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Chapter23IdeologiesandUpheavals
CongressofVienna
1. ObjectivewastorestoreorderinEurope
1. Restoreconservativeideal(Monarchy)
2. CreateaBalanceofPower
3. LimitFrance
4. Peace
2. Francegotnomajorwarpunishments;QuadruplealliancetriedtobelenientwithFrance
andalsogivingmorepowertosurroundingcountries
3. BourbondynastyrestoredinFrance
4. BelgiumandHollandgotunitedundertheDutchMonarchy
1. Strengthenlowcountries
5. Prussiagainedsomeland,leadingtoamoreequalbalanceofpower
6. MetternichAustriasforeignministerthere
7. CastlereaghGreatBritain'sForeignminister
8. CalleighwasFrances
9. Verylittlemapchanges
10. GreatpowersAustria,Russia,France,GreatBritain,Prussia
11. RussiawantedPoland,almostwenttowarwithAustria
12. ConcertofEuropecongresssystemtodiscussproblemsinEurope>99yearsofpeace
InterventionandRepression
1. MovementtostoprevolutionsBurkeRevolutionsarenotgood
2. HolyAllianceformedbyMetternich(austral,Russia,Prussia),itsmissionwastostop
liberalandrevolutionaryideasandtogivemorepowertothechurch
3. InvadedandrestoredoldmonarchstopowerEx.Spain
4. Helpedkeeplidonrevolutionaryideas
5. GermanconfederationgottheCarlsbadDecrees,whichwereissuedmyMetternich
6. Theystoppedrevolutionaryideasinnewspapers,andintroducedaspysystemtohunt
downrevolutionaryideas
Metternich
1. ThemainconservativeinEurope,andloyaltohisclassofnobility
2. Believedthatliberalismwouldleadtounnecessaryviolentrevolution
3. ThoughttheinstitutionsoftheMonarchyandNobilitywerethebestforEurope
a. Alsothoughtthattraditionwasthebasicsourceofhumaninstitutions
4. Liberalismalsoledtothecreationofnewnations,whichwasbadforAustriabecauseit
containedmanyethnicgroups
5. ManyethnicgroupsinAustriawasstrongbecauseitallowedalotoflandandpopulation,
butwasweakbecauseeachethnicgroupwantedfreedom
6. SupportedRussianandOttomanEmpire

a. Bothwereabsolutiststateswithpowerfularmiesandlongtraditionsofexpansion
andconquest
b. Bothweremultinationalempiresmadeofmanypeoples
c. Bothwereconservative
Conservatism
1. Metternichwasthemainconservative,andloyaltohisclassofnobility
2. Havetoupholdchurch,king,andnobility
3. Believedthoseinstitutionshelpedcreateorder
4. Liberalismledtowarandneededtostopped{Didnotlikethemiddleclass}
1. AntiEnlightenment
Nationalism
1. Didnotlikeconservatismbecausetheybelieveditwouldnothelpouttheirempire
2. Austriahadallotofnationalisticpeoplebecausemostoftheirpopulationcamefrom
mintyethnicgroups
3. Desiretocreateanation,basedonculturalunity
4. Hugemovementbasedonculturalties
5. Growsbecauseindustrialismcreatedcommunication,whichledtocommoninterests
6. Theyalsohadacommonlanguage,masseducation,sharedsenseofideology
7. Theybelievedinmainlyliberalism
8. MazziniNationalistfatherofEurope
9. Downfalls,violentconflict,andbeliefofnationalsuperiority
10. Positives,Countryrulingownpeople
11. Likedselfgovernment,onlyifthepeoplearetiedtocommontraditions[samewith
liberals]
Liberalism
1. Political:CivilLiberties
1. Equality
1. Oflaws
1. FreeTrial
2. OfOpportunity
1. Press,Speech,Religion
2. ProEnlightenment
3. Economic:AdamSmith[Capitalism]wroteWealthofnations
1. AdoptedinEngland,promotedindustrialoutcome
1. Someotherliberalsgavetheircritics
4. NarrowedClassinterests
1. Wantedonlyrichlandowningpeopletovide
5. Theseweretheclassicalliberalismbeliefs
6. Radicalliberalswanteduniversalmalesuffrageanddemocracy
7. Demandedrepresentativegovernment,butnotafulldemocracy
8. Outlawedlaborunions

Socialism[FrenchUtopianism]

