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Unit 2

Electricity and Thermal Physics

Solutions to Practice Questions
Chapter 1
1

An electric current is a flow of electric charge

The cell does electrical work by applying a force to the charge carriers in the direction in which
they move
Both electrical and mechanical work transfer energy

A cell is a single source of e.m.f. whereas a battery is a group of cells connected together

Circuit B

Circuit C

Circuit D

The circuits will run out of fuel in order A, C, B

D need not run out of fuel at all, as the engines can be turned off and still produce the same effect!

NAS Physics Teachers Guide 2005 Nelson Thornes Ltd.

Unit 2
Electricity and Thermal Physics
Solutions to Practice Questions
5

Direct current: the electrons travel in one direction only

Alternating current: the electrons move first one way and then the other; they keep moving
backwards and forwards

Chapter 2
1

+4 nC on A and 4 nC on B

The duster takes electrons from the surface of the rod

The duster now has a negative charge and the rod an equal positive one

Current is a base quantity

Charge is a derived quantity
Charge is measured in coulombs and current in amperes
1 ampere = 1 coulomb per second

(a) Q = It = 3 A 4 s = 12 C
(b) Q = 7 A (8 60) s = 3360 C
(c) Q = 0.25 A (2 60 60) s = 1800 C

(a) I = Q/t = 700 C/(35 s) = 20 A

(b) I = Q/t = 3600 C/(3 60 s) = 20 A

Q = It = 4.5 A (20 60) s = 5400 C

Number of electrons = 5400 C/(1.6 1019 C) = 3.4 1022

C=As

Chapter 3
1

Draw a large copy of the circuit diagram on a piece of paper

Place components on top of their circuit symbols
Connect components using wires of the correct length to keep the circuit looking like its
circuit diagram

Break the circuit at the required point

Make sure the red terminal of the ammeter is connected nearest to the positive terminal of the
power supply

Torch bulb 0.3 A, LED 20 mA, small motor 1 A, buzzer 0.1A, mains lamp 0.25 A, electric kettle 10 A

A series circuit is one where the components are all connected in-line, one after the other
The current passes through one component, then through the next, then the next, etc.
Current is not used up by any component (conservation of charge): what goes in comes out
so the current throughout a series circuit is the same
NAS Physics Teachers Guide 2005 Nelson Thornes Ltd.

Unit 2
Electricity and Thermal Physics
Solutions to Practice Questions
5

The current entering a house equals the current leaving, so company A makes no charge
The charge entering a house equals the charge leaving, so company B makes no charge
Electrical devices in a house remove energy from the supply, so company C charges its customers

Chapter 4
1

A parallel circuit is one where components are connected across each other
Current flowing into a parallel circuit splits at the junction so that a part of it goes through
each route
Current flowing out of each route of a parallel circuit join together at the junction

The sum of the currents entering a point is equal to the sum of the currents leaving that point
Conservation of charge

2.4 A

1.6 A

0.8 A

0.8 A

0.8 A

2.4 A

0.8 A

0.8 A

0.8 A

1.6 A

In series:
(a)

12 V

NAS Physics Teachers Guide 2005 Nelson Thornes Ltd.

Unit 2
Electricity and Thermal Physics
Solutions to Practice Questions
(b)

3V

Note that currents in series are the same and that currents add up to zero at junctions
Circuit A I1 = I2 = 1 A + 1 A = 2 A
Circuit B I3 = I4 = 1.5 A
Circuit C I5 = I6 = 1.2 A [current through parallel resistor = 0.4 A]
Circuit D I7 = 20 mA, I8 = 20 mA 0.1 mA = 19.9 mA, I9 = 0.1 mA

Chapter 5
1

Adding a resistor to a series circuit increases the total resistance

So that the current flowing through the whole circuit decreases
A circuit can be given additional resistance by:
making part of the wiring thinner
using longer wires
using a material through which electrons find it hard to move
using a material in which there are only a few electrons that can move

mA

NAS Physics Teachers Guide 2005 Nelson Thornes Ltd.

Unit 2
Electricity and Thermal Physics
Solutions to Practice Questions
3

4
live

12.4 A
12 A

0.4 A

12 A

0.4 A

electric
fire

neutral

12 4 A

An LDR will not pass enough current to run a motor

See Figure 5.7 on page 11
As the level of illumination increases, the resistance of the LDR falls
Current flowing through LDR and relay coil increases sufficiently to close the relay switch
which allows current to flow directly through the motor from the supply

Chapter 6
1

3 1.5 V = 4.5 V
Three cells in parallel will supply energy for a longer time compared to a single cell
[Will also reduce the overall effect of any internal resistance as current splits between the three cells
see Chapter 17]

The average resultant force on the electrons is zero

The power supply pushes the electrons along in their direction of travel
The circuit resistances apply equal forces in the opposite direction

NAS Physics Teachers Guide 2005 Nelson Thornes Ltd.

