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DSL: An Overview Guide

Understanding The Business Benefits of a High Speed “Always On” Connection

DSL: An Overview Guide Understanding The Business Benefits of a High Speed “Always On” Connection

Good Things Come To Those Who Wait…

…unfortunately, if you’re in business, making commitments, working on deadlines, summoning downloads, or just trying to connect to the Internet, waiting is the last thing you want to do. What enterprise users, small office users, even home users, all have in common is the need for speed. Today, even better things come to those with high-speed connections.

You may have started with 14.4 Kbps, then upgraded to 28.8 Kbps—now even 56 Kbps isn’t fast enough for many business applications and services you use, or can’t use, on a daily basis. Doubling analog modem speeds every few years using traditional modulation schemes is no longer enough.

For large downloads, video conferencing, and other real-time applications, you need far more than a 100% increase in bandwidth—and of course—at an affordable price.

Time For A New Technology

If you’ve been reading articles and doing a little research about high-speed options, you’re probably more confused than ever. There are several compet- ing—but sometimes more overlapping than competing—access technologies from which to choose. And there’s no easy basis for comparison. So which technology is best?

At 3Com, we have no technology ax to grind—we provide them all—and lead the market in innovative ways to make all access solutions easier, faster and more reliable. We can tell the most complete story because we support all the standards to make interoperability complexities transparent to our customers.

Introducing DSL

This white paper describes what DSL is, what it isn’t, the important benefits, and how you can determine whether it’s right for you. You’ll find our presen- tation of the information well-balanced and without hype. To make the most informed decision, we’ve included a discussion of the unique DSL features and benefits only 3Com can provide.

So if you’re looking for a high performance, affordable solution that speeds your productivity as well as your downloads, plus delivers the Internet services you’ve only been able to read about, read on.


So Why Do the Phone Companies Like ADSL?

Of course, for phone compa- nies, ADSL represents a competitive revenue-generat- ing alternative to cable. However, there’s another important reason. With the explosion of Internet traffic, central office circuit switches are inundated with dial-up analog and ISDN traffic. To date, the only solution has been adding more and faster expensive circuit switches and increased facilities.

However, now POTS Splitters and the DSLAM at the central office terminate and aggregate incoming ADSL lines. Phone companies can split apart data traffic, sending just the voice traffic to the circuit switches and on to the PSTN (Public Switched Telephone Network), dramatically reducing conges- tion. From the central office, the data is channeled onto a high-speed digital line and onto the WAN backbone.

DSL: It’s About Time, and How to Compress it

DSL (Digital Subscriber Line) is the next-generation modem-like technol- ogy for delivering voice, video and data at multi-megabit speeds. DSL services are designed for the local loop, or “last mile” copper from the telephone company’s CO (Central Office) to the end user’s business or home—a range of up to 18,000 feet or 3.4 miles or 5.5 kms.

A major advantage of this high-speed, dedicated, point-to-point technol-

ogy is that it uses the existing copper telephone wires to your office and home. With 800 million phone lines deployed throughout the world, there

is very little need for new wiring. If you have a standard RJ11 phone jack,

you are probably already wired. All you need is a DSL modem that’s compatible with your service provider’s CO equipment (DSLAM or Digital Subscriber Line Access Multiplexer) and downloads flash before your eyes.

In the next two to three years, DSL services, including ADSL, SDSL, IDSL, HDSL, and VDSL, will play a significant role, supporting high-speed Internet/intranet access, online services, video-on-demand, television, interactive entertainment, and voice transmission to the enterprise, small office, home office, and ultimately, the consumer market.

ADSL is Asymmetric DSL

ADSL provides more bandwidth downstream for faster downloads where it’s needed, than for uploads. Often referred to as ADSL Full Rate, G.dmt

standard or, to be technical, G.992.1, ADSL Full Rate supports downstream speeds up to 8 Mbps, and upstream rates up to 1 Mbps. To appreciate how fast an ADSL Full Rate download really is, that’s up to 278 times faster than

a 28.8 Kbps modem, up to 143 times faster than a 56 Kbps modem, and up to 62 times faster than a 128 Kbps ISDN line.

