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APWorldHistory

Chapter1FromHumanPrehistorytotheEarlyCivilizations
I.Introduction
A.Humanorigin2.5millionyearsago
1.1/4000ofearthsexistence24hourdaylast5minutes
B.Humannegativesandpositives
1.Aggressiveness,longbabytime,backproblems,deathfears
2.Grip,high/regularsexdrive,omnivores,facialexpressions,speech
C.Paleolithic(OldStone)Age2.5millionto12000BCE
1.Simpletoolsincreaseinsize,braincapacityHomoerectus
II.LatePaleolithicDevelopments
A. Homosapienssapiens120,000yearsagokilledoffothers?
a. Populationgrowthrequiredchange1squaremiletohunt/gatherfor2people
i. Longbreastfeedinglimitfertility
ii. Relativegenderequalitywomenharder,butbothcontributed
b. Ritualsfordeath,explainenvironment,rulesforsocialbehavior
c. Greatestachievementspreadoverearth
i. Fire/animalskin
ii. 14,000Greaticeageended
d. Toolssharpenanimalbones,rafts
e. Domesticatedanimals
f. Conflictsw/othersbonebreaks/skullfractures
B.Knowledgebasedoncavepaintings,toolremains,burialsites
III.Neolithic(NewStone)AgeRevolution
A.Agriculturechangedeverythingcouldsupportmorepeople
1.Settleonespotfocusoneconomic,political,religiousgoals
2.14,00010,000BCE6millionto100millionpeople
B.CausesofAgriculture
1.Populationincreasebetterclimate
2.Biggameanimalsdecreasinghuntingyielddeclined
3.Gradualchangeharvestingwildgrainstoplantingseeds
C.Newanimalsdomesticatedpigs,sheep,goats,cattle
1.Meat,skins,dairy
2.AdvantagetoEurope?
D.WhyMiddleEast?
1.Watersource,fertilearea,notforested,lackedanimals
E.Revolutiongradualmanycombinedchangesw/huntinggathering1000years
F.Effects
1.Longerworkweeklaborintensive
2.Buildhouses,villages
3.Variedclothing
G.Resistancetoocomplicated,boring,difficult
1.Diseasethoseinvillagesdevelopedimmunitynomadsdiedoff/joined
2.Someisolatedsocietiesstillavoid

a.Harshclimate,noexchangeofknowledge
b.Tough,nomadicinvaders
3.Nomadsnotthatinfluentialacceptforinteraction
H.Changes
1.Specialization
2.Technologycontrolofnaturestoragefacilities,pottery
3.MetaltoolsBronzeAge3000IronAge1500BCE
IV.Civilization
A. Hunter/gatherernobiggerthan60foodrunsout
a. Otheroptionsslashandburn
b. Tribalbandsstrongkinshiprelativelysmall
B. Benefitsofsettling
1.Houses,wells,improvementsusedbyfuture,irrigation
2.Irrigation/defenserequiredworktogetherorganizationfromabove
C.CatalHuyukTurkey7000BCEcivilizationstudied
1.Rooftopactivitybrokenbones
2.Religiousresponsibilities/fertilitygodsimages
3.Tradew/othersforpeace
D.Definitionsocietieseconomicsurplus>divisionoflabor/socialhierarchy
1.Formalpoliticalorganizationsnorelationtofamilyunit
2.Citybenefitswealth,exchangeofideas,artistic/intellectualexpression,
manufacturing/tradespecialization
E.Writing
1.FirstCuneiformwedgeshapedMiddleEast
2.Taxefficiently
3.Contracts/treaties
4.Buildonpastwisdom
5.Peoplelookatworldassomethingtobeunderstoodrationally
6.Notallpeoplesliterate,eachcivilizationonlyaminority
F.GreektermBarbarianscivilizationvs.nomadswanderers
G.Negativesofcivilization
1.Class/castedistinctionsslavery
2.Separationbetweenrulers/ruled
3.Warlike
4.Genderinequalitypatriarchalmengetmanufacturing,political,religiousleaders
H.Benefitsofnomadicliving
1.Moreregulationswordofmouth
2.Respectofelders/children
3.Herdingeconomies
4.Technologicalimprovementsstirrup,weaponry
I.ImpactonEnvironment
1.Deforestation
2.Erosion,flooding
InDepth:TheIdeaofCivilizationinWorldHistoryPerspective
A.Differencesbetweencivilizedandbarbaric/savageslongheld
1.Chinesecultural,notbiologicalorracialcouldadapt

