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# Rock Mechanics

## Mcanique des roches

Course Lectures
Part 4 Rock Mass Properties and Classifications
Professor ZHAO Jian
EPFLENACLMR
RockMechanicsand
TunnelEngineering

## Rock Mass Property and Classification

Rock Mass Properties
Rock mass is a matrix consisting of rock material
and rock discontinuities. Properties of rock mass
therefore are governed by the parameters of rock
joints and rock material, as well as boundary
conditions.
The behaviour of rock changes from continuous
elastic for intact rock materials to discontinues
running of highly fractured rock masses, depending
mainly on the existence of rock joints.

## Rock Mass Property and Classification

Prime parameters governing rock mass property
Joint Parameters

Material
Parameters

Boundary Conditions

## Number of joint sets

Orientation
Spacing
Aperture
Surface roughness
Weathering and
alteration

Compressive
strength
Modulus of
elasticity

Groundwater
pressure and flow
In situ stress

## Rock Mass Property and Classification

Rock Mass Clasification
It classifies rock mass
into 9 classes. The
concept used in this
classification system is to
estimate the rock load to
be carried by the steel
arches installed to
support a tunnel.

Rock Class

Definition

## Rock Load Factor Hp

(feet) (B and Ht in feet)

Remark

## Hard and intact rock contains no joints and fractures. After

excavation the rock may have popping and spalling at
excavated face.

## Light lining required only if

spalling or popping occurs.

and schistose

## Hard rock consists of thick strata and layers. Interface

between strata is cemented. Popping and spalling at
excavated face is common.

0 to 0.5 B

## Light support for protection

against spalling. Load may
change between layers.

III. Massive,
moderately jointed

## Massive rock contains widely spaced joints and fractures.

Block size is large. Joints are interlocked. Vertical walls do
not require support. Spalling may occur.

0 to 0.25 B

## Light support for protection

against spalling.

IV. Moderately
blocky and seamy

## Rock contains moderately spaced joints. Rock is not

chemically weathered and altered. Joints are not well
interlocked and have small apertures. Vertical walls do not
require support. Spalling may occur.

## 0.25 B to 0.35 (B + Ht)

No side pressure.

V. Very blocky
and seamy

## Rock is not chemically weathered, and contains closely

spaced joints. Joints have large apertures and appear
separated. Vertical walls need support.

## Little or no side pressure.

VI. Completely
crushed but
chemically intact

## Rock is not chemically weathered, and highly fractured with

small fragments. The fragments are loose and not
interlocked. Excavation face in this material needs
considerable support.

1.1 (B + Ht)

## Considerable side pressure.

Softening effects by water at
tunnel base. Use circular ribs or
support rib lower end.

VII. Squeezing
rock at moderate
depth

## Rock slowly advances into the tunnel without perceptible

increase in volume. Moderate depth is considered as 150 ~
1000 m.

VIII. Squeezing
rock at great
depth

## Rock slowly advances into the tunnel without perceptible

increase in volume. Great depth is considered as more than
1000 m.

## Rock volume expands (and advances into the tunnel) due to

swelling of clay minerals in the rock at the presence of
moisture.

up to 250 feet,
irrespective of B and Ht

## Heavy side pressure. Invert

struts required. Circular ribs
recommended.

## Circular ribs required. In extreme

cases use yielding support.

## Rock Mass Property and Classification

Comments on the Rock Load Factor Classification
(a) It provides reasonable support pressure
estimates for small tunnels with diameter up to 6
metres.
(b) It gives over-estimates for large tunnels with
diameter above 6 metres.
(c) The estimated support pressure has a wide
range for squeezing and swelling rock conditions
for a meaningful application.

## Rock Mass Property and Classification

Active Span and
Stand-Up Time
Stand-up time is the
length of time which
an excavated
opening can stand
without any mean of
support . Rock
classes are assigned
according to the
stand-up time.

## Rock Mass Property and Classification

Rock Quality
Designation (RQD)
RQD represents
fracturing degree
of the rock mass.
It partially
reflecting the rock
mass quality.

