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Original Title: Lect02 2Truth Table

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Variables, functions, truth tables,

gates and networks

Logic circuits

• Logic circuits perform

operations on digital

signals

– Implemented as X1 Y1

electronic circuits where X2 Y2

signal values are X3 Y3

restricted to a few

discrete values Switching

Network

• In binary logic circuits

there are only two

values, 0 and 1 Xm Yn

• The general form of a

logic circuit is a

switching network discrete values

1

Boolean algebra

• Direct application to switching networks

– Work with 2-state devices Æ 2-valued Boolean

algebra (switching algebra)

– Use a Boolean variable (X, Y, etc.) to represent an

input or output of a switching network

– Variable may take on only two values (0, 1)

– X=0, X=1

– These symbols are not binary numbers, they

simply represent the 2 states of a Boolean

variable

– They are not voltage levels, although they

commonly refer to the low or high voltage

input/output of some circuit element

• The simplest binary element is a switch that

has two states

• If the switch is controlled by x, we say the

switch is open if x =0 and closed if x =1

x = 0 x = 1

S

x

(b) Symbol for a switch

2

Variables and functions

• Assume the switch

controls a lightbulb as

S

shown Battery x L Light

– The output is defined as

the state of the light L

(a) Simple connection to a battery

• If the light is on -> L=1

• If the light is off -> L=0

• The state of L, as S

Power

function of x is supply x L

– L(x)=x

• L(x) is a logic function (b) Using a ground connection

as the return path

• x is an input variable

• Consider the possibility of two switches

controlling the state of the light

• Using a series connection, the light will be on

only if both switches are closed

– L(x1, x2)= x1· x2

– L=1 iff (if and only if) x1 AND x2 are 1

Power

x x L Light x1 · x2 = x 1 x2

supply 1 2

The circuit implements

a logical AND function

The logical AND function (series connection)

3

Variables and functions (OR)

• Using a parallel connection, the light will be

on only if either or both switches are closed

– L(x1, x2)= x1+ x2

– L=1 if x1 OR x2 is 1 (or both)

x

1

L Light

supply S

x

2 The circuit implements

The logical OR function (parallel connection)

a logical OR function

• Various series-parallel connections would

realize various logic functions

– L(x1, x2, x3)= (x1 + x2) · x3

x1 S

Power

supply S x3 L Light

x2

4

Variables and functions

• What would the following logic function look

like if implemented via switches?

– L(x1, x2, x3, x4)= (x1 · x2) + (x3 · x4 )

S S

x1 x2

Power

supply S S L Light

x3 x4

Inversion

• Before, actions occur when a switch is closed.

What about the possibility of an action

occurring when a switch is opened?

– L(x)= x

– Where L=1 if x=0 and L=0 if x=1

• L(x) is the inverse (or complement) of x

R

Power

x, x’, NOT x

supply x S L

The circuit implements

a logical NOT function

5

Inversion of a function

• If a function is defined as

– f(x1, x2)= x1+ x2

• Then the complement of f is

– f(x1, x2)= x1+ x2 = (x1+ x2)’

• Similarily, if

– f(x1, x2)= x1 · x2

• Then the complement of f is

– f(x1, x2)= x1 · x2= (x1 · x2)’

Truth tables

• Tabular listing that fully describes a logic

function

– Output value for all input combinations

(valuations)

x1 x2 x1· x2 x1 x2 x1 + x2 x1 x1’

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1

0 1 0 0 1 1 1 0

1 0 0 1 0 1 NOT

1 1 1 1 1 1

AND OR

6

Truth tables

• Truth table for AND and OR functions of three

variables

• If L(x,y,z)=x+yz, then the truth table for L

is:

+

x y z yz x+yz

0 0 0 0 0

0 0 1 0 0

0 1 0 0 0

0 1 1 1 1

1 0 0 0 1

1 0 1 0 1

1 1 0 0 1

1 1 1 1 1

7

Logic gates and networks

• Each basic logic operation (AND, OR, NOT)

can be implemented resulting in a circuit

element called a logic gate

• A logic gate has one or more inputs and one

output that is a function of its inputs

x1

x2

x1

x1 ⋅ x2 x1 ⋅ x2 ⋅ … ⋅ xn

x2

xn

AND gates

x1

x2

x1

x1 + x2 x1 + x2 + … + xn

x2

xn

OR gates

x x

NOT gate

8

Logic gates and networks

• A larger circuit is implemented by a network

of gates

– Called a logic network or logic circuit

x

1

x

2

f = (x + x ) ⋅ x

x 1 2 3

3

• Draw the truth table and the logic circuit for

the following function

– F(a,b,c) = ac+bc’

a b c ac bc' ac+bc'

0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 1 0 0 0 a

0 1 0 0 1 1

c

0 1 1 0 0 0

1 0 0 0 0 0

1 0 1 1 0 1

b

1 1 0 0 1 1

1 1 1 1 0 1

9

Analysis of a logic network

• To determine the functional behavior of a

logic network, we can apply all possible input

signals to it

0→ 0→1→ 1 1→ 1→0→ 0

x

1 A

1→1→ 0→ 1

f

0→ 0→0→ 1 B

0→ 1→0→ 1

x

2

• The function of a logic network can also be

described by a timing diagram (gives

dynamic behavior of the network)

1

x

1 0

x 1

2 0

1

A

0

1

B

0

1

f

0 Time

Timing diagram

10

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