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Riser Analysis

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Copyright 2002 by The International Society of Offshore and Polar Engineers

ISBN 1-880653-58-3 (Set); ISSN 1098-6189 (Set)

Turret-moored FPSO in Deep Water

Y.B. Kim and M.H. Kim

Offshore Technology Research Center

Department of Civil Engineering/Ocean Engineering Program

Texas A&M University

College Station, Texas 77843, USA

Until recently, offshore industry has mainly used uncoupled quasistatic analysis or semi-coupled dynamic analysis for the design of

floating offshore platforms with mooring and risers. In the former,

mooring lines and risers are modeled as massless linear or nonlinear

springs in calculating hull responses. Subsequently, the mooring

tensions are estimated from the static-offset curve. In the latter, the

first step is the same but the mooring and riser tensions are obtained

from line dynamics program, in which the body motions at fairlead

(top mooring point) are prescribed. However, as water depth

increases, the mass portion of mooring lines and risers cannot be

neglected and the dynamic interactions between vessels and slender

members are expected to become increasingly important. Therefore,

the reliability of the conventional uncoupled or semi-coupled

methods cannot be guaranteed for deep or ultra deep compliant

platforms.

Furthermore, there exists no wave basin in the world, which can test

ultra deepwater platforms in full length with reasonable scale. In

this regard, the need of very reliable hull/mooring/riser fully

coupled analysis tools cannot be emphasized too much in the

coming years. The hull/mooring/riser coupled analyses

automatically account for the inertia and damping effects of

mooring lines and risers and their dynamic interactions with hulls,

and thus can more accurately include their coupling effects.

During the past decade, several companies and research institutes

have tried to develop fully coupled dynamic analysis computer

programs for turret-moored FPSOs in deepwater. For example,

Wichers (1988) and Lee and Choi (2000) proposed simplified

uncoupled methods to solve the hull motion and mooring dynamics

separately. Later, Wichers and Ji (2000) further developed their

analysis tools by including coupling effects between the vessel and

slender members and also numerous empirical-based wind and

current forces and hull viscous damping coefficients. So far, only

Newmans approximation, approximating the off-diagonal terms of

difference-frequency wave force quadratic transfer functions

(QTFs) by mean drift forces (diagonal terms), has been used to

avoid the complicated and time-consuming computation of the

whole set of second-order difference-frequency wave forces in the

bi-frequency domain.

In the present study, the global performance of 6000-ft FPSO with

taut chain-polyester-chain lines and steel catenary risers in a noncollinear 100-yr Hurricane is investigated. The vessel motions and

slender-member dynamics are solved simultaneously in a combined

matrix to fully account for their dynamic interactions. The use of

ABSTRACT

A taker-based FPSO using 12 chain-polyester-chain taut mooring

lines with 13 steel catenary risers designed for 6000-ft water depth

is numerically simulated to investigate the characteristics of

nonlinear behaviors and hull/mooring/riser dynamic coupling. The

coupled dynamic analysis is conducted in time domain by using the

newly developed program, WINPOST-FPSO. The first-order wavefrequency and second-order difference-frequency wave loads, fluid

added mass and radiation damping for the hull are calculated in the

frequency domain from the second-order diffraction/radiation

program WAMIT. The computed hydrodynamic coefficients and

wave forces for vessels are then converted to proper forms in the

time-domain equation of motion. The wave-current induced forces

on slender members are calculated from Morison formula. An 100yr Hurricane with non-parallel wind, wave, and current is used as

environmental condition. The wind and current forces are calculated

from the empirical data provided by OCIMF (Oil Company

International Marine Forum, 1994). Three different cases; (1) fully

coupled system with Newmans approximation, (2) system (1) with

mass-less riser modeling, (3) fully coupled system with full QTF,

are studied to assess the effects of risers and Newmans

approximation in the global motion/tension analysis of turretmoored FPSOs.

environment, hull/mooring/riser coupled dynamic analysis, secondorder diffraction/radiation, riser damping, Newmans approximation

INTRODUCTION

Tanker-Based FPSO(Floating Production and Storage Offloading)

units have been regarded as a promising concept for an economic

oil production in deep and remote areas since they have more

storage capacity (no pipelines) and wider deck space giving better

layout flexibility. Recently, Minerals Management Service (MMS)

has approved the use of double-hull FPSOs in the Gulf of Mexico.

