in print media or electronic media. All recruitment advertisements are always conform to
the KLI compliance norms and would not be released by any department or branch with out the approval
of the VP-HR. Depending on the specifics of each position for which recruitment advertisements are to be
released, Regional HR may obtain assistance from the company’s marketing department. Key features of
the positions as notified by the functional Heads would normally form a part of the advertisement text.

The media for releasing advertisement would depend on the level of position being considered and the
urgency of the requirements.The advertisement mode that could be broadly specified as newspapers,
internet sites and business magazines.


FIRST LEVEL SCREENING: The candidates would be screened by the HR manager/Branch manager
for the respective locations. Screening would be on the basis of profile of the candidate and the
departmental requirements.

This assessment will be with respect to:

a) The general profile of the candidate.

b) Personality fit of the candidate.

c) Aptitude/attitude of the candidate.

d) Basic skill level on our set of requirements.

SECOND LEVEL SCREENING: If the first assessment is positive, the candidates will give the
aptitude test, once such test id selected, approved by the company. The scoring, interpretation and the
generation of interview probes from that test will also be done at this time. People who qualify the
minimum criteria on this test will be put up on to the functional Head for functional assessment and
suitable role.

For the final selection, the regional manager will meet the candidates short listed by the Branch


1) Interviews should consider the entire data provided by the candidate either through the formal
CV or otherwise before coming to a conclusion about the candidate. They may insist on seeing
the proof of the claims made by the candidate regarding qualifications, experience and other

2) Ratings on various attributes of the candidates shall be recorded in the interview evaluation
sheet, soon after the interview is over. Along with these numerical things, qualitative
observations about the candidate and overall decision regarding selection or otherwise shall be
forwarded to the associated Recruitment manager. Individual panel members may have the
option of appending their additional remarks/observations.

3) Any discrepancies noticed by the panel members regarding the authenticity of the data provided
by the candidate should be specifically and formally recorded and suitably high lightened.


i) Scheduling and the venue of the interviews would be handled by the recruitment team in
consultation with the short listed candidates and the selection panel members, after taking
mutual convenience into account.

ii) After final round, if candidate is selected, the complete set of papers, personal data form, CV, job
requisition no., interview evaluation sheet, reference check details, education details along
with the interviewer recommendations and reference check form should be forwarded by the
recruitment managers to recruit head.
iii) An appropriate formal communication will be sent to the candidate whose candidature is not
being taken forward, or details of the verbal/ telephonic communications provided to the
candidate will be recorded on the candidate’s papers, by the recruitment team/ associated line

REFERENCE CHECKS: Normally, reference checks will ne undertaken with at least on reference. A
second reference check will be done if necessary. Responsible official from the former employees,
academic institutes and/ or any other eminent personalities can be considered as appropriate references.
Close relatives and friends cannot be considered as references. Whoever feasible and considered
appropriate, a reference should be made with a senior official of the candidates current employer The
format of reference check is to be used as a frame work for conducting the process.

Where the minimum two reference checks are not possible or where there is a mixed response
from different sources, the matter may be to VP-HR for a final decision. Depending on the seniority and
any other considerations about the positions, VP-HR would normally consult the functional head
concerned before coming to conclusion.


Regional HR head will have the authority and responsibility to administer/implement the
recruitment and selection process as outlined. An illustrative list of the key deliverables of these
incumbents is listed below.

 Creation of appropriate sourcing mechanism along with tracking the performance of these

 Creation of quarterly recruitment plans.

 Effective coordination with external parties such as candidates, placement agencies, consultants,
academic/professional institutes and any other including the custody of formal agreements.
 Creation of comprehensive and appropriate tools, linkages, documents, templates and any other
mechanics to ensure smooth execution of the process recruitment.

 Assistance to user department and line managers including in interviewing/selection support,

scheduling etc.

 Creation and maintenance of qualitative information base regarding candidates, placement

agencies campuses, institutes and any other employment market information.

 Creation and maintenance of appropriate and high quality MIS for current and future needs of
the organization, including publication/circulation of appropriate reports there from the relevant
users with in the company.

 Monitoring recruitment costs.

