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Introduction

Today I will explain about schizophrenia. Based on data from basic medical research
( Riskesdas , 2013 ) the prevalence of mental disorders reach 1.7 percent of the population of
Indonesia. Most mental disorders in Yogyakarta ( 2.7 % ) , Aceh ( 2.7 % ), South ( 2.6 % ) ,
Bali ( 2.3 % ) , Central Java ( 2.3 % ) , and North Sulawesi ( 0.8 %. ) . why from year to year
is always increasing ? we will discuss now.
Overview
First, I will explain about the definition of schizophrenia
Second, I will describe the cause of schizophrenia
After that, I will show you the symptoms of schizophrenia
Then, I will explain the types of schizophrenia
And finally, I will describe the treatments of schizophrenia

Body
Schizophrenia is a mental disorder often characterized by abnormal social behavior and
failure to recognize what is real.
People with the disorder may hear voices other people dont hear. They may believe other
people are reading their minds, controlling their thoughts, or plotting to harm them.
People with schizophrenia may not make sence when they talk. They may sit for hours
without moving or talking. Sometimes people with schizophrenia seem perfectly fine until
talk about what they are really thinking
Families and society are affected by schizophrenia too. Many people with schizophrenia have
difficulty holding a job or caring for themselves, so they rely on other for help.
Treatment helps relieve many symptoms of schizophrenia, but most people who have the
disorder cope with symptoms throughout their lives. However, many people with
schizophrenia can lead rewarding and meaningful lives in their communities. Researchers are
developing more effective medications and using new research tools to understand the causes
of schizophrenia. In the years to come, this work may help prevent and better treat the illness.
the cause of schizophrenia
The exact cause of schizophrenia is unknown until now. But there are some factors that
experts say affects the onset schizophrenia is a genetic one.
What are the symptoms of schizophrenia?
The symptoms of schizophrenia fall into three broad categories: positive symptoms, negative
symptoms, and cognitive symptoms.

Positive symptoms
a. Delusions, namely an irrational beliefs (not unreasonable). Although it has been
objectively proven that belief was irrational, but people still believe in the truth.
b. Hallucinations are sensory experiences without stimuli (stimulus). For example,
patients hear voices or whisperings in his ear when there is no source of the sound.
c. Natural chaos think that can be seen from the contents of the conversation. For
example talking chaotic that it cant follow the flow of his thoughts.
d. Noisy, restless, can not be silent, paced, aggressive, talking excitedly and happily
excessive.
e. Felt "a great man", was completely capable, all-round superb and the like.
f. His thoughts filled with suspicion or as if there is a threat against him
g. Saving hostility
Negative symptoms
a. Natural feeling (Affect) "blunt" and "horizontal". This feeling natural picture can be
seen of his face showed no expression.
b. Withdraw or isolate themselves, do not want bergauk or contact with others, and
dreamy.
c. Little emotional contact, it is difficult to talk, quiet.
d. Passive and apathetic, withdrawn ari social interaction.
e. Difficult in abstract thinking.
f. Stereotypical mindset.
g. No or loss will urge (avilition) and sodium absorption ratio is no initiative, no effort
and effort, there is no spontaneity, and does not want anything, and completely lazy
(loss of appetite).
Types of Schizophrenia
Types of schizophrenia by Kraepelin quoted Maramis (1998), among others:
1. Schizophrenia Simplex: often occur during puberty. The main symptoms in
schizophrenia simplex is the shallowness of emotion and volition setback.
Disturbance of thinking processes are usually hard to find. This type of timbunya
slowly. At the beginning of the patient may pay less attention to his family. The longer
the skids in work or studying and eventually became unemployed and when no one
helped him he would become beggars, prostitutes, and criminals.
2. Schizophrenia Hebefrenik: beginnings often arise in adolescence between 15-25 years
old. Conspicuous symptoms are: disorders of thinking processes, impaired volition,
and the depersonalization or double personality. Disturbance just as delusions,
hallucinations, childishness common in Schizophrenia Hebefrenik
3. Catatonic Schizophrenia (SkizofreniKatatonika): first arise between the age of 15-30
years, and is usually acute and is often preceded by emotional stress
4. Paraniod Schizophrenia: Paranoid Schizophrenia somewhat different from the other
species in the course of the disease. The symptoms were striking is the primary
delusions, accompanied by delusions-secondary delusions and hallucinations. New
thorough examination can be found thinking process disorders, irritability, aloof,
somewhat arrogant, and lack of trust in others

Treatment of Schizophrenia
Treatment according to Hawari (1998):
1. Psycho pharma
Basically all anti-psychotic drugs have the primary effect (clinical effect) of the same in
equivalent doses, the major differences in secondary effects (side effects: sedation,
autonomic, extrapyramidal). Selection of types of anti-psychotic consider dominant
psychotic symptoms and side effects of drugs. Substitution adjusted to equivalent doses.
If certain antipsychotic drugs do not provide clinical response in a dose that has been
optimized after an appropriate period, can be replaced with other antipsychotics obaty
(preferably groups are not the same) and in accordance with equivalent doses.
In the dosing needs to consider:
a. Onset primary effect (clinical effect): 2-4 weeks. The onset of secondary effects (side
effects): 2-6 hours.
b. The half-life: 12-24 hours (giving 1-2x per day)
c. Rice and evening dose can be different (small morning, a big night) so it does not
interfere with the quality of life of patients.
d. Long acting antipsychotic drugs: fluphenazinedecanoate 25 mg / cc or decanoas
haloperidol 50mg / cc, IM for 2-4 weeks. Useful for patients who do not / difficult to
take medication, and maintenance therapy.
2. Psychotherapy
Psychotherapy psychiatric therapy or therapy in patients with schizophrenia can be given
if the patient has been doing therapy psikofarma and has reached the stage where the
ability to assess reality (Reality testing abilitiy / RTA) has been recovered and have good
self-understanding.
Psychotherapy is a lot of kinds of variety depending on the needs and background of the
patient before the illness. Among them:
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
3.

Supportive psychotherapy
Re-educative psychotherapy
Re-constructive psychotherapy
Cognitive Psychotherapy
Psycho-dynamic psychotherapy
Psychotherapy Behavior
Psychosocial

According Hawari, (1998) there are several kinds of methods that can be done include:
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

Individual Psychotherapy
Supportive therapy
Social skills training
Occupational Therapy
Cognitive and Behavioral Therapy (CBT)

f. Psychotherapy Group
g. Family Psychotherapy
Ending
Schizophrenia is a mental disorder often characterized by abnormal social behavior and
failure to recognize what is real. the cause is unknown until now but the effect is the genes of
the parents and the environment . Schizophrenia is treated with pharmacological therapy and
psychotherapy