Therefore, more FPSO units are expected to be installed in the

GOM in the coming years by offshore industry. In this regard,

reliable design and analysis tools for the global performance of

FPSOs are essential to insure the safe installation and operation.

169

with full QTFs. The coupling and damping effects of risers on hull

motions are assessed.

.(MOORING LINES)

Designation

Water depth

Pre-tension

Number of lines

Degree between the 3 lines

Length of mooring line

Radius of location of chain

stoppers on turn table

The prototype FPSO used in this study is a 200,000 DWT tanker

moored in 6,000-ft water depth by a taut chain-polyester-chain

mooring system with turret. The internal turret is located 208.5 ft

away from the forward perpendicular and its diameter is 52 ft. The

main parameters of the turret-moored FPSO are given below.

Designation

Production level

Storage

Vessel size

Length b/w

Perpendiculars

Breadth

Depth

Draft

Length beam ratio

Beam draft ratio

Displacement

Block coefficient

Center of buoyancy

Forward section10

Water plane area

Water plane coefficient

Center of water plane

area forward section10

Center of gravity above

Base

Metercentric height

Transverse

Metercentric height

Longitudinal

Transverse radius of

Gyration in air

Longitudinal radius of

Gyration in air

Yaw radii of gyration

Wind area front

Wind area side

Turret in centerline

Behind Fpp (20.5% Lpp)

Turret elevation below

tanker base

Turret diameter

Symbol

Unit

bpd

bbls

kDWT

Quantity

120,000

1,440,000

200

Lpp

ft

1017

B

H

T

L/B

B/T

ft

ft

ft

154.8

92

62

6.57

2.5

240,869

0.85

ton

Cb

FB

ft

21.65

A

Cw

ft2

144,239

0.9164

FA

ft

3.28

KG

ft

43.7

MGt

ft

18.96

MGl

ft

1324.9

Kxx

ft

48.46

Kyy

ft

254.17

Kzz

Af

Ab

ft

ft2

ft2

260.17

10,890

40,600

ft

208.5

ft

ft

52

Unit

ft

kips

deg.

ft

Quantity

6,000

320

4*3

5

8,700

ft

23

Length at anchor point

Diameter

Dry weight

Weight in water

Stiffness AE

Mean breaking load (MBL)

ft

in

lb/ft

lb/ft

kips

kips

400

3.75

127.17

110.64

205,044

1,698

Length

Diameter

Dry weight

Weight in water

Stiffness AE

Mean breaking load (MBL)

ft

in

lb/ft

lb/ft

kips

kips

8,000

6.3

11.56

3.02

42,000

1,670

Length at anchor point

Diameter

Dry weight

Weight in water

Stiffness AE

Mean breaking load (MBL)

ft

in

lb/ft

lb/ft

kips

kips

300

3.75

127.17

110.64

205,044

1,698

(RISERS)

Designa

tion

of 154.8 ft, a depth of 92 ft with a full loaded draft of 62 ft. When

OCIMF data was used for wind and current loading, cylindrical bow

with full loading condition was selected.