 Complete documentation for the entire recruitment and selection process for eat and quick
retrieval in a readily auditable format.

 Timely and effective communication with all internal and external parties including the

 Ensuring inductions as per quality, numbers, time and cost consideration of the company in
accordance with the approved manpower budget.


The company’s philosophy, cost factor, policies should be kept in mind while formulation the training
procedure. The HR department would set up the norms for training process for the organization. The
credit of effective implementation lies with the Heads of respective departments who are involved in the
training process. The process aimed at defining the series of activities that needs to be performed be
different processes involved in training. The checks and standards, methods to be adopted and
information that has to produce.

Training in the organization is conducted by

 A specified trainer
 HR manager.


This organization provides training to their employees in the following areas.

 Company policies and procedures

 Specific skills

 Human relations.

1) COMPANY POLICIES AND PROCEDURES: Any organization wants that an employee

should know about the company policies and procedures. Then only they can work according to
company’s objectives and goals. In the same way, this organization also provides training to their
employees in company’s policies and procedures. This makes the employee to acquaint with
company rules, practices, procedures, tradition; organization structure etc. with this training new
employee can adjust himself in the organization.

2) SPECFIC SKILLS: As this company produces iron bars, handling the heavy machines and
increasing productivity from old machines is important. This requires a trained worker. Training
in specific skills enables the employee to be more effective in work. The trainer trains the
employees to do actual job with various skills.

3) HUMAN RELATIONS: Human relations play a vital role in any organization success. Good
relations between the workers enable good productivity. So now a days human relations training
assumed greater significance. In this organization employees are trained in the areas of self
learning, interpersonal competence group dynamics, and leadership styles. Perception,
motivation etc. This training enables the employees for better team work.


As there are two types of training methods, this organization follows both on-the-job methods and off-
the-job methods.
1) ON THE JOB TRAINING METHODS: The on the job training methods followed by this
company are as follows

a) Job rotation

b) Coaching

c) Job instruction.

2) OFF THE JOB TRAINING METHODS: The off the job training methods followed by this
company are as follows

i) Lecture method

ii) Conference

The above mentioned training methods are part of internal training provided to employees by the
organization. The above training programme is conducted in the organization itself.

The organization follows the external training also. In this training, the organizations send their
employees to external training camps held by any institute, organizations, service camps etc.

Mostly the organization sends their employees to seminars, workshops, training camps etc
conducted by other organizations or service providing companies.

Thus, this organization follows both the internal and external training methods.


The training procedure followed by any organization is mostly similar. Procedure of training will be
same for all types of training. This organization also follows the same procedure. It involves

a) Preparing the instructor

b) Preparing the trainee

c) Getting ready to teach

d) Presenting the operation

e) Try out the trainee’s operation

f) Follow up

As this organization involved in production of iron bars, it involves operations with heavy machines. So
there is need of two trainers. So two trainers teach the new employees about the operation.

The operation of new employee or trainee will be seen by the functional Head of training programme.

The external trainees operations are also observed by functional head of training.


Evaluation of training programme is very important and necessity to organization to check whether the
training progamme conducted becomes success or not. This organization also evaluates the training

The organization evaluates the training programme on the basis of following factors.

 Reactions trainees

 job behavior

 Production factors

 Performance tests

 Cost value relationship

In human relations training, the training programme is evaluated on the basis of resource factors like
decrease in employee turnover, absenteeism, employee morale etc.


Employees in the organization also feels satisfy about the training programmes conducted by
management to enhance their skills. They said that they are satisfied with the training provided by
management as it helped them in increasing their skills and to know various aspects regarding the
operating heavy machines, to know the techniques to increase productivity, reducing the waste etc. They
also said that with the training provided by the management their job satisfaction also increased, with
this they can work to produce maximum level of output. Some employees said that there is need to
follow recent training methods that are more useful to employees and to produce more output than the
traditional methods.