How can ADSL get so much more performance out of the same copper wires than say a 56K modem? ADSL modems leverage signal processing techniques that insert and extract more digital data onto analog lines beyond the frequencies of normal voice service. Because the high fre- quency carrier signal can be modified, a larger digital data payload can be carried in the wave over greater distances using standard phone lines.

An additional device installed at the customer premise, commonly known

as a POTS (Plain Old Telephone Service) Splitter, separates the regular

voice telephone signal from the high-speed digital data signal modulated above it. This keeps the voice line free for incoming voice or fax calls, as opposed to ISDN or 56K which borrows bandwidth from the voice fre-


quencies. For the user, this means they can access the Internet and make a phone call at the same time without slowing data access.

When an ADSL transmission is received at the CO, the central office POTS Splitter then sends the voice traffic to the voice switches and the data traffic to the DSLAM and off to the WAN (Wide Area Network). There are two types of DSLAMs: the central office DSLAM is built for high density and concentration, and the remote DSLAM that sits in the DLC (Digital Loop Carrier) system in neighborhoods and office parks.

ADSL Full Rate


The POTS Splitter at the customer’s office allows voice and data to travel the same ADSL line back to the CO. The POTS Splitter at the CO then sends voice traffic to the voice switches and data traffic to the DSLAM where it enters the WAN.


ADSL Subscriber Benefits

High-speed Internet access

Remote LAN access/ corporate network access

Near-Ethernet download speeds

Uses existing phone wires

Simultaneous use of a single phone line for voice and data

Internet-based calling

Internet-based video and whiteboarding

No slowdown or degrada- tion of service through sharing

Convenience of Always Onaccess

Ease of installation


Who Can Benefit From ADSL?

…any consumer, building, company, or campus that’s within 18,000 feet or 3.4 miles or 5.5 kms of a central office where ADSL is offered. That makes it an excellent choice for business, residential and private networks includ- ing remote offices, branch offices, small offices, home users, and telecommuters as well as hotels, hospitals, local governments, and universi- ties who need dedicated point-to-point Internet access service offering the consistent speed and security that shared services cannot provide.

The asymmetry for faster downloads, combined with “always on” access (which eliminates call setup), makes ADSL ideal for high-speed Internet/ intranet access, video-on-demand and remote LAN (Local Area Network) access. Other applications that can benefit right now from ADSL include:


Telecommuting / Virtual Private Networks

Distance learning

Voice over IP

Video conferencing and “whiteboarding”

Medical imaging

Real-time information exchange

Entertainment—online gaming

How Standards-Based ADSL Manages Bandwidth POTS UPSTREAM DOWNSTREAM Frequency 4 KHZ 30 KHZ 138 KHZ
How Standards-Based ADSL Manages Bandwidth
30 KHZ
138 KHZ
1.1 MHZ

Standards-based ADSL modems leverage signal processing techniques that insert and extract more digital data onto analog lines. The DMT (Discrete Multi-Tone) line code separates the phone line into three channels: up to 4 kHz channel reserved for voice, a 30 kHz to 138 kHz channel reserved for upstream traffic, and a 138 kHz to 1.1 Mhz channel reserved for downstream traffic.


ADSL Lite: It’s Less Filling—Really

…at least in terms of cost and bandwidth. Downstream, ADSL Lite sup- ports up to 1.5 Mbps and upstream, up to 512 Kbps, again, at distances up to 18,000 feet or 3.4 miles or 5.5 kms from the central office.

Also known as Splitterless, Universal ADSL, G.992.2, or G.lite, ADSL Lite is a lower-speed version of ADSL that dispenses with the need for the phone company to install and maintain an end user-based POTS Splitter. Essen- tially, by reducing the data rate, line interference is manageable, and therefore a POTS Splitter is not required. By eliminating a phone company visit, or “truck roll,” as well as the additional splitter equipment, a signifi- cant cost reduction can be passed on to the consumer.

Customers will be able to take the G.lite modems they buy at their local computer retail store (more on this) and connect them directly to their phone jacks. It’s plug and play. By simplifying installation and reducing cost, ADSL Lite will be more attractive to the larger consumer market. Since it will support both data and voice, G.lite provides an evolution to full-rate ADSL if more bandwidth is required.