The particulars of the mooring lines and risers are given in the next

tables. The FPSO has 12 chain-polyester-chain mooring lines and

13 steel catenary risers. The polyester lines may have a range of

stiffness under different loading conditions but they are assumed to

be elastic in this study with a representative Youngs modulus. The

170

OD

AE

EI

W

(dry/

wet)

kips

in

kips

Kips

ft2

Ibs/ft

Cdn

Liquid

producti

on risers

500

17.5

4.12E+06

667

132/71

Gas

produc

tion

risers

275

15.2

2.43E+06

274

117/36

910

20.9

4.18E+06

542

192/130

1.414

610

11.3

7.06E+05

155

124/80

1.414

205

13.5

1.94E+06

172

93/

29

Water

injection

risers

Gas

injection

risers

Gas

export

risers

Total

length

of risers

Top

tensi

on

12000 ft

The wind and current force coefficients on the vessel are read from

OCIMF data. The dynamic wind loading was generated from the

wind velocities obtained from API wind spectrum. The yaw wind

moments are increased by 15% considering the effects of

superstructures.

12 mooring lines are arranged in four groups. Each group is 90degree apart and consists of 3 legs 5-degree apart. In the dynamic

analysis of slender members, tangential drag forces are neglected.

The seafloor is modeled as elastic bed with quadratic spring.

The particulars of hull, mooring lines, and risers are almost identical

to those of the standard case set up by DEEPSTAR Offshore

Industry Consortium (Wichers and Devlin, 2001) except the two

cases. The first one is the angle of mooring lines at the fairlead; here

43 degrees were used instead of 48.8 degrees. The second difference

is the angle of riser top connection; 77 degrees were used here

instead of 80.9 degrees

The surge static offset test was conducted by pulling vcg (vertical

center of gravity) in the horizontal direction in calm water. Typical

results for surge offsets are shown in Fig.3. The surge static-offset

test shows weakly softening trend, which is contrary to the typical

hardening behavior of catenary lines. The surge static offset curves

with risers are in general greater than those without risers due to the

contribution of riser tension. On the other hand, the effects of risers

on individual mooring tension are less appreciable.

LINES, AND RISERS

forces, and second-order mean and difference-frequency forces are

calculated from the second-order diffraction/radiation program

WAMIT (Korsmeyer et al., 1988; Lee et al, 1991). Fig.1 shows the

distribution of panels on the body surface and free surface. Taking

advantage of symmetry, only half domain is discretized (1684

panels for hull and 480 panels for free surface). All the

hydrodynamic coefficients were calculated in the frequency domain,

and then the corresponding forces were converted to the time

domain using two-term Volterra series expansion (Ran and Kim,

1997). The frequency-dependent radiation damping was included in

the form of convolution integral in the time domain equation. The

wave drift damping was expected to be small and thus not included

in the ensuing analysis.

The methodology for hull/mooring/riser coupled statics/dynamics is

similar to that of Ran and Kim, 1997 and Kim et al., 1999. The

mooring lines are assumed hinged at the turret and anchor position.

The near-vertical riser is also hinged at the turret, and therefore, the

riser tension is included in the vertical static equilibrium of the hull.

The calculated platform mass for the given condition is

risers) in the free-decay tests more clearly, a simpler riser model

was developed i.e. all the 13 risers are replaced by a single

equivalent massless riser at the center with the same total tension.

The resulting surge/sway stiffness at the turret is then approximately

calculated and added to the hydrostatic matrix. Fig.4 shows typical

free-decay test results for surge, heave, roll, and pitch modes.

Table 1. Natural periods from free-decay tests

Full draft

(with risers)

Full draft

(w/o risers)

Surge

Heave

Roll

Pitch

209.8 s

18.7 s

13.0 s

18.6 s

225.9 s

18.7 s

13.4 s

18.6 s

amplitudes. With no riser model, the surge damping is appreciably

reduced especially at large dynamic amplitude. Whereas, the heave,

roll and pitch damping are only slightly reduced. In heave and pitch,

the radiation damping is expected to be much greater than the riser

damping near their respective natural frequencies. From this result,

it is seen that the damping effects from risers can be significant for

surge/sway responses in deeper water. It is expected to be more

pronounced in the presence of currents.

viscous damping of the same FPSO hull in normal direction were

obtained from the model test by Wichers(2000).

