Sie sind auf Seite 1von 33

CAN Based Protocols in Avionics

DASC - Colorado Springs 2014

Agenda

> Introduction
ARINC 825
ARINC 812A
CANOpen
Motivation for CAN FD
What is CAN FD?
CAN FD Use Cases
CAN FD Summary
Summary
CAN FD Additional References

Introduction
CAN Bus Basics

Introduced by Bosch in the 1980s, first installed in Mercedes Benz


cars

Cost effective

Robust, even in harsh environments

Long term availability

Weight saving over non-networked implementations

Built-in message priority scheme

Built-in error recovery mechanism

For Aerospace Applications

Certain aspects of CAN technology still need to be adapted to airborne


equipment

ARINC 825 standards


3

Introduction
Current CAN Bus Application Areas:

First application on A318 and A340 for cabin ventilation system control

2005 : A380 => 75 CAN buses, 420 CAN nodes

2009 : A400M => max. 118 buses depending on A/C configuration

2013 : A350 => more than 100 buses

A380 Example: Reduction from 90 single wires to a single 2 wire CAN bus
for flight deck control panels

CAN bus is used for environmental control system, fire detection, door
controller, water & waste, oxygen systems, galley, seat actuation, cargo
loading systems,

CANopen is used for space applications (ESA programs)

Agenda

Introduction
> ARINC 825
ARINC 812A
CANOpen
Motivation for CAN FD
What is CAN FD?
CAN FD Use Cases
CAN FD Summary
Summary
CAN FD Additional References

ARINC 825
Motivation for ARINC 825:

The ARINC 825 standard was driven by Airbus and Boeing and
defines a communication standard for airborne systems using
CAN

Developed by the CAN Technical Working Group of the Airlines


Electronic Engineering Committee (AEEC)

Members included Airbus, Boeing, Rockwell Collins, GE Aviation,


Vector Informatik

Design Targets:

CAN may function as either a primary or ancillary network

CAN may be integrated into a larger networked architecture to


ensure:

Local CAN networks are easily connected to the aircraft


network

ARINC 825
Design Targets:

Provide maxium interoberability and interchangeability of CAN


connected LRUs (Line Replaceable Unit)

Maintain configuration flexibility: easy addition, deletion and


modification of bus nodes

Simplify interconnection of systems

Traffic can easily cross systems and network boundaries

Integrated error detection and error signaling

System level functions such as on-board data load may be


implemented

Maintain low cost

ARINC 825
Scope of ARINC 825:

Characterizes access and data flow relative to CAN and certain


aspects of data flow across network boundaries

General concept description

Role of CAN in aircraft communication

Network domain characteristics, protocol architecture and bus topology

Data flow across domains

Physical Layer Standard:

Electromagnetic protection requirements

Transceiver requirements

Controller requirements (Bus Speed, Bit timing, Bit Encoding/Decoding)

Cabling, connectors and installation

Data Link Layer

ISO compliance with CAN2.0B, 29 bits extended identifier standard

Error handling

Bus Arbitration

ARINC 825
Scope of ARINC 825:

CAN Communication

Protocol concept: anyone-to-many and peer-to-peer communication

CAN identifier usage: logical communication channel definition

Interoperability: Data Formats, axis definitions and sign convention

Periodic Health Status: Health Status Message Identifier, Data payload content

Node Service Interface: Concept, Test and Maintenance Support

Bandwidth Management: Bus load calculation

CAN Gateways between other Networks

Gateway model specifications

Protocol conversion

Bandwidth management

Data buffering and fault isolation

General Design Guidelines

Recommendations/considerations to avoid network design issues

ARINC 825
Example:
LCC - Logical Communication Channel
31

24 23

16 15

29 bit CAN Identifier


LCC

Logical Communication Channels provide independent layers of


communication

10

The value of the LCC bits has the highest impact on message
prioritization. Channels are arranged according to their overall system
importance.