White spaces are delays in hiring process that are unproductive, waste time, and virtually assure you will
lose talented persons. Often the longest delays occur between critical selection events. For example, a
recruiter may need several weeks to screen a few hundred resumes from the job boards, or candidates
who make it through screening may wait weeks to interview with a hiring manger. It is recommended to
reduce the turn around time for the recruitment and selection process, it must be made mandatory for the
candidates to take the test, filling up the forms etc within the stipulates time, this will make sure that the
candidates do not hold casual attitude and take the recruitment process more seriously. Additionally it
can send across a positive image about the company. White space in recruitment can be compressed by
the use of IT also.

It is observed that the candidates sourced by similar organizations and send for further rounds of
interviews are rarely found suitable by hiring managers. Therefore, in case there is a need to utilize this
service, it is recommended that these organizations be given a well drafted job description and job
specification. This can also be circulated to internal employees under the employee referral scheme. This
will help people to get a clearer picture and provide for most suitable candidates. Thus, making efficient
utilization of the existing resources.


Web based technology lets you increase hiring speed and quality while reducing costs. Web is a
powerful tool for screening and qualifying the flood of resumes. Companies have begun to use to the
web to collect and instantly match data on candidate skills, motivations and experiences against job
criteria. Work web wisely and save time for recruiters and hiring managers and nab top candidates
before competitors can.


A “candidate pool” is a group of individuals who have shown interest in working for your company and
are qualified for and ready to fill certain positions. Rather than undertaking the time consuming process
of filling one job at a time, you draw on the candidate pool and fill jobs as they become available.

INCREASE TRAINING AREAS: Training areas in the organization are very few. Increase training
areas as it can provide more skills to employees. Provide training in problem solving, training. By this
employees can solve their problems on their own and act as manager act supervisor in the absence of

REDUCE OFF THE JOB TRANINIG METHODS: Reduce off the job training methods time period,
they are time consuming and expensive. They are not as beneficial as on the job training methods. The
on the job training methods are beneficial to both employee and organization in terms of money, time
and skills.


Change the bases of evaluation for every training programme. Use different bases for different training
programmes. Implement the more methods like immediate assessment of trainee’s reaction to

 Trainee’s observation during programme

 Evaluation of trainee’s skill level before and after training programme

 Measurement of trainee’s attitudes after training programmme etc.


In any organization, recruitment is a critical function. In order to grow and sustain in the competitive
environment, it is important for an organization to develop continuously and bring out innovations in all
its activities. it is only when organization is recognized for its quality that it can build a stability with
customers. Thus an organization must be able to stand out in the crowd.

The first step in this direction is to ensure competitive people come in the organization. Therefore
recruitment in this regards becomes an important function. The organization must constantly improvise
in its recruitment process so that it is able to attract the best in industry in order to sere the best. Thus the
organization must look for methods that can enable it to adopt best recruitment practices.
Training ensures the employees to develop new skills required to perform job. So good training methods
are to be followed by the organization to improve employees, thus they can deliver their level best in


1) Who formulate the recruitment norms to the organization?

2) What is the recruitment policy of the organization?

3) What are the internal and external sources of recruitment to your organization?

4) What are the recruitment techniques that you follow?

5) What is the time interval for recruitment?

6) What are the first level screening tests and second level screening tests you conduct for screening
the candidates?

7) What are the modern sources and techniques of recruitment that you follow?

8) Do you have different sources of recruitment for different levels of employees?

9) In which areas you provide training for employees in your organization?

10) What are the training methods adopted in the organization? On the job or off the job methods?

11) What is the training procedure?

12) For how many days the training programme is conducted?

13) How do you assess the need for training?

14) How you evaluate the training programme i.e., what are the bases of evaluation of training

15) What is the cost that you incur on the training programme?


1) Are you providing with enough training to increase your skills in the organization?

2) Do you feel satisfy with the training programmes conducted by the organization?

3) Do you feel the methods in the organization in training are enough to increase your skills?

4) Do you have freedom to express your own ideas and views during training programme?

5) Are you satisfied with your trainer?

6) Is training period is enough for you or you want more period?

7) Is your job satisfaction increased after training?

8) What are your opinions about training programmes of the organization?

9) Is your training environment is good?

10) How do you feel about evaluation of training programme in your organization?


1. Human resource management by Subbarao.

2. Human resource development by Tripathi.

3. Company’s reports and statements

4. Journals

5. Magazines and articles.