The effort to introduce G.lite is being spearheaded by the UAWG (Univer- sal ADSL Working Group), an industry group in which 3Com is a contrib- uting member and an active participant. The UAWG’s charter is to support and expedite the development of a worldwide G.lite standard.


Running at a slower rate than ADSL Full Rate, G.lite does not require a POTS Splitter at the customers home or office saving time, equipment and the cost of a truck roll.Voice and data travel the ADSL line back to the CO. The POTS Splitter at the CO then sends voice traffic to the voice switches and data traffic to the DSLAM where it enters the WAN.


SDSL and IDSL: The Same Coming as Going

We mention SDSL (Symmetrical Digital Subscriber Line) and IDSL (ISDN over Digital Subscriber Line) to more clearly position the range of DSL offerings and their associated benefits. The key ways in which these two technologies differ from ADSL is that in each case the download and upload speeds are the same, making them ideal for LAN-to-LAN traffic and large bandwidth applications such as “full motion” video conferencing, web hosting and collaborative computing. Neither service supports voice so POTS Splitters are not needed. And the services are currently non- standard so customers need to know which modem will work with their service provider’s central office equipment.

SDSL and IDSL connect remote offices and telecommuters to corporate networks and the Internet, delivering LAN-like performance. Whether users choose the higher speed SDSL modem or the longer reach IDSL solution depends on their distance from the CO and the particular applica- tions they want to support.

SDSL supports speeds within a T1 (1.544 Mbps) and E1 (2.048 Mbps) range—at a maximum range of 22,770 feet or 4.5 miles or 6.7 kms from the central office over ordinary phone lines. Service providers offer SDSL broadband access as an affordable T1-alternative because it provides small offices, branch offices, and telecommuters greatly improved productivity with more affordable and more predictable telecommunication costs. Unlike HDSL (High Bit Rate Digital Subscriber Line), a service with similar features that requires four wires, SDSL only requires two wires. However, unlike ADSL, SDSL provides a data-only connection; in other words, a second line is required to carry voice.

SDSL uses a line modulation scheme called 2B1Q (Two-Binary, One- Quaternary), the same line coding used with HDSL, IDSL and ISDN. The advantage of 2B1Q is that it doesn’t cause line interference (known as “crosstalk”) with existing T1 services, allowing SDSL and IDSL to co-exist with a number of voice and data offerings in the service provider’s net- work.

With SDSL, users can initially purchase their service at 128 Kbps. And as bandwidth needs grow, their service provider can remotely increase the line speed to any of six additional speeds up to 1.544 Mbps without additional hardware investment. Service providers have established varying rate plans and throughput offerings based upon customer demand and line conditions in the served regions.

IDSL, like SDSL, is a data-only service but operates over existing ISDN- ready (Integrated Services Digital Network) circuits available today in most areas. IDSL typically operates up to 144 Kbps—faster than ISDN at 128 Kbps—because it uses an inband signaling technique, making room for more of the user’s data. IDSL works with standard U loop ISDN repeaters


to extend the typical DSL range from 18,000 feet up to 36,000 feet from the CO. In addition, IDSL is a good choice where services are deployed via DLCs (Digital Loop Carriers). DLCs are large wiring boxes used to extend the local loop to office parks and other remote locations.

IDSL has a number of advantages over ISDN. All-digital always on net- working eliminates dialing and provides predictable telecommunications costs. IDSL transmits data over a dedicated data network that bypasses the congested PSTN network used for ISDN and POTS. IDSL can run through existing DLCs, which means existing infrastructure does not need to be modified. Often, IDSL service is billed on a monthly basis compared to ISDN, which is per packet or minute. This gives organizations a predictable monthly telecommunications cost. However, unlike ISDN, you don’t have the ability to use those same lines for voice calls so you’ll need to keep your existing POTS service for voice.



POTS Splitters are not required at either end of the line because SDSL and IDSL are data-only services. Instead, data traffic travels a high-speed line directly to the COs DSLAM where it enters the WAN. A second line carries voice calls to the COs voice switches.


How DSL Got Started

DSL services were first conceived as the phone companys answer to cable data services. It was initially designed to provide video-on-demand and interactive TV applications over twisted-pair wires. When fiber-based broadband loops proved too costly for widespread deployment, interest in developing DSL last mile services intensified.