Unit 2
Electricity and Thermal Physics
Solutions to Practice Questions
3
+
V
+
V

+
V

+
V

V1 = 1.5 V
V2 = 1.5 V
V3 = 3.0 V
V4 = 12 V, V5 = 12 V
V6 = 9.0 V, V7 = 9.0 V

Chapter 7
1

Two components that give energy to a circuit: cells (batteries), generators

Two components that take energy away from a circuit: lamps, motors
Voltage differences across components that give energy to a circuit are called e.m.f.s
Voltage differences across components that take energy away from a circuit are called
potential differences

(a) W = VQ = 9 V 15 C = 135 J
(b) W = VQ = VIt = 9 V 0.5 A (2 60) s = 540 J

(a) Energy per second (power) = 36 000 J/(10 60 s) = 60 J s1

(b) 3 A = 3 C s1
(c) Energy per coulomb (voltage) = 60 J s1/(3 C s1) = 20 J C1

P = VI
V = P/I = 0.75 W/(0.3 A) = 2.5 V

Q = It = 2.5 A (10 60) s = 1500 C

e.m.f. = W/Q = 300 000 J/(1500 C) = 200 V
NAS Physics Teachers Guide 2005 Nelson Thornes Ltd.

Unit 2
Electricity and Thermal Physics
Solutions to Practice Questions
Chapter 8
1

12 V

1 k

4V

1 k

4V

1 k

4V

12 V

1 k

12 V 1 k

12 V 1 k

12 V

V1 = 12 V 3 V = 9 V
V2 = V3 = 6 V
V4 = Vlamp = 4 V
V5 = 9 V 4 V = 5 V

See Figure 8.6 on page 17

Source of power in the water circuit is the Sun
Source of power in the electric circuit is the battery
Assuming no water either evaporates from the streams or is absorbed into the ground then
the amount of water flowing down mountain equals amount of water evaporating from sea

When at A, VX > potential of right-hand terminal of ammeter, so current through ammeter flows
from left to right
When at E, VX = potential of right-hand terminal of ammeter, so no current flows through ammeter
When at B, VX < potential of right-hand terminal of ammeter, so current through ammeter flows
from right to left

NAS Physics Teachers Guide 2005 Nelson Thornes Ltd.

Unit 2
Electricity and Thermal Physics
Solutions to Practice Questions
Chapter 9
1

The voltage at a point in a circuit is the voltage difference between zero and that point
The voltage across a component is the difference in the voltages at its two ends

(a) Vlamp = 1.8 V 0.4 V = 1.4 V

(b) Vresistor = 5.7 V 2.1 V = 3.6 V
(c) Vwire = 2.1 V 1.8 V = 0.3 V

Voltage/V

5
4
3
2
1
0
Position

V1 = 1.5 V
V2 = 3.0 V, V3 = 1.5 V
V4 = 3.0 V, V5 = 1.5 V
V6 = 2.0 V, V7 = 4.0 V, V8 = 6.0 V
V9 = 3.0 V, V10 = 6.0 V
V11 = 6.0 V, V12 = 3.0 V, V13 = 3.0 V, V14 = 6.0 V

Around any closed loop, the sum of the e.m.f.s is equal to the sum of the p.d.s

For energy conservation:

total energy gained by a coulomb going round a complete circuit equals the total energy lost
and as voltage is a measure of the energy transferred per unit charge
total e.m.f. (energy providers) = total p.d. (energy takers)

Chapter 10
1

Either volt = J C1 = N m C1 = kg m s2 m C1 = kg m s2 m (A s)1 = kg m s2 m A1 s1

= kg m2 s3 A1
or volt = W A1 = J s1 A1 = N m s1 A1 = kg m s2 m s1 A1 = kg m2 s3 A1
ohm = V A1 = kg m2 s3 A1 A1 = kg m2 s3 A2

NAS Physics Teachers Guide 2005 Nelson Thornes Ltd.

Unit 2
Electricity and Thermal Physics
Solutions to Practice Questions
3

Resistors are connected in parallel (combined resistance < individual resistance)

1/total = 1/R1 + 1/R2
1/R2 = 1/total 1/R1 = 1/(120 ) 1/(180 ) = 0.002778 1
R2 = 360

(i)
(ii)
(iii)

(iv)

(v)

(vi)

(vii)

(i) 18 , (ii) 36 , (iii) 54 , (iv) 9 , (v) 6 , (vi) 12 , (vii) 27

5

Power = I2R
I2 = P/R = 0.810 W/(25 ) = 0.0324 A2
I = (0.0324 A2) = 0.18 A
V = IR = 0.18 A 25 = 4.5 V
Number of cells = 4.5 V/(1.5 V) = 3

Chapter 11
1

(i) Behaviour of circuit will be unaffected by presence of voltmeter as resistance of parallel

(voltmeter) combination will be as close as possible to resistance of component
(ii) Behaviour of circuit will be unaffected by presence of ammeter as it does not change the circuit
resistance

NAS Physics Teachers Guide 2005 Nelson Thornes Ltd.