1. Didnotlikecapitalism,believedingovernmentcontrolledeconomy
2. Wentagainstsomeprinciplesofliberalism

3. Somesocialistsdidnotlikeindustrialismbecausetheybelieveditfurtheredbrokeup
society
4. Wantedeconomicplanningbygovernmenttohelpouttheeconomy
5. Regulation/Abolishmentofprivateproperty,peoplewantedmorecommunalownership
6. Frenchworkersweremainlyonboardwiththisidea,andtheydidnotlikeLaissezFaire,
butwantedgovernmentintervention
7. SaintSimon[French]
a. 2classes
i. Parasites,whichwerelawyers,church,andgovernment
1. Theywerebelievedtoofcausedalltheproblemsinsociety
ii. Doers,whichweremainlydoctors,engineers,workers,industrialists
1. Believedthattheyshouldrunthesociety
b. Keytoprogresswaspropersocialorganization
c. Maingoalofsocialinstitutionswastohelpoutthepoor
8. CharlesFourierWroteaboututopia
a. SelfSufficientcomminutes
i. Pickthejobyouwanted
b. Createdphalanx
i. Whichwerehotelswereheenforcedthiskindoftask
c. Emancipationofwomen,believedthatmarriagelimitedwomenthereforecalled
fortheabolishmentforit
d. Creatingcompetitionforpeopletoworkharder
9. Blanc
a. Universalvotingrightsforbothmenandwomen

i. Wouldleadtoamoresocialistsociety
b. Governmentsponsoredworkshopsthathelpedruntheeconomy
c. WroteOrganizationofWork
10. Proudhon
a. Propertyistheprofitstolenfromworkers,whichcreatesawealthgap
b. WroteWhatisproperty
c. Abolishmentofprivateproperty
d. ConsideredanAnarchistbecausehewasreallyradical
11. Artistslikedtheguildsystembetter,sotheywereonthesocialistside
Communism[Marxism]
1. CommunistManifestowasthesourceofallcommunistideas
2. Doesnotlikethatmuchofsocialistideas
3. WroteDasKapital
4. AntiSemitic
5. Believedintheemancipationofwomen
6. Nofamily,communityraisedchildren
7. Predictedviolentrevolution
8. Hagelsthoughtthateachperiodoftimewasamainidea,andeverynewtimeinhistory
comeswithanewidea
9. ViolentRevolution

Romanticism
1. InspiredbyRousseau
2. Ideasmainlywentagainstclassism,butwentwithmoremedievalstyle
3. SupportonEmotion,individuality,nature,andcreativity
4. Likednature
a. JohnConstable
i. ThoughtnaturewasasourceofSpiritualinspiration
5. AntiIndustrialists
a. Attackonnature
6. EarlyGermanRomantics
a. CalledStrumundDrang(Stormandstress)
7. Hippies
8. Poetry
a. Expressedemotion
b. OrganicandDynamicviewoftheuniverse
c. Breakrules
9. Frankenstein
a. WrittenbyMaryShelly
i. Showedthedangersofscience
10. Mostwereantichristian
11. Theirworksofarthelpedspreadnationalism

Literature
1. RomanticismfirstemergedinBritain
2. Writers
a. Wordsword
i. InfluencedbyRousseauandtheFrenchrevolution
ii. WorkedwithColeridge
1. BothPublishedLyricalBollards,whichgaveamorevernacular
tasteofpoetry
iii. WroteDaffodils,whichshowedhislovefornature
b. Scott
i. Personifiedtheromanticmovementwithhistory
ii. InfluencedbyGermanromanticism[JohannvonGoethe]
iii. Translatedhisworks
c. Stael
i. C
d. Hugo
i. WroteHunchbackofNotreDame
ii. Likedfreedomofliterature
1. PoliticalOpinionwasdifferentfromWordsworth,more
conservative
e. DupinorSand
i. WroteRomanticNovels

3. Romanticsfocusedabitmoreonpeasantlife
a. Grimmbrothers
b. Puskin:RussianPoet
ArtandMusic
1. EugeneDelcrois
a. BroughtRomanticthemestoart
b. MassacreofChios
i. AimedtoinspirepeopleabouttherevolutioninGreece
c. Libertyleadingthepeople
2. Turner
a. Natureguy
i. Shipwreck
ii. AVoyageofaSlaveShip
3. Constable
a. CountrysideEurope
4. Musichadalargerimpact
a. Liszt
i. Pianist
ii. Showedromanticemotion
iii. Increasedrangeofintensity