Another boost to DSL came with the passage of the Telecommunications Reform Act of 1996, allowing local phone companies, ILECs (Incum- bent Local Exchange Carriers), IXCs (Interexchange Carriers), ISPs (Internet Service Providers), CLECs

(Competitive Local Exchange Carriers), satellite, and cable companies and radio/television broad- casters in the US to compete in one anothers markets. The race for affordable broadband bandwidth was on. So far, ADSL and the lower speed G.lite have emerged as the DSL services most in demand for consumers. For businesses, SDSL is the preferred service. They all support applications like integrated Internet access, intranet access, remote LAN access, video on demand, and more.

But What About Cable?

Cable companies have done a good job marketing their medium as an infrastructure that can provide

broadband Internet access as well as television. And

it certainly does that in the parts of the country

where the service is available. At this point, cable has better residential-market penetration than ADSL. However, cable companies are still working to resolve

a number of issues that prevent it from becoming a

professional business toolsuch as availability at commercial sites, customer service and overall reputation; issues that telephone companies have addressed and continue to improve.

Today, cable modems are mostly targeted at consum- ers for residential useand for good reason. Theo- retically, cable modems offer downstream speeds up to 30 Mbps and an upstream connection up to 10 Mbps back to the cable headend. However, unlike DSL and ISDN, cable modems are a sharednot dedicatedaccess technology. That means that total available bandwidth is shared among users in a neighborhood, as if they were on a local LAN. Therefore, not everyone on the network will get the top speeds of 10 to 30 Mbps.

So, much like dealing with a popular service provider today using a 56K modem, during off-peak hours, your cable broadband connection speed can be pretty good. However, if you share your cable connection with the local high school for instance, and the students jump on the Internet at 3:00 PM, your cable bandwidth would now be split many more times over. Nearby users working out of their home offices could suddenly experience a dramatic slowdown through their cable connection. DSL guarantees your speed over a line dedicated to your use, and offers valued- added applications such as increased bandwidth when you need itsomething cable cannot do yet.

And, since the cable is shared, security at this time is a critical issuesomething most businesses and many users find unacceptable. Finally, for the near-term, the wide-spread introduction of cable modems is still dependent on the development and deployment of complex, two-way transmission systems that wont tie up your telephone line, as well as operations systems for management and billing.


Battle of the Bandwidths: A Comparison of Current Access Technologies




Distance Limits (feet/kms)


32 kbps to 8 Mbps 32 kbps to 1.1 Mbps


Up to18,000’ or 5.5 kms



64 kbps to 1.5 Mbps 32 kbps to 512 kbps


Up to 18,000’ or 5.5 kms




1.54 Mbps (T1)


Up to 22,000’ or 6.7 kms


Mbps (E1)



144 kbps


18,000’ or 5.5 kms 36,000’ or 11 kms with repeaters


13 to 52 Mbps 1.5 to 2.3 Mbps


4,000’ or 1.2 kms



1.54 Mbps (T1)


15,000’ or 4.5 kms


Mbps (E1)


ADSL & UADSL support voice & data at the same time

The fact that so many WAN services continue to co-exist leads to confusion among customers. Which remote access technologies will succeed and which will fail? New local access technologies dont necessarily displace existing ones. Technologies like analog dial-up, dedicated leased lines and ISDN succeed in the market based on services they support, as well as revenue generated by serving different applications. Factors that drive marketshare and growth include availability, pricing, ease of installation and use, and ability to support usersapplications.


ADSL “Customer” Market Drivers

From the network users’ perspective, they are looking for a faster technol- ogy that can affordably support multimedia networking in terms of trans- mission rates as well as networking equipment expense. At the same time, today’s businesses have a growing requirement for more users to access corporate information from remote sites. And of course, new remote applications require more bandwidth. Consumers of all kinds are looking for the next generation modem to provide more immediate gratification— larger, faster business-critical downloads, as well as more interactive enter- tainment and gaming. Finally, with faster PCs on the desktop, and faster backbones combining SONET (Synchronous Optical Network) and DWDM (Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing), the local loop has become an even greater speed bottleneck than it already was.