Unit 2
Electricity and Thermal Physics
Solutions to Practice Questions
2

In Figure 11.1 on page 22:

Voltmeter records the correct voltage for the resistor
Ammeter records the current through both the resistor and the voltmeter
Calculated resistance value = correct V/larger I = lower R
In Figure 11.2 on page 22:
voltmeter records the voltage across both the resistor and the voltmeter
ammeter records the correct current for the resistor
Calculated resistance value = larger V/correct I = higher R

First connect the probes of the digital ohmmeter together and note the reading
Connect the probes to the ends of the component and note the new reading
Resistance of the component is the difference in these two readings

Resistance

tungsten filament lamp

NTC thermistor

Temperature

The resistance of a light-dependent resistor decreases as the light intensity falling on it increases

Chapter 12
1

Number of tennis balls along each 1 m side = 1000 mm/(66 mm) = 15

Total number in 1 m3 box = 15 15 15 = 3375

Volume of wire V = Al = 3 106 m2 30 102 m = 9 107 m3

Number of free electrons N = nV = 6.4 1028 m3 9 107 m3 = 5.76 1022
Amount of free charge Q = Ne = 5.76 1022 1.6 1019 C = 9216 C = 9200 C
3 A = 3 C s1 (I = Q/t)
t = Q/I = 9216 C/(3 C s1) = 3072 s = 3100 s
Average speed = distance/time = 30 102 m/(3072 s) = 9.8 105 m s1 = 0.1 mm s1

When the switch is closed, electrons throughout the circuit start moving almost straight away
The electromagnetic wave that starts the electrons moving travels around the circuit very quickly (at
the speed of light 3 108 m s1)
Electrons move in, and give energy to, the lamp almost instantaneously
Delay time t = length of cable/(3 108 m s1)

NAS Physics Teachers Guide 2005 Nelson Thornes Ltd.

Unit 2
Electricity and Thermal Physics
Solutions to Practice Questions
4

I = nAvq
v = I/nAq = 25 A/(7 1028 m3 2.5 106 m2 1.6 1019 C) = 8.9 104 m s1 = 0.89 mm s1

Chapter 13
1

Resistivity = resistance area/length

Units of resistivity = m2/m = m
In base units:
resistance = = kg m2 s3 A2 (see solution 10.1)
resistivity = m = kg m2 s3 A2 m = kg m3 s3 A2

Resistivity of tungsten is greater than that of copper

Cross-sectional area of the tungsten filament is smaller than that of the copper connecting wires
As R =l/A, filament resistance is greater than that of the same length of copper connecting wire
Since they are in series, the current through both the filament and the connecting wires is the same
Power P = I2R R, so filament dissipates more power and gets hotter

R =l/A
A = wt = 2.0 103 m 8.5 103 m = 1.7 105 m2
R = 1.7 108 m 4.0 102 m/(1.7 105 m2) = 4 105
V = IR = 25 103 A 4 105 = 1 106 V = 1 V

In both components:
lattice vibrations increase with temperature
producing increased carrier obstruction and reduced drift speed v
In the tungsten filament lamp:
current I v (nAq are constant), so producing a smaller current and a larger resistance
In the NTC thermistor:

charge carrier density n increases massively with temperature

n increases much more than v decreases
current I nv (Aq are constant), so producing a larger current and a smaller resistance
5

I = V/R = 12 V/(300 ) = 0.04 A = 40 mA

Power = V2/R = (12 V)2/(300 ) = 0.48 W = 480 mW
Thermistor gains 180 mW (i.e. 480 mW generated 300 mW dissipated)
(a) Temperature increases
(b) Resistance decreases
Both the current flowing and the power generated within the thermistor will increase
If process continues:
temperature rises more producing further reductions in resistance and increases in current and
power so that thermal runaway occurs
NAS Physics Teachers Guide 2005 Nelson Thornes Ltd.

Unit 2
Electricity and Thermal Physics
Solutions to Practice Questions
6

Resistivity increases with temperature: copper and iron

Resistivity decreases with temperature: carbon, glass, paraffin wax and silicon

Chapter 14
1

A potential divider circuit consists of a chain of resistors, all connected in series

It divides the voltage from a source in proportion to their resistances

Total resistance = 7 k + 3 k = 10 k
Current I = e.m.f./(total resistance) = 9 V/(10 k) = 9 104 A
VOUT = IR = 9 104 A 3 103 = 2.7 V

VOUT will decrease

Larger current in 7 k resistor so greater p.d. across top resistor
(or effective resistance of bottom resistor is reduced)

(a) 1/R = (1/600 ) + (1/400 ) = 0.0042 1

R = 1/(0.0042 1) = 240
(b) Total R = 360 + 240 = 600
(c) I = e.m.f./total R = 12 V/(600 ) = 0.02 A = 20 mA
(d) V360 = IR = 0.02 A 360 = 7.2 V
(e) Vparallel = Vsupply V360 = 12 V 7.2 V = 4.8 V
[or V240 = IR = 0.02 A 240 = 4.8 V]
(f) I600 = V600/R = 4.8 V/(600 ) = 0.008 A = 8 mA
(g) I400 = Isupply I600 = 20 mA 8 mA = 12 mA
[or I400 = V400/R = 4.8 V/(400 ) = 0.012 A = 12 mA]

Parallel combination:
1/R = (1/12 ) + (1/36 ) = 0.111 1
R = 1/(0.111 1) = 9
Circuit:
total R = 18 + 9 = 27
I = e.m.f./total R = 9 V/(27 ) = 0.33 A
I18 = 0.33 A
V18 = IR = 0.33 A 18 = 6 V
Vparallel = Vsupply V18 = 9 V 6 V = 3 V
I12 = V12/R = 3 V/(12 ) = 0.25 A
I36 = Isupply I12 = 0.33 A 0.25 A = 0.08 A

NAS Physics Teachers Guide 2005 Nelson Thornes Ltd.

