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INTELLINGENCE

[Marouane]

INTRODUCTION:
We speak of smart, clever, brilliant, wise, bright, gifted, brainy and crafty without
knowing the differences between those notions. What is sure is That they are all
linked to the concept of INTELLIGENCE which generally means in our minds the
ability to learn or understand things or to deal with new or difficult situations. Yet, we
unconsciously use different synonyms for different situations and behaviors. In the
same way when speaking Arabic we use adjectives asArabic word, Arabic
word or Arabic word to speak of intelligence. Thus we can accept the idea of
different forms or shades of intelligence. For example reading a road map upsidedown and generating synonyms for the word "brilliant" are two very different skills.
Nevertheless each is a measurable indicator of general intelligence, a construct that
includes problem solving abilities, spatial manipulation and language acquisition.

So, how can we define the concept of intelligence considering those shades ?
In order to answer this question we will first study the notion of intelligence .Then we
will organize intelligence into 7 principal categories according to Howard GARDNER
theory .Finally we will answer a test to identify our intelligence type, learn how to
improve it and how to use it in our daily life.

[Saad]

I.

INTELLIGENCE:

DEFINITION:

Intelligence has been defined in many different ways such as in terms of one's
capacity for logic, abstract thought, understanding, self-awareness,
communication, learning, emotional knowledge, memory, planning, and
problem solving.

Intelligence is most widely studied in humans, but has also been observed in
animals and in plants. Artificial intelligence is the simulation of intelligence in
machines.

DIFFERENT VISIONS:
As a matter of fact, the concept of intelligence is not totally mastered by humans.
That is to say that there not one single definition of intelligence. Consequently
scientists and psychologists developed diverse visions of intelligence. Some of those
theories are exposed here:

SCIENTIST

VISION OF INTELLIGENCE

Alfred Binet

Judgment, otherwise called "good sense," "practical sense,"


"initiative," the faculty of adapting one's self to circumstances ...
auto-critique.
The aggregate or global capacity of the individual to act
purposefully, to think rationally, and to deal effectively with his
environment.

David
Wechsler

Lloyd
Humphreys
Cyril Burt
Linda
Gottfredson
Sternberg &
Salter
Reuven
Feuerstein

"...the resultant of the process of acquiring, storing in memory,


retrieving, combining, comparing, and using in new contexts
information and conceptual skills."
Innate general cognitive ability
The ability to deal with cognitive complexity.
Goal-directed adaptive behavior.

The theory of Structural Cognitive Modifiability describes intelligence


as "the unique propensity of human beings to change or modify the
structure of their cognitive functioning to adapt to the changing
demands of a life situation."
Howard
To my mind, a human intellectual competence must entail a set of
Gardner
skills of problem solving enabling the individual to resolve
genuine problems or difficulties that he or she encounters and, when
appropriate, to create an effective product and must also entail
the potential for finding or creating problems and thereby laying
the groundwork for the acquisition of new knowledge.
This last theory is the one we will develop in the second part of our presentation.

II.

HOWARDS THEORY OF MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES:


[Marouane]

Howard Earl Gardner (born July 11, 1943) is an American developmental


psychologist and the John H. and Elisabeth A. Hobbs Professor of Cognition and
Education at the Harvard Graduate School of Education at Harvard University. He is
best known for his theory of multiple intelligences, as outlined in his book Frames of
Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences (1983).

This theory suggests that traditional psychometric views of intelligence are too
limited. Gardner first outlined his theory in his 1983 book Frames of Mind: The
Theory of Multiple Intelligences, where he suggested that all people have different
kinds of "intelligences."1 Gardner proposed that there are eight intelligences, and has
suggested the possible addition of a ninth known as "existentialist intelligence" 2.
In order to capture the full range of abilities and talents that people possess, Gardner
suggests that people do not have just a intellectual capacity, but have many different
intelligences including musical, interpersonal, spatial-visual and linguistic
intelligences3
While a person might be particularly strong in a specific area, such as musical
intelligence, they most likely possess a range of abilities. For example, an individual
might be strong in verbal, musical and naturalistic intelligence.
Here is a recent version of Howard GARDNER theory.