RQD

< 25

Very poor

25 50

Poor

50 75

Fair

75 90

Good

90 100

Excellent

## Rock Mass Property and Classification

Rock Mass Rating RMR
RMR system incorporates 5 basic parameters.
(a) Strength of intact rock material: uniaxial compressive
strength or point load index;
(b) RQD;
(c) Spacing of joints: average spacing of all rock
discontinuities;
(d) Condition of joints: joint aperture, roughness, joint surface
weathering and alteration, infilling;
(e)Groundwater conditions: inflow or water pressure.

RMR Parameters

1.

Strength
of intact
rock
material

strength index
(MPa)

> 10

4 10

24

12

Uniaxial
compressive
strength (MPa)

> 250

100 250

50 100

25 50

5 25

15

<1

15

12

Rating

2.

3.

90 100

75 90

50 75

25 50

< 25

Rating

20

17

13

Joint spacing
(m)

>2

0.6 2

0.2 0.6

0.06 0.2

< 0.06

Rating

20

15

10

RQD (%)

RMR Parameters

4.

Condition of
joints

Rating

5.

Groundwater

Rating

not
continuous,
very rough
surfaces,
unweathered,
no separation

slightly
rough
surfaces,
slightly
weathered,
separation <1
mm

slightly rough
surfaces,
highly
weathered,
separation <1
mm

continuous,
slickensided
surfaces, or
gouge <5 mm
thick, or
separation 15
mm

continuous
joints, soft
gouge >5
mm thick,
or
separation
>5 mm

30

25

20

10

## inflow per 10 m tunnel

length (l /min), or

none

< 10

10 25

25 125

> 125

## joint water pressure/major

in situ stress, or

0 0.1

0.1 0.2

0.2 0.5

> 0.5

general conditions at
excavation surface

complete
ly dry

damp

wet

dripping

flowing

15

10

## Rock Mass Property and Classification

RMR and rock mass quality
81 100

61 80

41 60

21 40

< 20

Description

very good
rock

good rock

fair rock

poor rock

very poor
rock

15 m span
8 m span

RMR Ratings
Rock mass class

1 week for
5 m span

2.5 m span
0.5 m span

Rock mass
cohesion (KPa)

> 400

300 400

200 300

100 200

< 100

Rock mass
friction angle

> 45

35 45

25 35

15 25

< 15

## Rock Mass Property and Classification

Rock Tunnel Quality Q-System
Q = (RQD / Jn) (Jr / Ja) (Jw / SRF)
Block size

Inter-block strength

Active stress

## RQD - Rock Quality Designation.

Jn - joint set number.
Jr - joint roughness number.
Ja - joint alteration number indicating the degree of
weathering, alteration and filling.
Jw = joint water reduction factor.
SRF = stress reduction factor.

Q-System Parameters

RQD

Very Poor

0 25

Poor

25 50

Fair

50 75

Good

75 90

Excellent

90 100

Note:

## (i) Where RQD is reported or measured as 10 (including 0), a nominal value of 10

is used to evaluate Q. (ii) RQD interval of 5, i.e., 100, 95, 90, etc., are sufficiently
accurate.

Q-System Parameters

Jn

0.5 1

12

15

## Crushed rock, earthlike

20

Note:

(i) For intersections, use (3.0 Jn). (ii) For portals, use (2.0 Jn).

Q-System Parameters
3. Joint Roughness Number

Jr

(a) Rock-wall contact, and (b) Rock wall contact before 10 cm shear
A

Discontinuous joints

## Rough or irregular, undulating

Smooth, undulating

Slickensided, undulating

1.5

## Rough or irregular, planar

1.5

Smooth, planar

1.0

Slickensided, planar

0.5

Note:

(i) Descriptions refer to small and intermediate scale features, in that order.

H

1.0

## Sandy, gravelly or crushed zone thick enough to prevent rock-wall contact

1.0

Note:

(ii) Add 1.0 if the mean spacing of the relevant joint set 3 m. (iii) Jr = 0.5 can be used for planar
slickensided joints having lineations, provided the lineations are oriented for minimum strength.

Note:

## Jr and Ja classification is applied to the joint set or discontinuity that is least

favourable for stability both from the point of view of orientation and shear
resistance.

