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Computer Networking for Engineers

Lecture #17

Jeffrey Miller, Ph.D.

• Chapter 5.6
• All images
g with white backgrounds
g are from Andrew
Tanenbaum’s Computer Networks, 4th Edition, Prentice
Hall, 2003.
Design Principles of Network Layer
• RFC 1958, which draws heavily on papers from Clark
(1988) and Saltzer (1984)
– Make
M k sure it worksk
– Keep it simple
– Make clear choices
– Exploit modularity
– Expect heterogeneity
– Avoid
vo d sstatic
a c options
op o s and
a d parameters
pa a e e s
– Look for a good design; it need not be perfect
– Be strict when sending and tolerant when receiving
– Think about
abo t scalabilit
– Consider performance and cost
Network Layer
• The Internet can be viewed as a collection of
interconnected subnetworks called Autonomous Systems
– Attached to these AS are regional networks
– Attached to the regional networks are LANs of universities,
companies, and ISPs
• The Internet Protocol (IP) is the glue holding all of these
eces together
oge e
– The IPs job is to provide a best-efforts (not guaranteed) way to
transport packets from source to destination, without regard for
whether the machines are on the same network
Internet Protocol Header

• Version – which version of IP is being used

• IHL (Internet Header Length) – tells how long the header is, in 32-bit words. The minimum value is 5, maximum is 15 (limiting
the header to 60 bytes)
• Type of Service – intended to distinguish between different classes of service, such as reliability and speed, though most routers
ignore this field
• Total Length
g – maximum length g is 65535 bytesy
• Identification – all fragments of a datagram contain the same Identification value
• DF – Don’t Fragment
• MF – More Fragments, used to know when the last fragment of a datagram has arrived
• Fragment Offset – where in the current datagram this fragment belongs
• Ti to Live
Time Li – counter usedd to limit
li i packet
k lifetimes
lif i based
b d on number
b off hops,
h decremented
d d on eachh hop
• Protocol – TCP, UDP, etc.
• Header Checksum – verifies the header only and must be recomputed at each hop since the TTL changes
• Options – are not really used by all routers, so are irrelevant
IP Addresses

• Network numbers are managed by ICANN (Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers)
Special IP Addresses
• Since network addresses are so scarce, we can take a few bits away
from the host address to make a subnet within a network
• To implement subnetting, the router needs a subnet mask that indicates
the split between the network and the subnet/host combination
• Assume a host has an IP address of with a subnet
mask of (also written as
– What is the network address?
– What is the subnet address?
• Classless InterDomain Routing (RFC 1519)
allocates IP addresses in variable-sized
blocks without regard to class
• So if a site needs 2000 IP addresses
addresses, it
would get 2048 addresses
• In essence,
essence ICANN is giving out network
addresses and subnet masks as a
• Network Address Translation (RFC 3022) allows
an organization to assign local IP addresses with a
single (or multiple) public IP addresses
• When a packet exits the organization and goes to
h ISP, an address
dd translation
l i takes
k place
• Reserved NAT addresses are,
172 31 255 255/12, 192 168 255 255/16
• When a packet arrives back at the router, the TCP
Source P
Portt fi
ld iis usedd to
t determine
d t i theth
destination within the network
• Internet Control Message Protocol – an
p event occurred
• The Address Resolution Protocol is used to
find the hardware address from an IP
• It is found by broadcasting an ARP packet
onto the network asking “Who owns IP
Address w.x.y.z?
w x y z?”
• Dynamic Host Control Protocol allows a
router ((or other computer)
p ) to dynamically
y y
assign IP addresses to hosts to avoid
conflicts with statically
y assigning
g g addresses
• Reverse Address Resolution Protocol solves
the pproblem of findingg the IP address that
belongs to a specific hardware address.
• Open Shortest Path First is a protocol for
g within an AS
– NOTE: More than one network protocol could
be used within a single
g AS
• Border Gateway Protocol is a protocol for
routing between two AS

• Version – always 6 for IPv6

• Traffic Class – distinguishes
g between packets
p with different real-time delivery
y requirements
• Flow Label – to allow a source and destination to set up a pseudo-connection with particular properties and
• Payload Length – how many bytes follow the 40-byte header
• Nextt Header
Ne eade – te
tellss w
c oof tthee six
s eextension
te s o headers
eade s (if
( any)
a y) follow
o ow this
t s one
o e
• Hop Limit – same as TTL from IPv4
• Source and Destination Addresses – fixed-length 16-bytes each
IPv6 Extension Headers
• Some of the IPv4 fields are still needed in
IPv6,, so extension headers exist
• Chapter 5 Homework is now posted!