Unit 2
Electricity and Thermal Physics
Solutions to Practice Questions
Chapter 15
1

A rheostat is a variable resistance in series with the component (see Figure 15.1 on page 30)
The rheostat controls the current through the lamp
A potentiometer is a variable potential divider (see Figure 15.2 on page 30)
The potentiometer controls the voltage across the lamp
An advantage of using a potentiometer is that the voltage across the lamp can be reduced to zero
A disadvantage of using a potentiometer is that circuit current still flows even when there is zero
current in the lamp

Digital voltmeter shows that there is 1.5 V across bottom resistor of potential divider
Torch bulb is connected in parallel with the bottom resistor
Their combined resistance is less so p.d. across them is less than 1.5 V

Using a digital voltmeter (infinite resistance):

Total resistance = 2000 + 3000 + 1000 = 6000
I = e.m.f./total R = 12 V/(6000 ) = 0.002 A
VBC = IRBC = 0.002 A 3000 = 6 V
Using analogue voltmeter (resistance = 6000 ):
Combined resistance RBC = 1/[(1/3000 ) + (1/6000 )] = 2000
Total resistance = 2000 + 2000 + 1000 = 5000
I = e.m.f./total R = 12 V/(5000 ) = 0.0024 A
VBC = IRBC = 0.0024 A 2000 = 4.8 V
Using both voltmeters:
combined resistance RBC = 1/[(1/3000 ) + (1/6000 ) + (1/ )] = 2000
so both voltmeters read 4.8 V

The terminals must be joined together by a wire of negligible resistance [short-circuited]

R1 = Vsupply/Imax = 4 V/(0.5 A) = 8
Note that the current of 0.1 A flows between the output terminals and not through R2
VR1 = Vsupply Vout = 4 V 3 V = 1 V
IR1 = VR1/R1 = 1 V/(8 ) = 0.125 A
IR2 = IR1 Iout = 0.125 A 0.100 A = 0.025 A
R2 = VR2/IR2 = Vout/IR2 = 3 V/(0.025 A) = 120

(a) At 1000 lux, Rldr = 150 so total circuit resistance = 1050

Current flowing = 5 V/(1050 ) = 0.0048 A
V900 = IR = 0.0048 A 900 = 4.29 V = 4.3 V
(b) At 90 lux, Rldr = 1500 so total circuit resistance = 2400
Current flowing = 5 V/(2400 ) = 0.0021 A
V900 = IR = 0.0021 A 900 = 1.875 V = 1.9 V

NAS Physics Teachers Guide 2005 Nelson Thornes Ltd.

Unit 2
Electricity and Thermal Physics
Solutions to Practice Questions
Chapter 16
1

The current through a component is directly proportional to the voltage across it

See experiment on page 32

The resistance of the tungsten filament of a lamp increases as it gets hotter

its current-voltage graph is curved
If the filament is maintained at a constant temperature (e.g. by keeping it immersed in water)
its current-voltage graph is a straight line through the origin
showing that the material from which the filament is made is ohmic

With switch S closed:

Vsupply = VR1 + Vdiode
Graph shows that at 50 mA, Vdiode = 0.77 V
So VR1 = 2.5 V 0.77 V = 1.73 V
R1 = VR1/I = 1.73 V/(0.05 A) = 34.6 = 35
With switch open:
Vsupply = VR1 + VR2 + Vdiode
Graph shows that at 10 mA, Vdiode = 0.65 V
VR1 = IR1 = 0.01 A 34.6 = 0.346 V
So VR2 = 2.5 V (0.65 V + 0.346 V) = 1.504 V
R2 = VR2/I = 1.504 V/(0.01 A) = 150.4 = 150
Diode power when switch S closed = IdiodeVdiode = 0.05 A 0.77 V = 0.0385 W = 39 mW

Voltage across series resistance VR = Vsupply VLED = 6.0 V 1.7 V = 4.3 V

R = VR/I = 4.3 V/(20 103 A) = 215 = 220

Resistance

Potential difference

Chapter 17
1

Voltage across resistance = IRexternal = 0.5 A 12 = 6 V

lost volts = E voltage across resistance = 9 V 6 V = 3 V
Internal resistance r = lost volts/I = 3 V/(0.5 A) = 6

NAS Physics Teachers Guide 2005 Nelson Thornes Ltd.

Unit 2
Electricity and Thermal Physics
Solutions to Practice Questions
2

E.m.f. = terminal voltage + lost volts

E = V + Ir
V = (r)I + E
Graph of terminal voltage V against current I has gradient equal to r and intercept equal to E
1.8

Terminal voltage/V

1.6
1.4
1.2
1
0.8

V
= r
I
+ E

0.6
0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

Current/A

E.m.f. = intercept = 1.64 V

Internal resistance = gradient = 1.62
4

Working resistance R = V/I = 3.5 V/(0.35 A) = 10

Total circuit resistance = E/I = 12 V/(0.35 A) = 34
Required series resistance = 34 (4 + 10 ) = 20
lost volts = 4.5 V 3.5 V = 1.0 V
Internal resistance = lost volts/I = 1.0 V/(0.35 A) = 2.9

Digital voltmeter reads 12 V when switch S is open

Current I = e.m.f./total resistance = 12 V/(2 + 4 ) = 12 V/(6 ) = 2 A
Terminal voltage = IRexternal = 2 A 4 = 8 V
Power dissipated in internal resistance Pr = I2r = (2 A)2 2 = 8 W
Power dissipated in external circuit PR = I2R= (2 A)2 4 =16 W

A car battery has a very small internal resistance (10 m)

so that it can supply a large current (e.g. 200 A) to the starter motor
A school e.h.t. supply has a very large internal resistance (5 M)
to prevent it from supplying dangerously large currents

NAS Physics Teachers Guide 2005 Nelson Thornes Ltd.