Q-System Parameters
4. Joint Alteration Number

r approx.

Ja

A

0.75

## Unaltered joint walls, surface staining only

25 35

1.0

Slightly altered joint walls. Non-softening mineral coating, sandy particles, clayfree disintegrated rock, etc.

25 30

2.0

## Silty- or sandy-clay coatings, small clay fraction (non-softening)

20 25

3.0

Softening or low friction mineral coatings, i.e., kaolinite or mica. Also chlorite,
talc, gypsum, graphite, etc., and small quantities of swelling clays

8 16

4.0

F

25 30

4.0

5 mm thickness)

16 24

6.0

## Medium or low over-consolidated softening clay mineral fillings (continuous, but

< 5 mm thickness)

12 16

8.0

## Swelling-clay fillings, i.e., montmorillonite (continuous, but < 5 mm thickness).

Value of Ja depends on percent of swelling clay size particles, and access to
water, etc.

6 12

8 12

6 24

6, 8, 8 12

K, L, M

## Zones or bands of disintegrated or crushed rock and clay (see G, H, J for

description of clay condition)

O, P, R

## Thick, continuous zones or bands of clay (see G, H, J for clay condition

description)

6 24

10, 13, 13 20

Q-System Prameters
5. Joint Water Reduction Factor

Water pressure

Jw

< 1 (kg/cm2)

1.0

## Medium inflow or pressure, occasional outwash

of joint fillings

1 2.5

0.66

## Large inflow or high pressure in competent rock

with unfilled joints

2.5 10

0.5

## Large inflow or high pressure, considerable

outwash of joint fillings

2.5 10

0.33

## Exceptionally high inflow or water pressure at

blasting, decaying with time

> 10

0.2 0.1

## Exceptionally high inflow or water pressure

continuing without noticeable decay

> 10 (kg/cm2)

0.1 0.05

Note:

(i) Factors C to F are crude estimates. Increase Jw if drainage measures are installed.
(ii) Special problems caused by ice formation are not considered.

## Dry excavation or minor inflow, i.e., < 5 l/min

locally

Q-System Parameters
6. Stress Reduction Factor

SRF

(a) Weakness zones intersecting excavation, which may cause loosening of rock mass when
tunnel is excavated
A

## Multiple occurrences of weakness zones containing clay or chemically

disintegrated rock, very loose surrounding rock (any depth)

10

## Single weakness zone containing clay or chemically disintegrated rock

(depth of excavation 50 m)

## Single weakness zone containing clay or chemically disintegrated rock

(depth of excavation > 50 m)

2.5

50 m)

7.5

50 m)

50 m)

2.5

## Loose, open joint, heavily jointed (any depth)

Note:

(i) Reduce SRF value by 25-50% if the relevant shear zones only influence but not
intersect the excavation.

Q-System Parameters
(b) Competent rock, rock stress problems

c / 1

/ c

SRF

> 200

< 0.01

2.5

200 10

0.01
0.03

## High stress, very tight structure. Usually

favourable to stability, may be unfavourable to
wall stability

10 5

0.3 0.4

0.5 2

53

0.5 - 0.65

5 50

massive rock

32

0.65 1

50 200

## Heavy rock burst (strain-burst) and immediate

dynamic deformation in massive rock

<2

>1

200 400

Note:

(ii) For strongly anisotropic virgin stress field (if measured): when 5 1 / 3 10,
reduce c to 0.75 c; when 1 / 3 > 10, reduce c to 0.5 c; where c is unconfined
compressive strength, 1 and 3 are major and minor principal stresses, and is
maximum tangential stress (estimated from elastic theory).
(iii) Few cases records available where depth of crown below surface is less than
span width. Suggest SRF increase from 2.5 to 5 for such cases (see H).