[Saad]

1. Naturalistic Intelligence
Ever wonder why certain people are able to connect with animals just like that? Have
you ever encountered someone that posses what is commonly referred to as a
green thumb? Well, those people are great examples of nature smart individuals.
Naturalistic intelligence refers to a human beings sensitivity to the natural world. This
is the ability to distinguish among natures different features such as animals, plants,
rock configurations, cloud formations, and other such things. In the past, the
naturalist intelligence was undoubtedly of great value in a persons survival. Farming
and hunting were clearly among the activities that relied on this type of intelligence.
Today, naturalistic intelligence remains a vital component of roles like being a chef or
botanist. This type of intelligence is also seen in the way consumers discriminate
among products.
Characteristics of Naturalistic Intelligence

Interested in subjects such as botany, biology and zoology

Good at categorizing and cataloging information easily

May enjoy camping, gardening, hiking and exploring the outdoors

Doesnt enjoy learning unfamiliar topics that have no connection to nature

2. Musical Intelligence
While other people gravitate towards nature, there are also those who tend to be
drawn to the musical arts. These musical smart people are usually more sensitive to

sounds that most individuals arent aware of. The intelligence involved in this ability to
recognize tone, rhythm, timbre, and pitch is musical intelligence. With this type of
intelligence, people are able to detect, generate, reproduce, and contemplate music
as clearly exhibited by attuned listeners, musicians, composers, vocalists, and
conductors. Youll find that young adults with musical intelligence are frequently
drumming, singing, or any other activity that demonstrates a melodic inclination. It is
also interesting to note that a connection has been shown to exist between emotions
and music as well as mathematics and music.
Characteristics of Musical Intelligence

Enjoy singing and playing musical instruments

Recognizes musical patterns and tones easily

Good at remembering songs and melodies

Rich understanding of musical structure, rhythm and notes

3. Logical-Mathematical Intelligence
Who can forget that classmate of yours in high school who seemed to know the
answer to every mathematical equation your teacher asked? Who can also fail to
remember that peer of yours who could reason his way to winning every argument?
They are the perfect embodiment of logical-mathematical intelligence. This type of
intelligence equips a person with the ability to calculate and carry out mathematical
operations as well as mull over hypotheses and propositions. Those who are
number or reasoning smart tend to easily recognize relationships and patterns,
demonstrate sequential reasoning skills, and generate and use abstract thoughts.
When logical intelligence is dominant in young adults, youll see them especially
attracted to logic puzzles, experiments, strategy games, and arithmetic problems.
Later on, you might see these youth going on to become detectives, scientists, and
mathematicians. Logical-mathematical intelligence has been closely linked to fluid
intelligence and general intelligence.
Characteristics of Logical-Mathematical Intelligence

Excellent problem-solving skills

Enjoys thinking about abstract ideas

Likes conducting scientific experiments

Good and solving complex computations

4. Existential Intelligence
Even as other people go about their daily lives without devoting much thought to their
existence, people with existential intelligence tend to mull over deep thoughts.
These thoughts may include the whys and hows of life and death. While most
people just shake these kinds of thoughts away, individuals who are particularly keen
to their own existence are drawn to exploring such questions like why are people
born, how do they get here, and why do they die. They also have the capacity and
sensitivity to tackle thoughts about what lies beyond life and death. Though not much
discussion has been done about existential intelligence, it has also been called
spiritual or moral intelligence. Those with high existential intelligence are deeply
philosophical.
[Marouane]

5. Interpersonal Intelligence
You might have observed that there are certain persons who have the seemingly
unique ability to get along superbly with others. These people smart individuals,
with the use of their interpersonal intelligence, interact with others in such a way that
they are able to understand and communicate well. Interpersonal intelligence makes
it possible for a person to effectively communicate through verbal and nonverbal
means, to distinguish among others, to sense the temperament and moods of
people, and to consider various points of view. Youll usually find this type of
intelligence manifested by politicians, social workers, actors, and teachers. This type
of intelligence can also be found in young adults who hold leadership roles.
Characteristics of Interpersonal Intelligence

Good at communicating verbally

Skilled nonverbal communicators

See situations from different perspectives

Create positive relationships with others

Good at resolving conflict in groups

6. Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence
Know how you tend to embarrass yourself with your two left feet and see your best
friend practically floating on the dance floor? Well, theres an explanation for that
injustice. While clumsy people have the tendency to be awkward in all things
physical, body smart people possess the capacity to stay graceful and coordinated

when using a range of physical skills and manipulating objects. People with bodilykinesthetic intelligence have an almost perfect sense of timing, and their mind-body
coordination is nearly faultless. Even as a number of persons struggle to become
well-coordinated, people who possess this type of intelligence usually grow up to
become craftspeople, dancers, surgeons, athletes, and other careers involving
exceptional mind-body union.
Characteristics of Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence

Good at dancing and sports

Enjoy creating things with their hands

Excellent physical coordination

Tends to remember by doing, rather than hearing or seeing

7. Linguistic Intelligence
Being the intelligence most commonly shared by humans, linguistic intelligence
involves the human capacity to think in words and use these to make oneself
understood. It is this type of intelligence that allows a person to appoint complex
meanings and express these through the use of language. Though this human
competence is widely used, it is most evident in the way effective public speakers,
novelists, journalists, and poets make use of their meta-linguistic skills. In the early
stages of life, linguistic intelligence is exhibited in a persons enjoyment of crossword
puzzles, storytelling, reading, and writing. So the next time you think of these as
geeky activities, youll do a better job of describing them as activities word smart
people take pleasure in.
Characteristics of Linguistic-Verbal Intelligence

Good at remembering written and spoken information

Enjoys reading and writing

Good at debating or giving persuasive speeches

Able to explain things well

Often uses humor when telling stories

8. Intra-Personal Intelligence

People who have the remarkable ability to understand themselves, their thoughts,
and their emotions and are capable of using this knowledge to plan their lives
possess intra-personal intelligence. While intra-personal intelligence does involve
self-appreciation, it also comprises a wider understanding of the human condition. As
young adults, self smart people possess a deeper awareness of their own
emotions, are self-motivated, and tend to be shy. Examples of people with evident
intra-personal intelligence include philosophers, spiritual leaders, writers, and
psychologists.
Characteristics of Intrapersonal Intelligence

Good at analyzing their strengths and weaknesses

Enjoys analyzing theories and ideas

Excellent self-awareness

Clearly understands the basis for their own motivations and feelings

9. Spatial Intelligence
The last domain is spatial intelligence, which is defined as the human capacity to
consider things in three dimensions. This type of intelligence involves the following
core capacities: a dynamic imagination, image manipulation, mental imagery, artistic
and graphic skills, and spatial reasoning. People with spatial intelligence are highly
creative. At a young age, people with high spatial intelligence are deeply entrenched
in solving jigsaw puzzles or mazes, or they may be using up their extra time by
daydreaming or drawing. Spatial intelligence is demonstrated mainly by picture
smart people such as architects, sculptors, painters, pilots, and sailors.
Characteristics of Visual-Spatial Intelligence

Enjoys reading and writing

Good at putting puzzles together

Good at interpreting pictures, graphs and charts

Enjoys drawing, painting and the visual arts

Recognizes patterns easily

Now that we distinct those types of intelligence, it is time to identify ourselves to one
category.

III.

IDENTIFY YOURSELF AND USE MULTIPLE


INTELLIGENCE THEORY:
[Saad]

A TEST: ( see papers given to students) you have 5 min . Be spontaneous .


WE ARE DIFFERENT:

Each human is gifted in a domain .So we have to adapt our behavior and
communication to those different types of intelligence in order to maximize the
potential of everybody. For example, let's take the concept of learning the continents
on earth and show what the learning activity could look like to address the
intelligences.
Verbal Linguistic: The child could prepare a report, essay, concept web, teach
somebody else about the continents or listen to an audio or video about the
continents.
Logical-mathematical intelligence: The child could rank the continents by size and
name and or population, would analyze why there may be six or seven continents,
would design a quiz or game about the continents, or could compare each of the
continents using a specific rationale.
Spatial intelligence: The child could create a mural, poster or drawing. The child
could make a diagram or fill in a graphic organizer or story board.
Bodily-Kinesthetic intelligence: The child could construct a model of each of the
continents, role play a skit about the continents, play guess the continent by drawing
in the air the outline of the continent, or make a paper mache of each of the
continents.

[Marouane]

Interpersonal intelligence: This student could work in pairs or triads to discover and
learn about the continents, could discuss and brainstorm with peers, could survey
individuals to gather information or do a group project related to the continents.
Intrapersonal intelligence: The student could work alone on a report, narrative,
diagram or journal and consider the various reasons as to why there may be 6 or 7
continents.
Naturalist intelligence: Studying about land is a naturalist's strength. The student
could conduct their own research about the continents and make discoveries and
comparisons between the continents and his/her own continent. The student could
classify the continents based on specific criteria, find out about the habitat and
wildlife throughout the continents.

[Saad]

CONCLUSION:
To sum up, according to this presentation the word skill is the most appropriate to
define INTELLIGENCE .So everyone is intelligent at his way: natural skill is not
enough and have to be strengthen with hard work.
Moreover there is no superior form of intelligence .
Thus, even if you are not gifted, you have to develop all those aspects of intelligence
through hard work to keep balance. We all agree that the real form of intelligence is
WILL POWER.