Unit 2
Electricity and Thermal Physics
Solutions to Practice Questions
Chapter 18
1

Pressure is the force acting per unit area

Pressure = force/area
Pa = N m2 = kg m s2 m2 = kg m1 s2

(a) Pressure = force/area = 150 N/[(0.06 m)2] = 1.3 104 N m2

Force on piston = pA = 1.33 104 N m2 (0.96 m)2 = 38 000 N
(b) For volume of fluid to remain the same
(Distance moved area)piston = (distance moved area)plunger
Distance moved by piston = 0.64 m (0.06 m)2/[(0.96 m)2] = 0.0025 m = 2.5 mm

See parts 2 and 3 of experiment Blowing up balloons on page 38

Use a pressure gauge to measure the pressure of the gas and a thermometer to measure
its temperature

E.m.f. generated = 35 V C1 160 C = 5600 V = 5.6 mV

Current I = e.m.f./total resistance = 5.6 103 V/(16 + 4 ) = 2.8 104 A
Power produced P = VI = 5.6 103 V 2.8 104 A = 1.57 106 W

Mark liquid level at 0 C (ice/water) and 100 C (steam) using elastic bands
divide interval between these two marks into 100 equal divisions
For this thermometer:
100 C (18.0 2.0) cm = 16.0 cm
So scale is 0.16 cm C1
(a) 35 C 35 C 0.16 cm C1 = 5.6 cm
Alcohol level is (5.6 + 2.0) cm = 7.6 cm above the bulb
(b) 8 C 8 C 0.16 cm C1 = 1.28 cm
Alcohol level is (1.28 + 2.0) cm = 0.72 cm above the bulb

Chapter 19
1

Macroscopic means large scale

Volume m3
Pressure Pa (or N m2)
Temperature K
Amount of gas present

Boyles law: for a fixed mass of gas at constant temperature, the product of the pressure and
volume is constant
See experiment on page 40
Precaution: after each compression, wait for gas to cool before taking readings

NAS Physics Teachers Guide 2005 Nelson Thornes Ltd.

Unit 2
Electricity and Thermal Physics
Solutions to Practice Questions
3
Higher temperature

Pressure

Lower temperature

Volume

Pressure volume = 1.8 106 Pa 0.06 m3 = 1.08 105 Pa m3

When tap opened:
new pressure new volume = 1.08 105 Pa m3
new volume = 1.08 105 Pa m3/(100 103 Pa) = 1.08 m3
air leaving cylinder = (1.08 0.06) m3 = 1.02 m3 = 1.0 m3

As the bubble rises, there is less water pushing down on it from above
so pressure on the fixed mass of gas in the bubble decreases as the bubble rises
and its volume increases so that pV remains constant
Volume of bubble has increased by a factor of 5 (20 mm3/4 mm3)
so pressure at surface must be 1/5 of pressure at bottom of lake
Pressure at bottom of lake = 5 pressure at surface = 5 atmospheric pressure
Pressure at bottom is equivalent to 5 10 m of water = 50 m of water
Depth of lake = (50 10) m = 40 m

Chapter 20
1

Pressure law: for a fixed mass of gas at constant volume, the pressure is directly proportional to the
Kelvin temperature
See experiment on page 42
Precautions:
submerge as much of the flask as possible in the water
use a short length of tubing to connect flask to pressure gauge
allow time for the gas in the flask to reach the temperature of the water before taking readings

NAS Physics Teachers Guide 2005 Nelson Thornes Ltd.

Unit 2
Electricity and Thermal Physics
Solutions to Practice Questions
2

As p T then p/T = constant

For the given results:

Temperature / C
Pressure / kPa
Temperature / K
p/T / kPa

K1

12

29

34

58

78

96

100

106

111

116

123

274

285

302

307

331

351

0.350

0.351

0.351

0.362

0.350

0.350

34 C is the incorrect temperature

Correct temperature = 111 kPa/(average of other p/T values) = 111 kPa/(0.3506 kPa K1) = 317 K
= 44 C
3

Pressure/temperature = 100 kPa/[(273 + 15) K] = 0.347 kPa K1

New pressure/new temperature = 0.347 kPa K1
New temperature = new pressure/(0.347 kPa K1) = (100 + 20) kPa/(0.347 kPa K1) = 345.6 K
= 72.6 C

1
V
4 0

4p0

Pressure

3p0
2p0
A

p0
0
0

1
4 V0

1
2 V0

3
4 V0

V0

Volume

To return to original conditions: temperature must be reduced back to 27 C at constant volume

5

The critical temperature of a gas is the temperature above which it cannot be liquefied
An ideal gas is one that would obey the gas laws at all temperatures and pressures and would
never liquefy
p is the pressure of the gas in Pa
V is the volume of the gas in m3
n is the number of moles of gas present in mol
R is the molar gas constant in J K1 mol1
T is the Kelvin temperature of the gas in K

NAS Physics Teachers Guide 2005 Nelson Thornes Ltd.