## Rock Mass Property and Classification

Q-value and rock mass quality
Q-value

Class

## Rock mass quality

400 ~ 1000

Exceptionally Good

100 ~ 400

Extremely Good

40 ~ 100

Very Good

10 ~ 40

Good

4 ~ 10

Fair

1~4

Poor

0.1 ~ 1

Very Poor

0.01 ~ 0.1

Extremely Poor

0.001 ~ 0.01

Exceptionally Poor

## Rock Mass Property and Classification

Excavation Support Ratio (ESR)
Excavation Category

ESR

## Temporary mine openings.

Permanent mine openings, water tunnels for hydroelectric projects, pilot tunnels, drifts and headings for
large excavations.

35
1.6

## Storage rooms, water treatment plants, minor road and

railway tunnels, surge chambers and access tunnels in
hydro-electric project.

1.3

## Underground power station caverns, major road and

railway tunnels, civil defense chamber, tunnel portals and
intersections.

1.0

## Underground nuclear power stations, railway stations,

sports and public facilities, underground factories.

0.8

## Rock Mass Property and Classification

Geological Strength Index GSI
GSI was aimed to estimate the reduction in rock
mass strength for different geological conditions.
The system gives a GSI value estimated from rock
mass structure and rock discontinuity surface
condition. The direct application of GSI value is to
estimate the parameters in the Hoek-Brown strength
criterion for rock masses.

GSI Value

76 95

56 75

41 55

21 40

< 20

Rock Mass
Quality

Very
good

Good

Fair

Poor

Very
poor

## Rock Mass Property and Classification

Example Estimate RMR, Q and GSI
(a) Granite rock mass containing 3 joint sets,
average RQD is 88%, average joint spacing is 0.24 m,
joint surfaces are generally stepped and rough,
tightly closed and unweathered with occasional
stains observed, the excavation surface is wet but
not dripping, average rock material uniaxial
compressive strength is 160 MPa, the tunnel is
excavated to 150 m below the ground where no
abnormal high in situ stress is expected.

## Rock Mass Property and Classification

Rock material strength
RQD (%)

160 MPa

Rating

12

88%

Rating

17

## Joint spacing (m)

0.24 m

Rating

10

Condition of joints

## very rough, unweathered, no separation

Rating

30

wet

Rating

RMR

76

Groundwater

RQD
Joint set number
Joint roughness number
Joint alteration number
Joint water factor
Stress reduction factor
Q
Rock Mass Structure: Blocky

88%

RQD

88

3 sets

Jn

Jr

Ja

Jw

SRF

## (88/9) (3/1) (1/1)

Joint Surface Condition : Very good

29
GSI = 755

## Rock Mass Property and Classification

Example Estimate RMR, Q and GSI
(b) A sandstone rock mass, fractured by 2 joint sets
plus random fractures, average RQD is 70%, average
joint spacing is 0.11 m, joint surfaces are slightly
rough, highly weathered with stains and weathered
surface but no clay found on surface, joints are
generally in contact with apertures generally less
than 1 mm, average rock material uniaxial
compressive strength is 85 MPa, the tunnel is to be
excavated at 80 m below ground level and the
groundwater table is 10 m below the ground surface.

## Rock Mass Property and Classification

Rock material strength

85 MPa

Rating

70%

Rating

13

## Joint spacing (m)

0.11 m

Rating

Condition of joints

Rating

20

## water pressure/stress = 0.32

Rating

RMR

52
70

RQD (%)

Groundwater

RQD
Joint set number
Joint roughness number
Joint alteration number
Joint water factor
Stress reduction factor
Q
Rock Mass Structure: Blocky

70%

RQD

Jn

Jr

1.5

Ja

Jw

0.5

SRF

## (70/6) (1.5/2) (0.5/1)

Joint Surface Condition : Very good

1
4.4

GSI = 405

## Rock Mass Property and Classification

Example Estimate RMR, Q and GSI
(c) A highly fractured siltstone rock mass, has 2 joint
sets and many random fractures, average RQD is
41%, joints appears continuous observed in tunnel,
joint surfaces are slickensided and undulating, and
are highly weathered, joint are separated by about 35 mm, filled with clay, average rock material uniaxial
compressive strength is 65 MPa, inflow per 10 m
tunnel length is observed at approximately 50
litre/minute, with considerable outwash of joint
fillings. The tunnel is at 220 m below ground.