b. Beethoven
i. Usedcontrastingthemesandtonestoproducedramaticconflict
RevolutioninGreece
1. NationalisminfluencedtheGreekstorebelagainsttheTurks
2. TheGreekpeoplewerelivingunderaMuslimrule,whiletheywereGreekOrthodox
3. AlexanderYpsilantileadstherevolt
4. Metternichopposed
5. ManyartistsupportedtheGreeksbecauseoftheirclassicheritage
6. TurksrefusedtograntGreecesfreedom>BattleofNaravrino>TurksgiveupGreece
7. Germanprincewasputonthrone
RevolutionofGreatBritain
1. Britainwasnotverydemocratic
2. NobilityandtheKingwereworkingtogetherfortheirownselfinterests
3. Torypartyapoliticalpartythatwasconservativeandtriedtogetridofanythingthatwas
radical
a. TriedtorevisetheCornLaws,whichwereasetoflawsthatrestrictedthe
importationofforeigngrain
b. LedtotheBattleofPeterloowhichwasarevoltagainstthecornlaws
i. TheTorycauseditwithgettingridofHabeasCorpus,whichwastheright
offreetrial
ii. Alsohadthesixacts,whichwereasuspensionofthefreedomofspeech

iii. LedtotheChartistMovement
4. Businessownerswantedmoreliberallaws
a. WhigPartyAliberalpoliticalpartyinEnglandthatwasmainlymiddleclass
i. CampaignedforaReformBillof1832
1. AllowedtheHouseofCommonstobethemostpowerful
legislation
2. Newindustrialareasgetequalrepresentationinparliament
3. Gettingridofrottenburrows,whichrepresentedparliament
unfairly
4. Moremencouldvote
b. TheReformbillallowedtherevolutiontosubside
c. Workerswerenothappywiththisbill
d. ThePeoplesCharterwascreated
i. Everymanover21couldvote
ii. Salaryforholdingoffice
iii. Amountofvotesbasedonarea
e. Rejectedbyparliament,ledtoaprotestbutfailed
IrelandandthePotatoFamine
1. Cultivationofthepotato,EarlyMarriage,andexploitationofpeasantsallowedalarge
populationboom
2. Thislargepopulationboomledtoanincreaseneedofthepotato
3. Potatodiseasecame,ledtoalotofdeathandemigration
4. AnothercauseforemigrationwastheharshtreatmentbyGreatBritain

a. FuelednationalismandresentmentofBritishRule
FrancessRevolutions
1. 1830
a. Louis18thwasbroughtback,bourbondynastywasrestored
b. ConstitutionalCharterpassed
i. LiberalConstitutionalMonarchy
ii. FrenchCitizensgotfreedomofspeech,butnodemocracy
iii. 1stand2ndestateswerestillinpower
iv. ChamberofDeputies(Parliament)
c. LouisdiedreplacedbyCharlesthe10th[Reactionary]
i. Revocationoftheconstitutionalcharterandclaimeddivineright
ii. Passedthe4ordinances
1. Censoredpress
2. StrippingMiddleClassVotingRights
3. Changedelectionlaws
4. Heldnewelections
iii. Alignedhimselfwithcatholicchurch
iv. InvadedAlgeria>Nottopromising
1. Markedrebirthofcolonialexpansion
v. JulyCooCharlestriedtooverthrowtherestofthegovernmentduring
July
vi. Thisledtoanenragedpopulation>ThreeGloriousDays

vii. ThreeGloriousDayswerearevoltandledtotheabdicationofCharles
d. LouisPhilipewasputonthethrone,conservativeonlyhelpedtheupperclasses
e. Broughtalotofromanticart
f. Broughtnonewchange,andbroughtinaconstitutionalcharter
2. 1848
a. MajorRevolutionsweresparkedbynationalism,EconomicCrisis,Socialistideas,
andapushtowardsuniversalmalesuffrage
b. RevoltsstartsagaininFrance
c. Poorharvestbroughtevenmorerevoltsdemandingreform
d. Lotsofprotests,Frencharmywassenttocalmdowntheprotests
e. PhilippeAbdicated
i. Ledtoa2ndrepublicthatgranteduniversalmalesuffrage,freedomof
slaves,10hourworkday,andthedeathpenaltywasabolished
f. 2ndrepublicwasliberal,butcouldnotdecideonfutureplans
g. Manypeoplewantedsocialistprinciples
i. Ledtothecreationofnationalworkshops
1. Thesenationalworkshopswererunbythegovernmenttopromote
fairnessandequalityandlesscompletion
ii. Ideafellapart,notenoughspace>GeneralLouisCavignac>JuneDays
Revolt
iii. LouisNapoleontookthethrone,wasconservativeandwasjustpromising
LawandOrder
3. TheseRevolutionshadspreadthroughoutEurope
Austria
1. Manyethnicgroups,spurredbynationalism,wantedtorevolt

