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1. When is recycling possible to be conducted?
Recycling is possible to be conducted in 2000
2. What are the target of recycling conducted by the British?
The target was: by 2000, half of the recoverable
material in UKs dustbins will be recycled.
3. What are the four categories of waste mentioned in the
The contents of the typical British dustbins are made up
of Combustible materials ( which comprise 33% of
paper, 7% of plastic, 4% textiles, and 8% miscellaneous
combustibles), Non-combustibles (such as metal and
glass) each make up another 10%, Organic wastes
(such as potato peelings and cabbage stalks) account
for 20%, and the rest is dust.
4. What kind of waste is best recycled? Why?
Kinds of waste that are waste recycled: paper, plastics,
metals, and glass because they are environmentally
harmful. For example, plastics lasts a long time in the
environment. They're very light and they float, so
plastic litter drifts across the oceans and washes up on
our beaches, killing wildlife and scarring the shoreline.
Metals from beverages cans are made from aluminium.
Mining aluminium is a very energy-intensive and
environmentally harmful process. So, instead of taking
more aluminium, its better to recycle them and turn
them into new cans. And based on a research, recycling
one ton of paper can save 17 trees, 7,000 gallons of
water, 380 gallons of oil, 3.3 cubic yards of landfill
space and 4,000 kilowatts of energy-enough to power
the average U.S. home for six months-and reduce
greenhouse gas emissions by one metric ton of carbon
equivalent These items are also the best to be recycled
because theyre easier to be recycled than other items.
Glass is very easy to be recycled. Glass bottles and jars
can be melted down and used again and again.
5. What are the topics of each paragraphs?

1) Chris Pattens target on recycling British dustbins.

2) Half of the content of typical British dustbin is made
up of combustible materials.
3) Other materials that are found in typical British
4) Best way to separate the clean element from the rest
of the trash.
5) How to halve the weight of domestic waste going to
6) Expectations/Assumptions in British recycling
program in the future.
6. Give the text a suitable title and explain why you give that
particular title
Waste Recycling in Britain. Because it suits the text the
best. This title shows what information the readers will
get from reading the text.
7. The secretary state for the environment has given clear
details on how to achieve the target of recycling
8. The proportion of putrescible is decreasing due to
increased popularity of fast food
9. Reducing the weight of domestic waste maybe performed
through bring and collect scenario
The British government has issued legislation to
create markets for recycled products

Text B
One of the most difficult wastes to recycle is mixed plastics,
often used in wrappers and containers. Plastic manufacturers
turn their own offcuts into granules that are melted down for
reuse. They can also reuse any single, pure thermoplastic
materials, (2) ____________. The British firm Meyer-Newman of
Gwent recycles complete telephones into new ones. But mixed
plastics have unpredictable properties and low structural
strength because (3) ___________. So it is difficult to make a
material with good and predictable properties from mixed
plastic wastes.
One answer is compatibiliser. This is an octopus-like molecule in
which each arm represents a section of different polymer, that
in turn (4) ____________. Stirred into a mixture of molten plastic,
each arm of the octopus grabs and reacts chemically with a
molecule of the one polymer in 5 the mixture. The result is an
alloy rather than a mixture. It is strong because of intramolecular bonding and has highly predictable properties, so it
is potentially reusable. During the past two or three years,
many plastic manufacturers have (5) ___________. But perhaps

the most advanced, Bennet, was produced independently two

years ago, after 15 years of research, by the Dutch engineer
Der Groep. His invention is already being used widely, largely in
secret (6) __________. Bennet is made up of short sections of
several polymers representing the arms of octopus, each is able
to link the molecules of a different polymer in the mixture. The
reliable strength of the plastic alloys made with Bennet
suggests that (7) _____________. The vehicle recycling industry is
keen to recycle more plastics. Despite the environmental
benefits, they fear that the steady increase in the use of
reclaimable plastics will make it uneconomic to recover vehicles
from the metals they contain. Some car manufacturers, such as
BMW and Mercedes, are now designing products and requesting
components that are easier to recycle: (8) ____________.
1. J. such as polythene that are not chemically cross-linked.
2. K. the different plastics in the mixture are not bonded at
molecular level.
3. B. developed their own compatibiliser.
4. G. always been sceptical about recycling plastics.
5. C. which has never been achieved despite substantial
government investment in research.
6. D. They could be used in high-grade, high-cost
applications such as car bumpers.
7. F. For example. Car bumpers made from one material
instead of up to seven