Unit 2
Electricity and Thermal Physics
Solutions to Practice Questions
Chapter 21
1

See experiment on page 44

When viewed through the microscope, the smoke particles appear as very small bright dots which
dance around randomly, moving first one way and then immediately another

The smoke particles are being bombarded by the gas particles

Although very light, the gas particles are moving very fast and undergo a significant change
in momentum
At any instant, more gas particles will hit one side of the smoke particle than another
creating a resultant force that momentarily pushes the smoke particle in that direction
then the collision imbalance and the direction of the resultant force changes
so the smoke particle continually gets pushed in different directions

(a) Use more ball bearings in the Perspex tube

(b) Increase the speed of the motor to make the molecules move faster
(c) Add mass to the cardboard disc
Place a small polystyrene sphere, representing a smoke particle, in with the ball bearings

Collisions of gas particles with the container walls exert forces and create pressures on them
Increasing the temperature of a gas causes its particles to move faster; the gas particles collide with
the walls harder and more often, producing a greater pressure
Increasing the volume of a container decreases the packing density of the gas particles within; fewer
collisions per unit wall area occur per unit time and a lower pressure is produced

If collisions were inelastic, the average kinetic energy of the gas molecules would decrease
The molecules would slow down and stop moving, just like the ball bearings in the model
The temperature of the gas would fall and it would change into a liquid and then a solid

Chapter 22
For one collision:
Change of momentum = mv mu = 0.2 kg (15 15) m s1 = 0.2 kg 30 m s1 = 6 kg m s1
For 600 collisions:
Total change of momentum = 600 6 kg m s1 = 3600 kg m s1
Average force = total change of momentum/time taken = 3600 kg m s1/(12 s) = 300 N
600 collisions in 12 s = an average of 1 collision every 20 ms = 5 collisions in 100 ms

Force

20

40
60
Time/ms

80

100

Average force acting on wall = total area under the graph/(100 ms)
NAS Physics Teachers Guide 2005 Nelson Thornes Ltd.

Unit 2
Electricity and Thermal Physics
Solutions to Practice Questions
2

= density of the gas

<c2> = mean square speed of the gas molecules
Left-hand side:
pressure = N m2 = kg m s2 m2 = kg m1 s2
Right-hand side:

<c2> = kg m3 (m s1)2 = kg m3 m2 s2 = kg m1 s2
E.g. (any four)
gas consists of a large number of particles in rapid, random motion
all collisions are elastic or particles assumed to be hard elastic spheres
molecular size is negligible compared with the volume occupied by the gas
intermolecular forces are negligible except during collisions
time of collision is negligible compared with time between collisions
3

Since p = <c2>/3
<c2> = 3p/ = 3 101 103 Pa/(0.09 kg m3) = 3.37 106 m2 s2
Root mean square speed <c> = (3.37 106 m2 s2) = 1835 m s1
See Figure 22.3 on page 47

(a) Left-hand side:

1
mv2
2

= kg (m s1)2 = kg m2 s2

Right-hand side:
3kT/2 = J K1 K = J = N m = kg m s2 m = kg m2 s2
(b) Molar gas constant = Avogadro constant Boltzmann constant
1

(c) Since 2 mv2 = 3kT/2

v2 = 3kT/m so v2 T
T2/T1 = (847 + 273) K/[(7 + 273) K] = 1120 K/(280 K) = 4
v2 increases by a factor of 4
R.m.s. speed increases by a factor of 2 (i.e. 4)
R.m.s. speed = 2 380 m s1 = 760 m s1
5

(a) Mean speed = (350 + 420 + 280 + 610 + 680 + 540 + 590 + 490) m s1/8 = 3960 m s1/8
= 495 m s1 = 500 m s1
(b) Mean velocity = (350 + 420 280 + 610 680 540 + 590 490) m s1/8 = 20 m s1/8
= 2.5 m s1
(c) Mean square speed = (3502 + 4202 + 2802 + 6102 + 6802 + 5402 + 5902 + 4902) m2 s2/8 =
2 091 600 m2 s2/8 = 261 450 m2 s2 = 260 000 m2 s2
(d) Mean square velocity = [3502 + 4202 + (280)2 + 6102 + (680)2 + (540)2 + 5902 +
(490)2] m2 s2/8 = 2 091 600 m2 s2/8 = 261 450 m2 s2 = 260 000 m2 s2
(e) Root mean square speed = (261 450 m2 s2) = 511 m s1 = 510 m s1
(f) Root mean square velocity = (261 450 m2 s2) = 511 m s1 = 510 m s1

NAS Physics Teachers Guide 2005 Nelson Thornes Ltd.

Unit 2
Electricity and Thermal Physics
Solutions to Practice Questions
Chapter 23
1

Internal energy: the total of the random kinetic and potential energies of all the molecules of that
body
Examples: working on it [e.g. hammering or passing an electric current through it (electrical
working)] or heating it (e.g. placing body in a hot fire)

Solid: molecules constantly vibrate about fixed positions

Liquid: molecular vibrations sufficient to allow molecules to interchange positions
Gas: molecules move throughout their container at high speeds
Internal energy is stored as both molecular kinetic energy (due to all kinds of motion including
vibration and spin) and potential energy (in the repulsive fields between the molecules)

A spoonful of hot water has more energy per degree of freedom than a bucketful of cold water as it
is at a higher temperature, but it has less total internal energy as it has a much smaller mass