ADSL “Provider” Market Drivers

For the phone company, there are several market drivers. ADSL doesn’t require a major local loop upgrade. As a local access service, ADSL imple- mentation has no critical drawbacks. It can be deployed as an overlay network only where there’s subscriber demand, eliminating the risk of building out infrastructure unnecessarily.

Telecommunications companies see an opportunity with ADSL to leverage customer demand for faster data access. Alternative service providers such as enterprises, multi-tenant building owners, hospitality businesses, and office park developers are offering or considering offering ADSL to their users as private network operators. Cable is legitimately competing in the same local, low cost Internet access arena. However, there’s a high-end market where cable is currently less competitive: secure, reliable, profes- sional business Internet access.

The Players

ADSL development and deployment is focused primarily in North America, followed by Europe and the Pacific Rim. In North America, ILECs like US West, GTE, Ameritech, SBC, Bell Atlantic, BellSouth, and BC Tel (Canada) are among the service providers leading the current wave of DSL deploy- ment. CLECs like NorthPoint, Rhythms, Covad and a handful of other CLECs are entering high-density metropolitan areas—typically offering a portfolio of DSL offerings at different classes of service and price points, and competing with the ILECs.

Forecast: Exponential Growth In DSL Deployment

More than 40 network service providers have completed trials of DSL, mostly in North America and Europe. The full-rate ADSL technology is out of beta and available today. Service introduction of full-rate ADSL began in 1997 but the widespread availability of ADSL will occur in late 1999 with the availability of G.lite. In fact, worldwide, IDC projects more than 500,000 ADSL lines installed in 1999 and more than 3,000,000 by 2001.


So What’s Taking So Long?

To a degree, telephone companies have been protecting their lucrative T1/

E1 service revenues. But to a far greater degree, the problem has been achieving agreement on standards and overcoming deployment challenges, i.e. some infrastructure devices the phone companies have put on the lines to improve voice quality impact data transmission performance. As Gartner Group puts it, “Despite the apparent solidarity of the remote access equipment industry and the carrier community behind the pro-

posed G.lite standard formed.”

According to IDC, “The lack of a common technical direction among the telcos has created a DSL equipment market that supports 50 plus vendors, each pursuing its own flavor of DSL; equipment interoperability is virtually non-existent. The incumbent local telephone companies are the lynch pin since they control nearly all of the local loops in the US.”

With standards work ongoing, many equipment vendors have been mar- keting “pre-standard” products. A number of vendors continue to develop and market proprietary designs for DSL and DSL-like technologies.

Again, from Gartner, “LECs (Local Exchange Carriers) must deploy access equipment in thousands of COs and DLC systems. With the major LECs having more than 10 million local loops, the equipment they select for deployment must be technically robust and available from multiple vendors. Thus standards play an important role.”


xDSL market remains fragmented and un-

Thank Goodness for Standards

ADSL solutions can be developed based on two modulation schemes: CAP (Carrierless Amplitude Phase) modulation or DMT (Discrete Multi-Tone) modulation. CAP was the first on the market, and became the de facto standard. Now, DMT has been determined as the standard line modulation for ADSL going forward.

CAP—Any Color As Long As It’s Red

It’s actually not a real standard in that it was never ratified by the ITU (International Telecommunications Union), ANSI (American National Standards Institute) or ETSI (European Telecom Standards Institute). So much for standards. First the advantages: CAP is the ADSL solution with the largest installed base today. It operates at a top speed of 7.1 Mbps.

Many vendors still manufacture CAP-based ADSL solutions, although most vendors are building their current products based upon DMT. For CAP-based deployments, customers are required to purchase CPE (Cus- tomer Premise Equipment) products from the same vendor selected by the local service provider to support its DSLAM, since interoperability among CAP products does not exist.


DMT—Chip Off The Old Modem

Discrete Multi-Tone modulation is a standard, known officially as ITU specification G.992.1. A number of RBOCs (Regional Bell Operating Companies) pushed through the DMT initiative to get the equipment vendors all moving in the same direction. The advantage of DMT over CAP is that its robustness overcomes line noise and adapts to line condi- tions which enables higher broadband rates.

However, the problem of interoperability is similar. Even though equip- ment vendors are designing standards-compliant DMT equipment, the most basic signaling of the modulation schemes are different, so again, different brands can’t easily talk to each other.