ARINC 812A
Motivation for ARINC 812A:

Aircraft galley insert equipment has historically been developed without


any uniform and concise industry guidance.

Galley inserts designed with unique and non-interchangeable interfaces


between functionally similar catering equipment.

Created tremendous inflexibility in galley configurations

Ability to upgrade/retrofit in-flight meal service components reduced

Restricting airlines ability to openly select products between suppliers

Driving up industry costs.

11

ARINC 812A
Design Targets:

Functionality for the Master Galley Control Unit (MGCU)

Data Transfer (data up/download)

Network Monitoring

Remote Operation (start/stop catering process, change state, flight


information..)

Power Control

Failure monitoring (diagnosis)

Galley inserts (GAIN) shall have at least the following functionalities:

GAIN with Data Transfer

GAIN with Network Monitoring

12

ARINC 812A
GAIN Architectures
MGCU-GAIN architecture:
MGCU present on galley
bus
Each GAIN functionality is
controlled and monitored
by MCGU

GAIN-GAIN architecture:
Decentralized power
control
MGCU not present on the
galley data bus

13

ARINC 812A
Scope of ARINC 812A:

Definition of CAN communication for standard data interfaces for Galley


Inserts Equipment

E.g.: beverage maker, oven, refrigerator, trash compactor

Related documents:

ARINC 810 for definition of physical interfaces

ISO 11898: Interchange of digital information CAN for high speed


communication

ISO 11898-1: CAN

ISO 11898-2: High Speed Transceiver

ISO 16845: CAN, Conformance Test plan

ARINC 825 for definition of:

14

Physical and transfer layer

Bit and Byte order

Data transfer protocol

CAN-identifier usage

Agenda

Introduction
ARINC 825
ARINC 812A
> CANOpen
Motivation for CAN FD
What is CAN FD?
CAN FD Use Cases
CAN FD Summary
Summary
CAN FD Additional References

15

CANOpen
System Integrators problem:

device from
vendor A

device from
vendor B

message
utilization

message
utilization

CAN

CAN

CAN
message
utilization
device from
vendor C

16
16

Usage of CAN according to


manufacturer specific rules:

pin assignment on CAN


adaptors

bit rate

different meaning of messages


with the same CAN identifier

different communication
concepts

CANOpen
Easier Integration through Standardization:

device from
vendor A

device from
vendor B

Standardizing

bus physics

message
utilization

message
utilization

meaning of messages

CAN

CAN

communications model

Makes it much easier to setup and


integrate networks.
CAN
message
utilization
device from
vendor C

17
17

CANOpen
What is defined by CANOpen?
Device
Profile A

Device
Profile B

Device
Profile C

ISO/OSI Layer 7: Application - CANopen


Communication Profile

ISO/OSI Layer 2: Data Link

ISO/OSI Layer 1: Physical

CAN

18
18

Defined by CANopen standard:

functionality of device classes

usage of messages

configuration interface

network management

error handling

electrical interface, bit rates,


connectors

CANOpen
Applications:

Aircraft systems

Systems development activities

Integration of COTS devices

Test systems

Space systems

ESA - EXOMARS (Entry Descent & Landing and Rover Modules)

ESEO European Student Earth Orbiter

19

Agenda

Introduction
ARINC 825
ARINC 812A
CANOpen
> Motivation for CAN FD
What is CAN FD?
CAN FD Use Cases
CAN FD Summary
Summary
CAN FD Additional References

20

Motivation for CAN FD


Why?

The ever increasing electrification of previous mechanically


controlled systems, as well as, new electrical features drive the
need for higher data throughput.

More LRUs

More nodes

More networks

More data

But at what cost?