## Rock Mass Property and Classification

Rock material strength
RQD (%)

65 MPa

Rating

41%

Rating

## Joint spacing (m)

0.05 m

Rating

Condition of joints

## continuous, slickensided, separation 1-5mm

Rating

10

inflow = 50 l/min

Rating

RMR

34
41

Groundwater

RQD
Joint set number
Joint roughness number

41%

RQD

Jn

Jr

1.5

Ja

## large inflow with considerable outwash

Jw

0.33

c/1 = 65/(2200.027) = 11

SRF

## Stress reduction factor

Q
Rock Mass Structure: Blocky

## (41/6) (1.5/4) (0.33/1)

Joint Surface Condition : Very good

1
0.85

GSI = 205

## Rock Mass Property and Classification

Example Estimate RMR, Q and GSI
RMR

Quality

Quality

GSI

Quality

(a) Granite

76

29

75

(b) Sandstone

52

4.4

40

(c) Siltstone

34

0.85

VP

20

VP

## Rock Mass Property and Classification

Other Rock Mass Classification Systems
Rock Mass Number, N

## N is the rock mass

quality Q value when
SRF is set at 1, i.e.,

RMi = c Jp

## c is rock material strength.

Jp is jointing parameter for 4
joint characteristics: joint
density, size, roughness, and
alteration. Jp=1 for intact rock,
Jp=0 for crushed rock masses.

## Rock Mass Property and Classification

Correlation between Q, RMR and GSI
RMR = 9 lnQ + (4418)
RMR = 13.5 logQ + 43
GSI = RMR 5
(for GSI > 25)

## Rock Mass Property and Classification

Rock Mass Strength
Strength and deformation properties of a rock mass
are governed by the existence of joints. Those rock
mass properties are also related to the quality of the
rock mass. In general, a rock mass of good quality
(strong rock, few joints and good joint surface
quality) have higher strength and higher deformation
modulus than that of a poor rock mass.

1

Failure of rock
material

0

90

1
ck
ro

o
go

ia
er
at
m

ty
ali
qu

c
p

qu
oor

y
alit

a
km
oc

ss

a ss
km
c
o
r

## Rock Mass Property and Classification

Hoek-Brown Rock Mass Strength Criterion
Generalised Hoek-Brown Criterion
1

= 3 + (mb 3 + s)a
ci ci
ci

or

1 = 3 + (mb 3 ci + s ci2)a
H-B criterion for rock material is a special form of
the generalised equation when s =1, a = 0.5, mb=mi.
1 = 3 + (mi 3 ci + ci2)0.5

## Rock Mass Property and Classification

Hoek-Brown Rock Mass Strength Criterion
ci is consistently the uniaxial compressive strength
of intact rock material, used in the Hoek-Brown
criterion for rock material and for rock mass.
1 is the rock mass strength at a confining pressure
3. ci is the uniaxial strength of the intact rock in the
rock mass. Parameter a is generally equal to 0.5.
Constants mb and s are parameters that changes
with rock type and rock mass quality. Next table
shows mb and s values.