2. Ferdinand1stlistened[somewhat]andgavesomeliberalprinciples
3. Manyethnicgroupsstartedtargetingeachother,insteadofindependenceagainstAustria
4. NewEmperorwaschose>FranzJoseph
a. CalledNickolas1stofRussiatohelphimcrushHungarianrevolt
b. Conservativeswon.fornow
Prussia
1. Liberalismspread,peoplewantedaconstitutionandcivilliberties,andaunified
Germany
2. RevoltspreadinBerlin,FrederickWilliamIVmadepromisesforchange,butdidnt
reallyhappen
3. AssemblygatheredinFrankfurtcalledtheFrankfurtAssembly
a. Goalwastowriteanewconstitution
b. SelfAppointed,wasontrackuntilDenmarkattackedGermanyandtooktheir
plansofftrack
4. FrederickproclaimeddivinerightandsecretlygotalltheGermanprincestobackhimup
5. AustriaandRussiadecidedtoattackedifthathappenedtokeepBalanceofPowerin
check
6. Germanstatesremainintactandeverythingstayswhereitstarted

Chapter24

TamingtheCity:
Eventhoughnineteenthcenturycitiessawhorriblelivingconditions,therewerealso
greateropportunities.
IndustryandtheGrowthofCities:
1. Europeancitieshadtypicallybeencongestedandunhealthy,withahigherdeathrate
thanruralareas.
2. Industrializationmadethoseconditionsmoreobviousascitiesgrewrapidlytosupply
theneedsofanexpandingeconomy.
3. ThisrapidurbanizationbeganinGreatBritainandthenFrance,anditsoonbecame
apparentthathighlyconcentrated,unsanitarylivingconditionsneededtobe
addressed.
PublicHealthandtheBacterialRevolution:
1. Beginninginthe1840s,reformerssuchasEdwinChadwick,whostressedtheneed
forbettersanitationandpublichealth,gainedsupportersinindustrializedcountries.
2. Citygovernmentsrespondedwithreforms.LouisPasteursgermtheoryofdisease
andhisdevelopmentofpasteurization,andJosephListersantisepticprincipleplayed
majorrolesinreducingdeathrates.

UrbanPlanningandPublicTransportation:
1. Betterurbanplanninggreatlyimprovedthecities.
2. Parisledthewayandprovidedamodelthatothercitiesfollowed.
3. Masspublictransportationalsoimprovedconditionsbecauseitallowedthe
populationtospreadoutmore,whichledtobetterhousing.
RichandPoorandThoseinBetween:
1. Inspiteofimprovedhealthandlivingconditions,therewerestillmajorgapsin
thelivingstandardsofdifferentclasses.
SocialStructure:
2. Industrializationledtoariseinrealwages,butitdidnoteliminatehardshipand
povertyorequalizetheclasses.
3. The5percentofthepopulationintheupperclassreceived33percentofall
nationalincome,the20
4. percentthatmadeupthemiddleclassreceivedmorethan50percent,andthe
poorest80percentreceivedfarlessthanthetworichestclasses.
5. Industrializationdidcreateagreaternumberofsubclasseswithaconfusingsocial
hierarchy.
TheMiddleClasses:
1. Therewasatremendousrangewithintheurbanmiddleclass.
2. Theuppermiddleclassincludedthemostsuccessfulbusinessfamiliesandwas
typicallydrawntoaristocraticlifestyles.
3. Thenextgroupincludedthemoderatelysuccessfulbusinessmenandprofessionals,
andthelowermiddleclasswasprimarilysmallbusinessowners.
4. Newtothemiddleclass,weretheexpertswithspecializedknowledgesuchas
engineersandamanagementclass,includinggovernmentofficials.
5. Themiddleclassgrewsubstantially.
MiddleClassCulture:
1. Middleclasscultureemphasizedfoodbecausethemiddleclasslikedtoeatwelland
enjoyedentertainingwithdinnerparties.
2. Middleclasshomesincludedservantsandcomfortablesettings,althoughmany
rentedapartments.
3. Othermajorexpensesincludefashionableclothesandeducation.
4. Themiddleclassessharedacodeofstrictbehaviorandmorality,supportedby
Christianity.
TheWorkingClasses:
1. Withindustrialization,moreoftheworkingclasswereurbanworkersratherthan
peasants.
2. Theworkingclassesincludedagreatdiversityofjobs,skills,andlifestyles.