Random shuffling of energy quanta between the two bodies will favour movement from hot to cold
as a hot body has more energy per degree of freedom than a cold body

The internal energy of an ideal monatomic gas is only kinetic, as there are no forces between
its atoms
The internal energy of a real monatomic gas is both kinetic and potential, as there are forces
between its atoms

Chapter 24
1

Copper has conduction (free) electrons in its structure

The conduction electrons in the hotter part of the material gain energy and pass this on to the
colder part as they diffuse (move) into it
Quartz has very few conduction electrons in its structure but its atoms are strongly linked together
Large vibrational energy at the hot end is transferred along the atoms to atoms at the cold end

From flame to base of pan: direct contact of hot and cold bodies, convection within the flame and
Through base of pan: conduction
Into water: adjacent to the base by conduction and throughout the water by convection

Energy conducts from the hot water to the cooler metal of the radiator
Energy mainly conducts from the warm radiator to the cooler air in contact with it
(Radiation from the radiator will be limited as its temperature is fairly low)
The heated air expands and rises, carrying energy into the room by convection

NAS Physics Teachers Guide 2005 Nelson Thornes Ltd.

Unit 2
Electricity and Thermal Physics
Solutions to Practice Questions
4

Conduction: helpful in allowing energy to reach the contents of a pan through its base; unhelpful
in allowing energy to escape through the walls of a warm house
Convection: helpful in heating a whole room from a single source of heat e.g. one radiator;
unhelpful when convection currents in the atmosphere result in a bumpy flight
pot even when it has a lid to prevent evaporation and convection

The two bodies in thermal equilibrium are at the same temperature

It is a dynamic situation as energy flows between the two bodies, although at the same rate in
both directions
In thermal equilibrium, all the temperatures are the same and there is no net flow of
internal energy
In steady state, the temperatures are constant but different and there is a steady flow of
internal energy

Chapter 25
1

Specific heat capacity: energy needed to raise the temperature of 1 kg of that substance by 1 K
without a change of state
Unit: J kg1 K1
In base units: J kg1 K1 = N m kg1 K1 = kg m s2 m kg1 K1 = m2 s2 K1

See second experiment on page 52

Precautions: lagging, good thermal contact of block with heater and thermometer, measure
maximum temperature reached after heater turned off
Calculation: energy absorbed by block = mass specific heat capacity temperature rise
Energy supplied = potential difference current time = VIt
Specific heat capacity c = VIt/(mass temperature rise)

Energy supplied = VIt = V2t/R = (5.0 V)2 60 s/(25 ) = 60 J

mcT = 60 J
T = 60 J/(mc) = 60 J/(0.030 kg 380 J kg1 K1) = 5.3 K

Kinetic energy dissipated = 2 mv2 = 2 900 kg (30 m s1)2 = 405 000 J
1

Energy absorbed by each disc = 4 405 000 J = 101 250 J

mcT = 101 250 J
T = 101 250 J/(mc) = 101 250 J/(2.8 kg 460 J kg1 K1) = 78.6 K = 79 K
Either perform second experiment on page 52, or

Place a known mass M of water at a measured temperature 1 in a calorimeter of known mass m

Increase temperature of disc to a known temperature (e.g. 100 C using boiling water)
Quickly dry and transfer hot disc to water in calorimeter
Measure maximum final temperature 2 of liquid
Energy lost by disc = energy gained by water and calorimeter
Specific heat capacity of disc = [M cwater (2 1)] + [m ccalorimeter (2 2)]/
[mass of disc (100 2)]
NAS Physics Teachers Guide 2005 Nelson Thornes Ltd.

Unit 2
Electricity and Thermal Physics
Solutions to Practice Questions
5

Atomic masses mA:

Aluminium = 4.5 1026 kg
Copper = 1.1 1025 kg
Iron = 9.3 1026 kg
If c 1/mA then cmA = constant:
For aluminium, 880 J kg1 K1 4.5 1026 kg = 4.0 1023 J K1
For copper, 380 J kg1 K1 1.1 1025 kg = 4.2 1023 J K1
For iron, 450 J kg1 K1 9.3 1026 kg = 4.2 1023 J K1
For lead, 130 J kg1 K1 3.5 1025 kg = 4.6 1023 J K1
Since the products are all approximately the same, c 1/mA
Number of atoms determines energy required
Larger atomic masses result in fewer atoms in each kilogram of substance
Less energy required to raise temperature of fewer atoms by 1 K

Concrete can be raised through a much higher temperature than water and so store more energy
per kilogram
Concrete is cheap and safe to use (best not to use water with electric storage heaters!)

Chapter 26
1

See experiment on page 54

Precautions: lag the cylinder; make sure heater is fully immersed
Calculation: energy used to vaporise water = mass of water vaporised specific latent heat
of vaporisation
Energy supplied = potential difference current time = VIt
Specific latent heat of vaporisation L = VIt/(mass of water vaporised)

Energy required = mL = 0.016 kg 2.25 106 J kg1 = 36 000 J

Minimum power = energy/time = 36 000 J/(60 s) = 600 W
Actual power will be greater to compensate for energy transferred to the surroundings by radiation,
convection and conduction

Power of kettle = VI = 230 V 8 A = 1840 W

Energy required to heat water = mcT = 0.6 kg 4200 J kg1 K1 (100 15) K = 214 200 J
Energy required to heat kettle = 350 J C1 (100 15) C = 29 750 J
Time taken = total energy required/power = (214 200 + 29 750) J/(1840 W) = 132.6 s = 130 s
Energy supplied by kettle in two minutes = 1840 W 120 s = 220 800 J
Mass of water vaporised = energy supplied/latent heat = 220 800 J/(2.25 106 J kg1) = 0.098 kg
Mass of water remaining in kettle = (600 98) g = 502 g = 500 g

(a) Energy given out by water = mcT = 0.284 kg 4200 J kg1 K1 22 K = 26 200 J
mL = 26 200 J
mass of ice that melts = 26 200 J/L = 26 200 J/(330 103 J kg1) = 0.080 kg

NAS Physics Teachers Guide 2005 Nelson Thornes Ltd.