In the case of DMT, the problem is the chipsets. All chipsets comply with the DMT standard but they may not be interoperable. With all the DSLAM vendors providing central office equipment, customers currently need to know which modem will work with their service providers’ DSLAMs.


Can We Talk?

That’s the real question. The answer depends on the particular vendor providing your telephone company with ADSL equipment. And this is how 3Com differen- tiates itself from other equipment manufacturers. 3Com has the strongest interoperability, compatibility, and cost of ownership story among all vendors. That’s neither hype nor bias. It’s fact.

By design and proven through interoperability testing, 3Com® ADSL technology and products will be compatible with the most popular DMT chipsets from companies like Alcatel and ADI. In other words, no matter what RBOCs, CLECs or ILECs use in their DSLAM, if ADSL subscribers buy 3Com ADSL products, they’ll be interoperable with the installed DMT-based DSLAM at the CO.

Conclusion—Avoid Getting Boxed In

It’s unnecessary for end users to experience the confusion about ADSL stan- dards, the complexity of the current interoperability issues, and the challenge of buying an ADSL modem that matches the technology of your local service provider’s DSLAM. 3Com has always incorporated open systems and has designed its ADSL products with complete interoperability in mind to make the technical complexities transparent. Our products are more than standards- compliant, they’re interoperable with other solutions when standards aren’t enough.

Getting Started with ADSL

For more information about DSL or the availability of 3Com DSL products, call us at 1-800-NET-3COM or visit the 3Com DSL website at URL: It is an excellent source of DSL product,

service availability, and over all technology information.

In addition, the ADSL Forum and the UAWG maintain informative sites about the status of ADSL and its deployment worldwide. The URLs for both sites are and respectively. Check those sites

for ADSL service availability in your area as well as the websites of your Bell Operating Company or CLEC in your area.



2B1Q Two-binary, One-Quaternary : A line coding technique used for multiple versions of symmetric DSL. It

uses a technique that compresses two binary bits of data into one time state as a four-level code.

ADSL Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line: A next-generation modem technology that allows up to 8Mbps

downstream and 1Mbps upstream.

Agent or SNMP Agent

and responds to SNMP requests issued by one or more NMSs; the agent can also issue unsolicited SNMP traps (event messages) to one or more NMSs.

Management code that resides in the device, controls the operation of the device,


American National Standards Institute: One of the key standards bodies involved with DSL


Asynchronous Transfer Mode: A high-speed communications protocol used for transferring voice,

video and data in a fixed length cell format of 53 bytes. ATM scales easily and speeds typically range from 25 Mbps to OC-192. (10 Gigabits per second).

CAP Carrierless Amplitude Phase Modulation: A pre-standard line modulation technique based on 2B1Q

used for ADSL or SDSL.

CLEC Competitive Local Exchange Carrier: A service provider that competes with the local RBOC or

Incumbent Local Exchange Service Provider (ILEC).

CLI Command Line Interface: A text based way of configuring devices. (Contrasted to a GUI Graphical

User Interface).

CPE Customer Premise Equipment: A piece of Equipment that sits in a customers home or business


Craft Interface or Craft Port An interface based upon an RS232 port, asynchronous ASCII, and a command line interface used for direct access to the element by a technician. The connection can be either direct or via a modem.


In all cases, crosstalk has negative impact on transmission signals.

DLC Digital Loop Carrier: A device the phone company uses to extend the reach of the phone service to

business parks and remote locations. These are typically the large green boxes sitting next to the curb in office parks and developments.

DMT Discrete Multi-Tone: The standards-approved line modulation technique for ADSL.

Dry Copper


that concentrates all remote DSL lines into a single terminating point or device.

DWDM Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing: A technology that combines data from different sources on an optical fiber. With each light wavelength carrying 2.5 Gbps, an optical fiber can deliver up to 200 Gbps.

The effect of transmission signals on a copper wire on another wire in physical close proximity.

A term used to describe copper telephone lines that are installed but currently not used.

Digital Subscriber Line Access Multiplexer: The piece of equipment that resides in a central office


Element Management System: Sometimes used synonymously with Network Management System.


File Transfer Protocol: A file transfer protocol typically used for uploading and downloading of files

and operational code.