The wave force quadratic transfer functions are computed for 9

wave frequencies, ranging from 0.24 to 1.8 rad/sec and the

intermediate values for other frequencies are interpolated.

peaks assuming linear damping

vary appreciably with large yaw angles and the effects should be

taken into consideration for the reliable prediction of FPSO global

motions. Therefore, they are calculated in advance for various yaw

angles with 5-degree interval and the data are then tabulated as

inputs.

Full draft

(with risers)

computationally very intensive especially when it has to be run for

various yaw angles. Therefore, many researchers avoided such a

complex procedure and have instead used simpler approach called

Newmans approximation i.e. the off-diagonal components of the

second-order difference-frequency QTFs are approximated by their

diagonal values (mean drift forces and moments). The

approximation can be justified only when the relevant natural

frequency is very small and the slope of QTFs near the diagonal is

not large. In this paper, the full QTFs are calculated and the validity

of Newmans approximation is tested against more accurate results

with complete QTFs.

Full draft

(w/o risers)

Surge

11.0 %

(-97.5 ~

-12.2 m)

5.8 %

(-96.7 ~

-32.7 m)

TIME-DOMAIN

CONDITION

Heave

6.5 %

(10.9 ~

3.2 m)

6.1 %

(10.4 ~

3.3 m)

SIMULATION

Roll

0.86 %

(5 ~ 4.2

deg)

0.68 %

(5 ~ 4.4

deg)

FOR

Pitch

6.7 %

(5 ~ 1.4

deg)

6.0 %

(5 ~ 1.6

deg)

HURRICANE

uni-directional. A JONSWAP spectrum of significant wave

171

of time-varying wind forces. The drag coefficients for wave

forces are 1.0 for mooring lines, 1.0 to 1.414 for risers. The

low- and wave-frequency regions are defined as 0-0.2 rad/s

and 0.2-1.3 rad/s, respectively. The time-domain simulation

results are summarized in Table 3.

storm in the Gulf of Mexico.

Table 3. Time-domain simulation results for full load

(unit: m , deg.)

Condition

Surge

(m)

Sway

(m)

Heave

(m)

Roll

(deg.)

Pitch

(deg.)

Yaw

(deg.)

Newmans

Approx.

(with risers)

Newmans

Approx.

(w/o risers)

Full QTF

(with risers)

Newmans

Approx.

(with risers)

Newmans

Approx.

(w/o risers)

Full QTF

(with risers)

Newmans

Approx.

(with risers)

Newmans

Approx.

(w/o risers)

Full QTF

(with risers)

Newmans

Approx.

(with risers)

Newmans

Approx.

(w/o risers)

Full QTF

(with risers)

Newmans

Approx.

(with risers)

Newmans

Approx.

(w/o risers)

Full QTF

(with risers)

Newmans

Approx.

(with risers)

Newmans

Approx.

(w/o risers)

Full QTF

(with risers)

Mea

n

-13.9

-13.9

Lowfreq.

Rms.

Wave

-freq.

Rms.

Total

rms

6.98

0.49

7.0

10.32

0.44

Condition

10.3

-34.6

-46.7

-14.7

8.42

0.44

8.4

-39.5

4.7

2.50

0.49

2.5

13.4

4.6

4.8

0

2.84

3.04

0.04

0.45

0.46

3.36

Table 4. The resultant tensions on the mooring lines and risers for

full load (unit: kN)

Max

2.8

3.1

3.4

Mooring Line

#2

13.8

Mooring Line

#8

16.9

10.9

0.03

3.46

3.5

-12.1

0.1

0.07

3.37

3.4

11.1

0.2

0.16

0.98

1.0

3.5

0.2

0.15

1.26

1.3

4.3

0.1

0.38

1.22

1.3

5.5

0.0

0.02

1.33

1.3

-4.3

0.0

0.02

1.39

1.4

4.7

0.0

0.04

1.34

1.3

-4.5

15.3

2.74

0.28

2.6

22.7

13.7

2.57

0.31

2.7

22.3

15.1

3.86

0.28

3.9

24.3

Liquid

production riser

#13

Gas production

riser #20

Water injection

riser #22

Gas injection

riser #23

#25

Newmans

Approx.