2.AmericanIndiansfearedChichimecssonsofthedog
B.Relatedtofearofinvasion/outsiderscommon
C.CivilisofthecitizensLatin
1.Romeurbandwellersvs.forest/desertdwellers
2.Greecebar,barbarbarians
D.Historiansinitiallyculturaldifferences,then19thcenturyracialdifferences
1.Someracesmoreinventive,moral,courageous,artistic
a.Savagetocivilizedwhite,yellow,red,brown,black
b.SocialDarwinismhistoriography
c.JustifiedEuropeanexpansionWhiteMansBurden
d.Ethnocentrism
E.Otherapproachcivilizationjustoneformofsocialorganization
1.Allsocietiesproducecultures,thoughmightlackfoodsurplus/specialization
2.Allpeoplescapablebutlackresources,historicalcircumstances,desire
V.TigrisEuphratesCivilization
A.Precedents
1.Writing
2.Lawcodes
3.Cityplanning/architecture
4.Tradeinstitutions&money
B.Mesopotamialandbetweentworivers
1.Oneof3civilizationsfromscratchCentralAmerica,China,Mesopotamia
2.Farmingrequiredirrigation
3.Sumerians3500BCE
a.Cuneiformscribes
b.Sumerianartfrescoesfortemples
c.Scienceastronomycalendar/forecastsaidedagriculture
1.Chartsofconstellations
d.Zigguratsfirstmonumentalarchitecture
e.Roleofgeography
1.Swiftandunpredictablefloodsreligious
2.PolytheismpunishmentofhumansthroughfloodsNoah
3.Gloomypunishmentinafterlifehell
4.Easytoinvadeconstantwar
f.Citystateskingw/divineauthority
1.Regulatereligion
2.Courtsystemforjustice
3.Landworkedbyslaveswarfarecreatedlaborsurplus
g.Inventionswheeledcarts,fertilizer,silvermoney
4.Babylonians
a.Hammurabifirstcodifiedlaw
1.Procedureforcourts
2.Propertyrights
3.Harshpunishments
5.IndoEuropeaninvasionsfromNorth
a.Adoptedculture
C.EgyptianCivilization

1.Benefitedfromtrade/technologyofMesopotamia
2.Geographicfactors
a.Difficulttoinvade
b.Regularfloodingcycle
3.Economygovernmentdirectedvs.Mesopotamiafreedom
4.Pharoahsgodliketombspyramids
5.InteractionswithKushtotheSouth
6.Egyptianartlively,cheerful,colorfulpositiveafterlifesurroundedbybeauty
7.ArchitectureinfluencedlaterMediterranean
D.IndianandChineseRiverValleyCivilizations
1.IndusRiverHarappa/MohenjoDaro
a.Uniquealphabet/art
1.Harappanalphabetnotdeciphered
b.InvasionplusinvasionbyIndoEuropeansdifficulttounderstandculture
2.Huanghe(YellowRiver)
a.Isolated,littleoverlandtrading
b.Historypartfact/fiction
c.Stateorganizedirrigation
d.Elaborateintellectuallife
1.Writingknottedropes,scratchesoflines,ideographicsymbols
2.Delicateart,musicalinterest
3.Limitedmaterialsbasichousing
E.HeritageoftheRiverValleyCivilizations
1.Accomplishments
a.Monuments
b.Wheel
c.Tamingofhorse
d.Squareroots
e.Monarchies/bureaucracies
f.Calendars/time
g.Majoralphabets
2.Howmucharethesecivilizationsoriginoftoday
a.ExceptforChina,allhaveabreakfrompast
b.Romanempiregodlikeking
c.Slavery
d.ScientificachievementsGreeksstudiedEgyptians
3.Eastvs.West
a.Mesopotamiansgapbetweenhumankindandnature
b.Chinabasicharmonyalllivetogether
c.Templebuilding,art,architectureMesopotamiatoMiddleEast/Greece
d.Mesopotamiaregionalculturescreatedthatcouldsurviveinvasion
1.Phoenicians22letteralphabet
a.Colonizedsimplifiednumbersystem
2.Jewsmorally/ethicallybasedmonotheisticreligion
a.Semiticpeoplesmall,relativelyweakonlyautonomous
whenregionwasinchaos
b.BelievedgodJehovahguideddestiniesofpeople
1.Orderly,justnotwhimsical

c.Createdmoralcode
d.ReligionbasisforChristianity/Islam
e.GodscompactwithJews
1.Littleconversion
2.MinoritypositioninMiddleEast
F.TheFirstCivilizations
1.Cleardivisionbetweenrivervalleycivilizationsandclassicalcivilizations
a.Invasion/naturalcalamitiesIndia
b.Invasion/politicaldeclineEgypt
c.Mesopotamiabreakbutbridgessmallercultures
1.Valuesandinstitutionsspread
2.ThemeemergesSteadilyproliferatingcontactsagainstabackgroundofoften
fiercelocalidentity
3.Integratingforce
a.Localautonomylessenspriests/kingsincreasepower
4.Fourcentersofcivilizationstarted
5.CloseneighborsEgypt/Mesopotamiadifferentpolitics,art,beliefsondeath
6.Diversityandcivilizationworkedtogether