3. Themostskilledworkerscreatedalaboraristocracythatenjoyedthegreatest
earningsandmaintainedstrictstandardsofbehavior.
4. Theunskilledandlowerclassesincludedmanydifferentgroups;oneofthelargest
wasdomesticservants.
WorkingClassLeisureandReligion:
1. Whiledrinkingremainedoneofthefavoritepastimesofthelowerclass,problem
drinkingdidbecomelesssociallyacceptableduetomiddleclassmoralvalues.
2. Sportsandmusichallswerealsopopular.ReligionandChristianchurchesplayeda
majorroleinthelivesofthelowerclass,eventhoughchurchattendancedeclinedfor
Europeanurbanworkingclassesneartheendofthecentury.
3. Churcheswereoftenseenastooconservativebyanincreasinglypoliticallyconscious
workingclass.
TheChangingFamily:
1. Inthelatenineteenthcentury,familylifestabilizedfromthedisruptions
associatedwiththeearliestdecadesofindustrialization.
PremaritalSexandMarriage:
2. Workingclassmarriagesweremorelikelytobemotivatedbyromanticloveafter
1850.
3. Themiddleclassstillgavegreatemphasistoeconomicconsiderations.
4. From17501850,therewasgreatersexualexperimentationbeforemarriageand
anillegitimacyexplosion,particularlyinindustrialized,urbanizedareasnot
stronglyinfluencedbyreligiousgroupsprohibitingpremaritalsex.
5. After1850,therateofillegitimatebirthsdeclined,buttherateofpregnantbrides
remainedconstant.
Prostitution:
1. Prostitutionwascommon,withmiddleandupperclassmenprovidingmuchofthe
motivatingcash.
2. Formanylowerclassgirls,prostitutionwasawaytosupportthemselvesasyoung
adults,andtheylaterwentontomarryandhavefamilies.
KinshipTies:
1. Extendedfamiliesoftenlivedclosetogetherandretainedcloseties.
2. Familymemberstypicallysupportedeachotherinhardship,sothattherewasless
relianceongovernmentwelfareprograms.
GenderRolesandFamilyLife:
1. After1850,womenweremorelikelytostayathome,withonlywomeninthepoorest
familiesworkingoutsidethehome.

2. Separatespheresinthedivisionoflaborledtosexuallydiscriminatoryhiring,
education,andlegalpractices.
3. Middleclassfeministsslowlywonsignificantvictories,whilesocialistwomenlinked
theirliberationtotheworkingclassrevolution.
4. Womendominatedtheirhouseholds,includingfinances.Thehomeasasanctuary
receivedincreasingattention,andmarriagesinvolvedstrongeremotionalties.
ChildRearing:
1. Nineteenthcenturywomenweremorelikelytoformstrongemotionaltiestotheir
infantsandbecamebettermothers.
2. Theyincreasinglybreastfedtheirinfants,andfatherswerebecomingmoreinvolved
withtheirchildren.
3. Parentsexpressedgreaterconcernfortheirolderchildren.
4. Extendinggreatercaretochildrenledtolowerbirthrates,asparentsweremore
carefulnottooverextendtheirresources.
5. Parentsoftencreatedpressurefortheirchildrenwiththisincreasedemphasisontheir
wellbeing.
6. Fatherswereoftenoverbearing.
7. SigmundFreudstheoriesreflectthisnewtensionandemotionaltiesinthefamily.
ScienceandThought:
1. Inthenineteenthcentury,scientificknowledgewasrapidlyexpandingandhaving
agreaterimpactonwesternthought.Also,muchofthecenturysawaliteraryshift
towardrealism.
TheTriumphofScience:
2. Numerousscientificdiscoveriesgreatlyinfluencedhumanthoughtandtheir
practicalapplicationsimprovedlifestyles.
3. ExamplesincludeLouisPasteurswork,thedevelopmentofthermodynamics,and
advancementsinchemistryandelectricity.
4. Aspeoplebecamemoreawareofscienceanditsimpactontheirlives,itgaineda
newimportanceinwesternthought.
SocialScienceandEvolution:
1. Attemptstoapplyscientificmethodstosocietycreatedthesocialsciences.
2. ThinkerssuchaseconomistKarlMarxandsociologistAugusteComteapplied
massiveamountsofdatatotheirtheories.
3. Theideaofevolutiondominatedmanythinkersandimpactedtheworkofgeologist
CharlesLyell,naturalistCharlesDarwin,andsociologistHerbertSpencer.
RealisminLiterature:
1. Bythe1840s,realismwasdominatingwesternliteratureandwouldcontinuetodoso
untilthe1890s.

2. Attemptingtodepictlifeaccurately,realistsemployedscientificobjectivityinwriting
abouteverydaylife,particularlyfocusingontheworkingclasses.
3. Realistswerestrictdeterminists,believingthathumanactswereresultsofunalterable
naturallaws,suchasheredityandenvironment.
4. ThemovementbeganinFrancebutquicklyspreadelsewhere,includingEngland,
Russia,andtheUnitedStates.