(with risers)

Newmans

Approx.

(w/o risers)

Full QTF

(with risers)

Newmans

Approx.

(with risers)

Newmans

Approx.

(w/o risers)

Full QTF

(with risers)

Newmans

Approx.

(with risers)

Full QTF

(with risers)

Newmans

Approx.

(with risers)

Full QTF

(with risers)

Newmans

Approx.

(with risers)

Full QTF

(with risers)

Newmans

Approx.

(with risers)

Full QTF

(with risers)

Newmans

Approx.

(with risers)

Full QTF

(with risers)

Mean

Total

rms

Max

2160

424

3529

2157

583

4252

2201

479

3639

903

249

1860

943

349

2319

901

296

2077

2345

272

4941

2343

262

5393

1253

278

3509

1254

265

3213

4284

403

7629

4383

391

6923

2744

234

4082

2746

227

4054

960

166

1804

961

166

1781

are dominant in horizontal-plane motions (surge, sway, yaw), while

wave-frequency responses are more important in vertical-plane

motions (heave, roll, pitch). It is also found that the effect of riser

damping is very important in the surge, particularly its slowly

varying component. When riser damping is absent, the surge rms

and maximum values are overestimated by about 47% and 35%,

respectively. For the other modes, the effect of riser damping is less

significant. If riser damping is not accounted for, the total rms

direction. The current velocity is assumed to be 3.5ft/s

between 0-200ft and reduced to 0.3ft/s at 300ft-3000ft. The

wind speed used is 92mph@10m and its direction is 30-deg.

172

overestimated by 38% and 40%, respectively. The simulation results

for mooring lines and risers are summarized in Table 4.

effects for a deepwater spar OTC#12083, Houston

Halkyard, J.E. (1996), Status of spar platforms for deepwater

production systems Proc. of ISOPE96, Los Angeles

of individual risers, which indirectly shows the importance of fully

coupled analysis.

In Table 3 and 4, the comparison between the Newmans

approximation and the full QTF is also shown. As expected, only

horizontal-plane motions are appreciably affected. In general, the

horizontal-plane motion amplitudes (slowly varying parts) are

under-estimated by using Newmans approximation but the

differences are not large. The error caused by mass-less riser

modeling appears to be much more serious than that caused by

Newmans approximation in this example.

dynamic analysis of a truss spar in time domain Proc. of

ISOPE99, Brest, France

Korsmeyer, F.T., Lee, C.H., Newman, J.N., & Sclavounos, P.D.

(1988), The analysis of wave effects on TLP Proc. of OMAE88,

Houston

Lee, C.H., Newman, J.N., Kim, M.H. & Yue, D.K.P. (1991), The

computation of second-order wave loads Proc. of OMAE91,

Stavanger, Norway

CONCLUSION

Ma, W., Lee, M.Y., Zou, J., and Huang, E.W. (2000), Deepwater

nonlinear coupled analysis tool OTC#12085, Houston

The global motions of a turret-moored FPSO with 12 chainpolyester-chain mooring lines and 13 steel catenary risers in a nonparallel wind-wave-current environment are investigated in the time

domain using a fully coupled hull/mooring/riser dynamic analysis

program. This case is similar to the relevant study in DEEPSTAR

Offshore Industry Consortium and the overall comparison looks

reasonable.

irregular waves Symp. On Dynamics of Marine Vehicles and

Structures in Waves, London

Ran, Z. & Kim, M.H. (1997), Nonlinear coupled analysis of a

tethered spar in waves J. of Offshore & Polar Engrg. Vol.7, No.2,

111-118

dominant, and therefore, the reliable estimation of the second-order

mean and slowly varying wave forces and the magnitude of total

system damping is very important. For vertical-plane motions,

wave-frequency responses are dominant and even the first-order

potential-based theory can do a good job in heave and pitch. The

coupling effects are also minimal in vertical-plane motions.