Hoek-Brown Failure
Criterion
1/c = 3/c + (mb
3/c + s)0.5

Carbonate
rocks dolomite,
limestone,
marble

Argillaceous
rocks mudstone,
siltstone,
shale, slate

Arenaceous
rocks sandstone,
quartzite

Fine grained
igneous andesite,
dolerite,
basalt,
rhyolite

Coarse
metamorphic
& igneous gabbro,
gneiss,
granite

## Intact rock material

RMR = 100 ,Q = 500

mi = 7.0
s = 1.0

mi = 10.0
s = 1.0

mi = 15.0
s = 1.0

mi = 17.0
s = 1.0

mi = 25.0
s = 1.0

## Very good quality

rock mass
RMR = 85, Q = 100

mb = 3.5
s = 0.1

mb = 5.0
s = 0.1

mb = 7.5
s = 0.1

mb = 8.5
s = 0.1

mb = 12.5
s = 0.1

mass
RMR = 65, Q = 10

mb = 0.7
s = 0.004

mb = 1.0
s = 0.004

mb = 1.5
s = 0.004

mb = 1.7
s = 0.004

mb = 2.5
s = 0.004

## Fair quality rock

mass
RMR = 44, Q = 1.0

mb = 0.14
s = 0.0001

mb = 0.20
s = 0.0001

mb = 0.30
s = 0.0001

mb = 0.34
s = 0.0001

mb = 0.50
s = 0.0001

## Poor quality rock

mass
RMR = 23, Q = 0.1

mb = 0.04
s = 0.00001

mb = 0.05
s = 0.00001

mb = 0.08
s = 0.00001

mb = 0.09
s = 0.00001

mb = 0.13
s = 0.00001

## Very poor quality

rock mass
RMR = 3, Q = 0.01

mb = 0.007
s=0

mb = 0.01
s=0

mb = 0.015
s=0

mb = 0.017
s=0

mb = 0.025
s=0

## Rock Mass Property and Classification

Hoek-Brown Rock Mass Strength Criterion
Development and application of the Hoek-Brown
criterion lead to better definition of the parameters
mb and s.
Determination of mi is improved, as in the next table.
With GSI estimated, mb can be calculated,
mb = mi exp [(GSI100)/28]

Rock Type

## Rock Name and mi Values

Igneous

Intrusive

Granite 323
Granodiorite 293

Diorite 255
Dolerite (165)

Gabbro 273
Norite 225

Peridotite (255)

Extrusive

Rhyolite (165)

Andesite 255

Basalt (165)
Diabase (165)

Porphyries (205)

Agglomerate
(193)

Tuff (135)

Volcanic

Sedimentary

Clastic

Conglomerate
(418)
Breccia (416)

Sandstone 174

Siltstone 72
Marls (72)

Mudstone 42
Shale (62)

Carbonate

Crystalline
limestone (123)

Sparitic limestone
(102)

Micritic limestone
(92)

Dolomite (93)

Gypsum 82

Anhydrite 122
Coal (812)

Chalk 72

Phyllites (73)

Slate 74

Hornfels (194)

Marble 93

Chemical
Organic

Metamorphic

Foliated

Gneiss 285

Schist 123

Slightly
Foliated

Migmatite (293)

Amphibolite 266

Non
Foliated

Quartzite 203

Meta-sandstone
(19 3)

## Rock Mass Property and Classification

Hoek-Brown Rock Mass Strength Criterion
For GSI > 25, i.e. rock masses of good to reasonable
quality,
s = exp [(GSI100)/9]
a = 0.5
This is the original Hoek-Brown criterion.

## Rock Mass Property and Classification

Hoek-Brown Rock Mass Strength Criterion
For GSI < 25, i.e. very poor rock masses, s = 0,
a = 0.65 GSI/200
When 3 = 0, it gives the uniaxial compressive
strength as,
cm = 1 = sa ci
For very poor rock masses, s=0, cm=0.

## Rock Mass Property and Classification

Example on Hoek-Brown Criterion and GSI
1 = 3 + (mb 3 ci + s ci2)a
(a) Granite rock mass, ci= 150 MPa, GSI=75, a = 0.5.
mi for granite is 32,
mb = mi exp[(GSI 100)/28] = 13.1
s = exp[(GSI 100)/9] = 0.062
1 = 3 + (1956 3 + 1395)0.5
When 3 = 0, cm = 13950.5 = 37.3 MPa

## Rock Mass Property and Classification

Example on Hoek-Brown Criterion and GSI
1 = 3 + (mb 3 ci + s ci2)a
(c) Siltstone rock mass, ci=65 MPa, GSI=20.
mi for siltstone = 7
mb = mi exp[(GSI 100)/28] = 0.40
s = exp[(GSI 100)/9] = 0.00014
GSI < 25, a = 0.65 (GSI/200) = 0.55
1 = 3 + (26 3 + 0.59)0.55
cm = 0.590.55 = 0.75 MPa

## Rock Mass Property and Classification

Hoek-Brown and Mohr-Coulomb Criteria
There is no direct correlation between linear M-C
criterion and the non-linear H-B criterion.
When Mohr-Coulomb parameters c and are needed
for design and modelling,
(i) Use direct test results on rock mass if available.
(ii) Use H-B to generate a series 13 data, plot
them by Mohr circles, and fit them with the best
linear tangent envelope, to find c and .