Page 75-76
A. Reading Comprehension
1. In your own words, say briefly what the whole text is
The text tells us about what is catalytic converter. From
this text, we know that it helps to reduce the pollutants
that petrol engines produces. Moreover, the USA and
European has made it an obligatory for new cars to use
catalytic converter. But apparently, based on an
experiment by Swedish and French researchers, catalytic
converter (in the form of TWC, three-way catalytic





converter) produces up to five times as much as nitrous

oxide as cars without them.
What are the topics of the following paragraphs?
a. Paragraph II
: Definition of Catalytic Converter
b. Paragraph III : US and France has made it an
obligation for new cars to use catalytic converter
c. Paragraph V
: Swedish and France researchers
show that the level of Nitrogen Oxide rose in cars
with Catalytic Converter
d. Paragraph VI : Cars without TWCs could produce
more Nitrous Oxide indirectly
Why are European countries trying to make it obligatory
for new cars to be fitted with TWCs?
Because TWCs can eliminate up to 80% of pollutants
that petrol engines produce, such as hydrocarbons,
carbon monoxide, and nitrogen oxides.
How did the researchers find that modern catalytic
converters fitted in cars increased nitrous oxide emission?
They looked at nitrous oxide emissions from cars with
petrol engines. All the studies found that cars equipped
with TWCs produced more nitrous oxide than either a
car without a TWC of a diesel-powered vehicle. They
found out that vehicles with TWCs produce up to five
times as much as nitrous oxide as cars without them.
Why do researchers think that car without TWCs may
indirectly produce more nitrous oxide?
Because TWCs have a significant role in reducing other
oxides of nitrogen, nitrogen monoxide (NO), and
nitrogen dioxide (NO2), which produce nitrous oxide
when they are deposited on surfaces. So, cars without
TWCs could produce more nitrous oxide indirectly.

6. Nitrous oxide as well as carbon dioxide, methane, and
CFCs are the by-product of the process within the catalytic
FALSE. Nitrous oxide as well as carbon dioxide,
methane, and CFCs are the contributors to the
greenhouse effect. Among those four, nitrous oxide is

the only by-product of the process within a catalytic

7. Scientists have just found out that nitrous oxide is a
significant pollutant from motor vehicles.
FALSE. As mentioned on the text, the researchers said
that nitrous oxide is NOT the significant pollutant from
motor vehicles.
8. Researchers are now trying to find a way to modify the
catalytic converter after they made a study of the
chemical processes of the production of nitrous oxide
within the converter.
FALSE. Researchers do not understand the chemical
processes by which nitrous oxide is produced within
TWCs, they cannot modify the converters to prevent
nitrous gas from forming.
9. Diesel-powered vehicles turn out to be greener than
modern cars equipped with TWCs
TRUE. All the studies found that cars equipped with
TWCs produced more nitrous oxide than either a car
without a TWC of a diesel-powered vehicle
The best title for the text is: Global Warming: The
Effect of Using Cars.
FALSE. The text doesnt talk about effects of using cars.
It tells about cars equipped with catalytic converter and
their effects. So, the best title for the text is: Catalytic
Converter: Take it or Leave it?
C. Referent
a) Them in line 3 refers to:
Catalytic Converter
b) These pollutants in line 7 refer to:
Hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen dioxide
c) Its in line 12 refers to:
Nitrous oxide
d) Them in line 21 refers to:
e) This gas in line 25 refers to
Nitrous oxide