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House wiring-Tools and ComponentsElectrical Safety in House and industry

P.Raja,
Assistant Professor, EEE
NIT Trichy

Typical House Wiring

Domestic wiring in a house requires a number of electric devices to run


simultaneously.
They should be independent of each other i.e. the working of one device
should not depend on the working of another device.
For example, the working of a fan should not be affected when a bulb in
the room gets fused.
In parallel circuits, if one appliance stops working, all other appliances
work as usual. Hence, parallel circuiting is used in house wiring or in
lights used to decorate buildings on occasions. This is done to ensure
that if one bulb fuses, the others remain functioning.

Stair case wiring

Ceiling Fan Wiring

Fluorescent Lamp Connection


A: Fluorescent Tube
B: Power (220 Volts)
C: Starter
D: Switch (Bi-metallic
thermostat)
E: Capacitor
F: Filaments
G: Ballast

Tools

Multimeter

Soldering Iron

Wire Stripper

Wire Cutter

Components
Baton Lamp Holder

Bayonet Caps

Ceiling Rose
Angle holder

Colour Codes
Electric Socket and Plug cover

Plug with 3 pins

Iron Clad Main Switch

Tumbler type Switch

Flush type Switch


MCBs

Basic Electrical Safety at House

Adequate electric wiring should be ensured along with


increased in load (appliances)
Cables and fitting deteriorate with time proper rewiring
Indications for potential safety problems:
Over heating of plugs, sockets and cables
Sparking/ arcing on fittings
Frequent Fuse/MCB operation

Always read the manufactures instruction manual before


using and keep the instruction for future reference.

Handling and Maintaining of Installation of Appliances


DO NOT drag an appliance by the flex(wire) or pull the flex to remove
the plug from the socket
DO NOT plug any appliance into a light bulb holder
AVOID using multiple outlet adaptors; use fused multi-socket boards
instead; better to have additional sockets fitted
REPLACE socket outlets if, after constant use, the plug fits loosely in
the socket or if it shows of heating; a loose contact is potentially
dangerous.
REPLACE plastic-type lamp-holders if they show signs of deteriorating
cracking or discoloration. Replace them with heat-resistant types and
renew the flex.
DO NOT exceed the maximum bulb wattage recommended for fittings or
lamp-holders.
DO ensure that all fluorescent fittings and metal chandeliers are
EARTHED.

Handling and Maintaining of Installation of Appliances


DO check flexes regularly Electric iron, kettles and vacuum cleaners
ect.,
DO make sure that you have long enough flex to comfortably work.
DO NOT make joints in a given flex.
DO NOT repair defective flex or damaged; replace it.
DO NOT use telephone/alarm wire for any main-voltage appliances or
connections.

Electrical Safety in the Kitchen


Special care should be taken when using appliances in the kitchen,
where the combination of electricity, water, trailing flexes and hot
surfaces makes it potentially more dangerous.
DO unplug an electric kettle before filling it and make sure that the
element is covered by the water.
DO NOT have flexes trailing across either the cooker or sink
DO NOT wrap flexes around kettles, irons or toasters while they are still
hot; the flexes may be damaged
DO NOT clean or wash any appliances while it is still plugged in.
DO NOT handle plugs or switches when your hands are wet.

Electrical Safety in the Bathroom


Special care should be taken when using appliances in Bathroom.
Thats because the wet surroundings pose a greater risk of electric
shock anywhere else in the house.
NO socket outlets, other than specially designed shaver outlets are
allowed in bathroom.
All electric heaters and water-heaters in a bathroom fixed and
permanently wired; none should be used through a plug and socket.
Pull cord switch or by a switch located outside the bathroom

Safe Installation of Plug

Wiring a Plug Safely


Connect each wire in appropriate terminal
No loose strands of wire exposed and all screws are fully tightened.
When the wires are securely connected to the terminals make sure that the
flex is properly anchored in the plug by the cord grip.

Safety devices/installations

Fuse
MCB
RCD ELCB, RCCB
Surge Arrester
Earthing

RCDs Residual Current Devices


Additional protection against hazards of electric shock or fire
New domestic installation MUST be provided with an RCD on all
socket, water-heater and electric shower circuit.
It detects abnormal flow of electricity out of a circuit leak out.
Used to be called as ELCB Earth Leakage Circuit Breaker
RCDs are supplied in a range of current-carrying capacities and
sensitivities. A high sensitivity 30 mA.
Test : All RCDs has test buttons. Test button should be operated
at regular intervals once in a month