GUI Graphical User Interface: A graphical and mouse-oriented interface used for configuring devices.

(Contrasted to a CLI - Command Line Interface).

HDSL High Bit Rate Digital Subscriber Line: A mature, medium-speed, symmetric technology. Its often used

to implement T1 data circuits over phone lines. HDSL requires two pairs of wire for transmitting and


IDSL ISDN Digital Subscriber Line: A DSL flavor that uses 2B1Q line coding on ISDN basic rate circuits. It is

used for data applications only and typically operates up to 144 Kbps.

ILEC Incumbent Local Exchange Carrier: This is another term for the telephone company that has been

offering local POTS service in a geographic territory. For many people their ILEC is the same as their RBOC or baby bell.



digital connectivity to support a wide range of services, including voice and data.


Computer for addition of 3rd party devices such as modems or network interface cards.

Integrated Services Digital Network: A digital telephony network that provides end-to-end

Industry Standard Architecture PC Bus Interface. The connection interface in a Personal


Internet Service Provider: A company that provides access to the Internet.


International Telecommunication Union: The international standards body that helps and

defines emerging standards.


territories. Typically considered a long distance carrier.

Loop or Local Loop

and the customers business or home.

Inter-Exchange Carrier: A service provider that transports voice, video and data between RBOC

The term used to describe the copper wires that run between the central office


Main Distribution Frame. Central point where all local loops terminate in the CO.


Network Interface Card (Internal PC Card): A card in a personal computer that connects this

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device to a Local Area Network.


that marks the point of demarcation between the service provider and your business or home.


application that manages a network of multiple devices, including those from multiple vendors).

OAM (&P)

diagnostic flows used to test/troubleshoot switching systems.


Computer for addition of 3rd party devices such as modems or NICs.

POTS Plain Old Telephone Service: The term used for traditional voice service over copper wire.

PSTN Packet Switched Telephone Network: The telephone network that connects the worldstelephones together.


owned telephone companies in Latin America, Europe and Asia.

RADSL Rate Adaptive ADSL:

implementations were RADSL. All DMT standard implementations are RADSL.

RBOC Regional Bell Operating Company:

in North America. These include Ameritech, Bell Atlantic, BellSouth, SBC and US West.

ROBO Remote Office / Branch Office:

corporate facility or LAN.


Mbps. SDSL makes an ideal and cost effective replacement for T1 service.


SNMP Simple Network Management Protocol:


SOHO Small Office / Home Office:

someone has setup in his or her home.

SONET Synchronous Optical Network:

tions with a maximum line rate of 9.953 Gbps. Today, it is the premier backbone transmission technology for leading carriers.


downloading of files and operational code.

VDSL Very High-speed Digital Subscriber Line:

cated high speeds (10 Mbps to 50 Mbps) over short distances up to 4,000 feet or 1.2 Km.


network to another remote location with a LAN.

Network Interface Device: The (typically) gray box attached to the side of your home or office

Network Management System: (sometimes used synonymously with EMS but usually means an

Operations, Administration, Management and (Provisioning): Refers to ATM-specific

Peripheral Component Interconnect PC Bus Interface: The connection interface in a Personal

Post, Telephone, and Telegraph administration: The generic name usually used to refer to state

ADSL that automatically adapts speed to line conditions. Some CAP

The term used for the leading telephone service providers

The term used to define an office externally connected to a

Symmetric Digital Subscriber Line: Is used often for symmetric T1/E1 speeds of 1.544/2.048

Suggested List Price

A standards-based protocol used for basic device

A term used to describe a 1- or 2-person office or an office that

An ANSI standard for high capacity optical telecommunica-

Trivial File Transfer Protocol:

A file transfer protocol typically used for uploading and

Is a future technology to watch. It supports dedi-

Wide Area Network. A term used to describe the connection of a LAN over a public or private