Unit 2
Electricity and Thermal Physics
Solutions to Practice Questions
5

610

Temperature/K

608
606
604
602
600
598
596
594
592
0

50

100

150

200

250

300

350

Time/s

(a) Energy lost by solid lead = mcT = 3 kg 130 J kg1 K1 6 K = 2340 J
Rate of energy loss = energy loss/time = 2340 J/(10 s) = 234 J s1 (or W)
(b) Energy loss in 5 minutes = 234 J s1 (5 60) s = 70 200 J
mL = 70 200 J
Specific latent heat of fusion of lead = 70 200 J/m = 70 200 J/(3 kg) = 23 400 J kg1
(c) Energy loss in 16 s = 234 J s1 16 s = 3744 J
mcT = 3744 J
Specific heat capacity of molten lead = 3744 J/mT = 3744 J/(3 kg 8 K) = 156 J kg1 K1

Chapter 27
1

Working involves a moving force

Heating involves a temperature difference
Mechanical working:
force squashes material and does mechanical work Fx
Electrical working:
power supply forces electrons through material and does electrical work VIt

KE = 2 mv2 = 2 0.3 kg (15 m s1)2 = 33.75 J = 34 J

Lead is soft compared with the hammer head and yields under the hammer blows
Mechanical work is done on the lead as the force compresses it
(The lead is now able to heat the hammer head as it is at a higher temperature but the two are in
contact only for a short period so little energy is transferred)
Total energy from 50 blows = 33.75 J 50 = 1690 J = 1700 J
mcT = 1690 J
Temperature rise = 1690 J/mc = 1690 J/(0.15 kg 130 J kg1 K1) = 87 K

Heating is the transfer of energy through a temperature difference from hot to cold
The hot lamp can heat the cold cell but not vice versa
The cold cell is forcing electrons to move through the hot lamp, an example of electrical working
NAS Physics Teachers Guide 2005 Nelson Thornes Ltd.

Unit 2
Electricity and Thermal Physics
Solutions to Practice Questions
4

Electrical work done = VIt = 0.12 V 3.5 A 30 s = 12.6 J = 13 J

I = nAqv
v = I/nAq = 3.5 A/(1.7 1029 m3 1.0 106 m2 1.6 1019 C) = 1.29 104 m s1
= 0.13 mm s1
x = vt = 1.29 104 m s1 30 s = 3.9 103 m = 3.9 mm
Work done = Fx = 12.6 J
F = 12.6 J/x = 12.6 J/(3.9 103 m) = 3264 N = 3300 N

Electric mains supply forces electrons to move through the fire

The mains supply does electrical work on the electrons
The electrons then transfer their energy by collisions to the lattice of the heating element
The mains supply cannot heat the electric fire since it is at a lower temperature than the fire
Some energy will radiate into the room from the glowing element but convection currents will carry
most of it around the room

Chapter 28
1

U: increase in the internal energy of the system

Q: energy transferred to the system by heating
W: energy transferred to the system by working
Conservation of energy

Q = 0 either when the system is thermally isolated or when the system is at the same temperature
as its surroundings

Thermos flasks do not completely isolate their contents from the surroundings
Some energy will always flow through either the walls or the lid
It is impossible to produce a completely isolated system

U = 0
The filament has reached a steady temperature
W = Pt = 24 W 5 s = 120 J
The power supply is working on the filament
Q = U W = 0 120 J = 120 J
The filament is heating the surroundings

U = Q + W
When a gas rapidly expands, Q = 0 as there is insufficient time for energy to enter or leave the
system
so U = W
As the gas is doing work on its surroundings, W is negative
so U is also negative
The temperature of a rapidly expanding gas decreases

NAS Physics Teachers Guide 2005 Nelson Thornes Ltd.

Unit 2
Electricity and Thermal Physics
Solutions to Practice Questions
Chapter 29
1

Heat engine: a device that takes energy from a hot source, uses some of this to do mechanical work,
and gives the rest to a cold sink
See Figure 29.1 on page 60

Efficiency = useful output/input

Power of light emitted = (2/100) 60 W = 1.2 W
The other 58.8 W increases the internal energy of the surroundings

Make source temperature very high and sink temperature very low
Maximum efficiency = 1 T2/T1 = 1 300 K/(673 K) = 0.55

In a heat pump, work is done to force energy to flow from cold to hot
In a heat engine, energy flowing from hot to cold is used to do work
Heat pumps are used in refrigerators, freezers and air conditioners

Maximum efficiency = 1 3 K/(5 000 000 K) = 0.999 999 4

Eventually, the Suns temperature will decrease greatly (and that of the Universe will
increase slightly)