Engineering effort

Financial

Physical dimensions (weight & size)

21

Motivation for CAN FD


CAN networks reached practical maximum of data transfer

Many CAN buses have reached 50%-95%+ bus load level

CAN messages contain RYHUKHDG

At most, only ~40-50% of the bandwidth is used to exchange


useful data

Current CAN bus speeds 1Mbit/s

Limited by physical characteristics of the wiring

Most networks at 500Kbit/s or less

22

Motivation for CAN FD

CAN bus speed is limited by the In-Frame Response mechanism

ACK generation delay in CAN controller +

Propagation delay through the transceiver +

Propagation delay over wire


CAN-ECU

CAN-ECU

CAN_H
CAN_L

Other protocols have much higher data throughput rate

Ethernet UDP ~64K bytes/datagram, 64 bytes overhead


(IPV4)

FlexRay 254 bytes/frame, 8 bytes of overhead

23

RT

Agenda

Introduction
ARINC 825
ARINC 812A
CANOpen
Motivation for CAN FD
> What is CAN FD?
CAN FD Use Cases
CAN FD Summary
Summary
CAN FD Additional References

24

What is CAN FD?


CAN FD is an improved CAN protocol

CAN FD is a serial communications protocol based on CAN 2.0

Two new features added:

Support dual bit rates within a message

Arbitration-Phase same bit rate as standard CAN

Data-Phase bit rates higher 1 Mbit/s are possible (up to ~5 Mbit/s)

Support larger data lengths than classic CAN

Up to 64 bytes/message

System cost similar to standard CAN

Smooth migration at reasonable cost

25

Classic CAN and CAN FD LRUs can be mixed under certain


conditions

What is CAN FD?


CAN FD Oscilloscope Trace

26

Arbitration

Data

Arbitration

Phase

Phase

Phase

What is CAN FD?


Combining CAN and CAN-FD:
Scenario 1

Mix of classic CAN and CAN FD nodes:

Communicate only with classic CAN messages

Switch off the classic CAN nodes and only interact with CAN FD
nodes (e.g. during flashing)

Scenario 2

All nodes are CAN FD capable:

27

Classic and FD messages can be mixed

CAN FD Use Cases


Use cases for CAN FD:

Reduce bus loading on an existing bus

Avoid splitting networks

Avoid splitting data into multiple frames

Increase # of LRUs on the bus

Communicate with high data volume LRUs

Accelerate communication on long bus lines

Faster software loading within aircraft

28

CAN FD Summary
Serial communication networks require increased bandwidth

Due to high bus load levels

For program loading applications

CAN FD can provide significantly increased bandwidth

Due to increased data clock rates

Due to larger data payloads

CAN FD is an improvement of well known CAN technology

Event triggered system

Consistent arbitration and acknowledge mechanism

29

Agenda

Introduction
ARINC 825
ARINC 812A
CANOpen
Motivation for CAN FD
What is CAN FD?
CAN FD Use Cases
CAN FD Summary
> Summary
CAN FD Additional References

30

Summary

CAN increasing use in aerospace applications

ARINC 825 standardized CAN for airborne use

ARINC 812A standardized CAN for galley insert (GAIN) equipment

CANOpen has found application in aerospace systems

Satellite sensors (ESA)

Integration of COTS components

CAN-FD next-gen CAN solution for high data rate applications

Lower overhead

Higher data throughput

31

Thank you for your attention.


For detailed information about Vector
and our products please visit
www.vector.com
Author:
Arne Brehmer
Vector Informatik GmbH
Rick Lotoczky
Vector Cantech, Inc.

32

CAN FD Additional References

Paper CAN with Flexible Data Rate Florian Hartwich, Robert


Bosch GmbH;CAN in Automation, iCC 2012, March 2012

Presentation CAN FD CAN with Flexible Data Rate Florian


Hartwich, Robert Bosch, GmbH; Feb. 15, 2012

CAN with Flexible Data Rate Specification Version 1.0 (Released


April 17, 2012), Robert Bosch, GmbH; April, 2012

http://www.boschsemiconductors.de/en/ubk_semiconductors/safe/ip_modules/can_fd
/can.html

M_CAN Controller Area Network Users Manual, Revision 2.0.1,


Robert Bosch, GmbH; March 12, 2012

33