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Beijing, China

3Com Canada

Phone: 8610 68492568

Shanghai, China


Fax: 8610 68492789

Phone: 905 336 8168

Phone: 86 21 6350 1581

Fax: 905 336 7380

Fax: 86 21 6350 1531


Phone: 403 265 3266 Fax: 403 265 3268


Hong Kong

Phone: 852 2501 1111 Fax: 852 2537 1149

Phone: 403 423 3266


Fax: 403 423 2368

Phone: 91 11 644 3974


Fax: 91 11 623 3192


Phone: 514 683 3266 Fax: 514 683 5122


Phone: 62 21 572 2088 Fax: 62 21 572 2089

Phone: 613 566 7055

Osaka, Japan

Fax: 613 233 9527

Phone: 81 6 536 3303


Fax: 81 6 536 3304

Phone: 416 498 3266


Tokyo, Japan

Fax: 416 498 1262

Phone: 0120 31 3266 (toll free from Japan)

Phone: 604 434 3266

Phone: 81 3 5977 3266

Fax: 604 434 3264

Fax: 81 3 5977 3370


3Com Latin America

Phone: 82 2 3455 6300

Argentina (serving Argentina,

Fax: 82 2 319 4710

Paraguay, and Uruguay )


Phone: 541 312 3266 Fax: 541 314 3329

Phone: 60 3 715 1333 Fax: 60 3 715 2333


New Zealand

Phone: 55 11 246 5001

Phone: 64 9 366 9138

Fax: 55 11 246 3444

Fax: 64 9 366 9139

Chile (serving Bolivia, Chile, and

Phone: 562 240 6200



Phone: 632 892 4476

Fax: 562 240 6231

Fax: 632 811 5493


Phone: 65 538 9368 Fax: 65 538 9369


Phone: 886 2 2 377 5850

Fax: 886 2 2 377 5860


Phone: 662 231 8151 5 Fax: 662 231 8158

3Com Austria Phone: 43 1 580 17 0 Fax: 43 1 580 17 20

3Com Benelux B.V.


Phone: 32 2 725 0202

Fax: 32 2 720 1211


Phone: 31 346 58 62 11 Fax: 31 346 58 62 22

3Com Eastern Europe/CIS


Phone: 359 2 962 5222 Fax: 359 2 962 4322

Czech Republic

Phone: 420 2 21845 800

Fax: 420 2 21845 811


Phone: 36 1 250 83 41 Fax: 36 1 250 83 47


Phone: 48 22 6451351

Fax: 48 22 6451352


Phone: 7 095 258 09 40 Fax: 7 095 258 09 41

Slovak Republic

Phone: 421 7 317 850

Fax: 421 7 317 849

3Com France Phone: 33 1 69 86 68 00 Fax: 33 1 69 07 11 54

3Com GmbH

Munich, Germany

Phone: 49 89 627320 Fax: 49 89 627 32 233

3Com Iberia


Phone: 351 1 3404505 Fax: 351 1 3404575


Phone: 34 1 509 69 00

Fax: 34 1 307 79 82

3Com Italia S.p.A.

Milan, Italy

Phone: 39 2 253011 Fax: 39 2 27304244

Rome, Italy

Phone: 39 6 5279941

Fax: 39 6 52799423

3Com Middle East Phone: 971 4 319533 Fax: 971 4 316766

3Com Nordic AB


Phone: 45 48 10 50 00 Fax: 45 48 10 50 50


Phone: 358 9 435 420 67 Fax: 358 9 455 51 66


Phone: 47 22 58 47 00 Fax: 47 22 58 47 01


Phone: 46 8 587 05 600

Fax: 46 8 587 05 601

3Com Southern Africa Phone: 27 11 807 4397 Fax: 27 11 803 7405

3Com Switzerland Phone: 41 844 833 933 Fax: 41 844 833 934

3Com UK Ltd.


Phone: 44 131 240 2900

Fax: 44 131 240 2903


Phone: 353 1 823 5000 Fax: 353 1 823 5001


Phone: 44 161 873 7717

Fax: 44 161 873 8053


Phone: 44 1189 27 8200 Fax: 44 1189 695555

To learn more about 3Com products and services, visit our World Wide Web site at 3Com Corporation is a publicly traded corporation (Nasdaq: COMS).

© Copyright 1999 3Com Corporation. All rights reserved. 3Com, the 3Com logo and OfficeConnect are registered trademarks of 3Com Corporation. More connected and x2 are trademarks of 3Com Corporation. All other company and product names may be trademarks of the respective companies with which they are associated. All specifications are subject to change without notice.

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503042-001 4/99