## Rock Mass Property and Classification

Getting c and using Hoek-Brown Equation
3

12

17

21

25

10

28

12

32

15

37

20

45

30

61

40

75

M-C
M-C low stress

H-B

## Rock Mass Property and Classification

Correlation of Rock Mass Quality and Properties
Correlations between rock mass strength and
quality are by mb and s in the Hoek-Brown criterion.
Better rock mass quality gives higher mb and s,
hence higher rock mass strength. When rock mass
is solid and massive with few joints, rock mass
strength is close to rock material strength. When
rock mass is very poor (GSI < 25), rock mass has
very low uniaxial compressive strength close to zero.

## Rock Mass Property and Classification

Correlation of Rock Mass Quality and Properties
Rock mass modulus (Em, GPa) can be estimated
from RMR and Q, for fair and better rock mass,
Em = 25 log10Q,

for Q > 1

Em = 10 (Q ci/100)1/3
Em = 2 RMR 100,

## for RMR > 50

Em = 10(RMR10)/40

## for 20 < RMR < 85

Em = 10(15 logQ+40)/40

## Rock Mass Property and Classification

Correlation of Rock Mass Quality and Properties
For poor rocks with ci<100 MPa,
Em = (ci/100)0.5 10(GSI10)/40
The equation is developed from the original Em-RMR
Em-Q-ci equation, to reflect the effect of rock
strength change.

## Rock Mass Property and Classification

Squeezing Behaviour of Rock Mass
Squeezing of rock is the time dependent large
deformation, which occurs around an openings, and
is essentially associated with creep caused by
exceeding shear strength.
Classification of squeezing degree,
(i) Mild squeezing: closure 1-3% of opening D;
(ii) Moderate squeezing: closure 3-5% of D;
(iii) High squeezing: closure > 5% of D.

## Rock Mass Property and Classification

Squeezing Behaviour of Rock Mass
Behaviour of rock squeezing is typically represented
by rock mass deforms plastically into the opening.
Rate of squeezing is time and stress dependent.
Usually the rate is high at initial stage, say, several
cm/day closure at beginning, reduces with time.
Squeezing may continue for a long period.
Squeezing may occur at shallow depths in weak and
poor rock masses. Poor rock masses with moderate
strength at great depth may also suffer from
squeezing.

## Rock Mass Property and Classification

Squeezing Estimation by Rock Mass Classification Q
Squeezing:
Overburden
H > 350 Q1/3
Non-squeezing:
H < 350 Q1/3

## Rock Mass Property and Classification

Squeezing Estimation by Rock Mass Classification N
Non-squeezing:
H < 275 N1/3) B0.1
Mild squeezing:
> (275 N1/3) B0.1
H
< (450 N1/3) B0.1
Moderate squeezing:
> (450 N1/3) B0.1
H
< (630 N1/3) B0.1
High squeezing:
H > (630 N1/3) B0.1

## Rock Mass Property and Classification

Squeezing Condition
Theoretically, squeezing conditions around a tunnel
opening can occur when,
> strength = cm + Px A/2
is the tangential stress at the tunnel opening, cm
is the uniaxial compressive strength of the rock
mass, Px is the in situ stress in the tunnel axis
direction, and A is a rock parameter proportion to
friction.

## Rock Mass Property and Classification

Squeezing Condition
Degree of Squeezing

/ cm (ISRM)

cm / situ (Hoek)

Non squeezing
Mild squeezing
Moderate squeezing
High squeezing

< 1.0
1.0 2.0
2.0 4.0
> 4.0

> 0.35
0.2 0.35
0.15 0.2
< 0.15

## Squeezing can be correlated with the ratio of rock

mass strength to in situ stress. Squeezing is
possible when the ratio is less than 0.35 (Hoek 2000).

Yacambu-Quibor, Venezuela

## Prediction curve for squeezing for

different rock mass strength to in situ
stress ratios (Hoek 2000)

## Tunnel squeezing case histories

compared with prediction for
squeezing (Hoek 2000)