Ran, Z., Kim, M.H., Niedzwecki, J.M. & Johnson, R.P. (1995),

Responses of a spar platform in random waves and currents

(experiment vs. theory) Proc. of ISOPE95, Hague, Netherlands

OCIMF 1994 Prediction of wind and current loads on VLCCs. 2nd

ed., Witherby & Co. Ltd., London, England

effects of riser coupling/damping and the validity of Newmans

approximation. The riser damping is found to be important in

surge/sway modes, particularly in surge. The use of Newmans

approximation slightly under-estimates the actual horizontal-plane

motions but seems to be adequate in practical applications.

However, when input wave spectrum is not narrow-banded or

double-peaked, care should be taken.

tanker. Ph.D. Dissertation, Delft University of Technology.

Lee, D.H & Choi, H.S (2000), A dynamic analysis of FPSO-shuttle

tanker system, Proc. of ISOPE 2000, Seattle, 302-307.

Wicher, J.E.W. & Ji. C. 2000 On the coupling term in the lowfrequency viscous reation forces moored tankers in deep water.

Proc. of Offshore Technology Conference, OTC 12086 [CD-ROM],

Houston, Texas.

vessel, risers, and mooring lines can be directly seen on the screen

through graphics-animation software, which will greatly enhance

the understanding of the relevant physics and the overallperformance assessment of the system.

lines and risers on the design values for a turret moored FPSO in

deep water of Gulf of Mexico. Proc. of 11th Intl. Offshore & Polar

Engr.,Vol.3, 480-487.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

This research was financially supported by the Minerals

Management Service (MMS), Offshore Technology Research

Center (OTRC), and also partly by Joint Industry Project (BPAmoco, Conoco, CSO-Aker, B&R Halliburton, Sea Engineering.).

of turret moored tankers. Proc. of Offshore Technology Conference,

OTC 12147 [CD-ROM], Houston, Texas.

Ward, E.G., Irani, M.B. & Johnson, R.P. 2001 The behavior of a

tanker-based FPSO in hurricane waves, winds, and currents. Proc.

of 11th Intl. Offshore & Polar Engr.,Vol.4, 650-653.

REFERENCES

173

Y

Z

Z

Y

+x2 (North)

100

80

60

#6 #5 #4

Surge [m]

40

20

0

-20

-40

-60

-80

-100

-120

0

200

400

600

800

1000

1200

1400

1600

1800

Time [sec]

#7

#3

#8

#2

#9

#1

+x1 (East)

15

Full Load (w/o risers)

Heave [m]

10

5

0

-5

-10

0

# 10 # 11 # 12

20

40

60

80

100

Time [sec]

174

120

140

160

180

200

1.8E+07

1.6E+07

Full Load (w/o risers)

1.2E+07

1.0E+07

8.0E+06

Roll [deg]

Surge force

1.4E+07

6.0E+06

4.0E+06

2.0E+06

0.0E+00

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

0

-2

-4

Offset [m]

-6

0

8.0E+06

20

40

60

80

100

120

140

160

180

200

Time [sec]

7.0E+06

6.0E+06

5.0E+06

4.0E+06

3.0E+06

2.0E+06

1.0E+06

0.0E+00

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

Pitch [deg]

Offset [m]

1.6E+06

1.4E+06

1.2E+06

2

0

-2

1.0E+06

-4

8.0E+05

6.0E+05

4.0E+05

20

40

60

80

100

120

140

160

180

Time [sec]

2.0E+05

0.0E+00

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

Offset [m]

and pitch modes

175

200

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