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The Explorer Islamabad: Journal of Social Sciences

ISSN: 2411-0132(E), 2411-5487(P)


Vol-1, Issue (11): 421-423
www.theexplorerpak.org

A SOCIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF FEMALE AWARENESS AND VIOLATION OF RIGHTS IN


SOUTHERN PUNJAB A CASE STUDY IN DISTRICT MUZAFFARGARH
Muhammad Nadir Shahzad1, Muhammad Shahzad2, Touqeer Ahmed3, Shahid Hussain4, Shafqat Ali4
1
Quaid.i.Azam University Islamabad, 2University of Sargodha, 3Area Manager Innovative development
Strategies Pvt. Ltd, 4PMAS-Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi
Corresponding Author:
Muhammad Nadir Shahzad
Department of Sociology QAU Islamabad
nadirshahzadqau@gmail.com
Abstract: Present study was planned in the field of women in the district Muzaffargarh. It is seen that
women lived deprived and innocent in this social world. She faced social, cultural, and religious barriers
to attain their rights. An educated women faced less problems rather than uneducated women because
she has no aware about their rights. The main objective of this study is that to see the relationship
between female awareness and level of exploitation. Sample size was 120 respondents in the town shah
Jamal. Snowball sampling techniques was used for the research purposive. Interview schedule was used
for the data collection. Data was analyzed through SPSS software to test the hypothesis to see the
relationship between different variables.
Key Words: Awareness, Violation Physical, Sexual abuse
INTRODUCTION
Violence against women and girls is one of the
most widespread violations of human rights. It
can include physical, sexual, psychological and
economic abuse, and it cuts across boundaries of
age, race, culture, wealth and geography. It takes
place in the home, on the streets, in schools, the
workplace, in farm fields, refugee camps, during
conflicts and crises. Violence affects the lives of
millions of women worldwide, in all socioeconomic and educational classes. It cuts across
cultural and religious barriers, impeding the right
of women to participate fully in society. The
definition of violence against women varies, but
the most widely accepted definition is that
established by Declaration on the Elimination of
Violence Against Women, adopted by the UN
General Assembly in 1994, which defines violence
against women as any act of gender-based
violence that results in, or is likely to result in,
physical, sexual or psychological harm or
suffering to women, including threats of such
acts, coercion or arbitrary deprivation of liberty,
whether occurring in public or in private life.
This definition encompasses physical, sexual and
psychological violence occurring in the family,

within the general community, and violence


Perpetrated or condoned by the state. It also
establishes the practices of forced sterilization
and forced abortion, coercive forced use of
contraceptives, female infanticide and prenatal
sex selection as acts of violence against women.
The promotion of gender equality and
empowerment of women is among the eight
Millennium Development Goals to which the
international community has committed itself.
While significant improvements towards reaching
this goal have already been achieved an
impressive increase in girls school enrolment
worldwide over the last five to ten years the
situation of women remains unsatisfactory.
Generally speaking, in the developing world,
women are still largely denied access to the
formal labor market and do not have equal
opportunities to qualify for higher employment.
They are consequently less likely to occupy
administrative or managerial positions and lag
significantly behind in terms of career
development and earnings increases (Wamai
2009). Womens and men's rights were almost
exactly equal. A woman was entitled to her own
private property, including land, livestock, slaves,

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and servants. A woman had the right to inherit


whatever anyone bequeathed to her as a death
gift, and in the absence of sons would inherit
everything. A woman could likewise bequeath
her belongings to others as a death gift. Upon
dying intestate, a woman would be inherited by
her children if she had them, her husband if she
was married, or her father if she were single. A
woman could sue in court and did not need a
male to represent her. The present study was
conduct in the district Muzaffargarh to analysis
the female awareness and violation of rights
among educated female. Now a days N.G.O,
media are playing vital role to aware the women
about their rights. The main purposive of this
research is to know check the access of rights
among educated women, either they are
attaining their rights or not in this technological
world.
LITERATURE
Women have raised a wide range of issues which
restrict and prohibit the enjoyment of their
rights. Inadequate laws, structurally, culturally,
religiously, legally and politically Institutionalized
patriarchal mindsets are responsible for women
being treated as second class citizens, in the
country, in the family and in society as a whole.
Political instability, and unaccountable leadership
have created unstable state so, peace is
paramount (Pandey 2010). Without lasting peace
it is not possible to have a substantial
development or to create the socio-economic
foundation required to maintain security and
build a democratic framework in the country. In
order to address these issues women have made
recommendations which focus on development,
health, education, economic opportunities, and
local government. On the basis of their
recommendations, it is clear that women want a
secure, peaceful and dignified life. That although
men have traditionally held property in the name
of the family, it is important to remember that
wives, daughters and under-age sons have always
been allowed to benefit from this property to
guarantee their survival and wellbeing (Welch, et
al. 2007). As women were not allowed to own or
inherit property themselves, this implied an
obligation on the part of male members of the
family. Sons who inherited from their parents
were supposed to take care of their sisters and
allow them to use some of the land to secure

their livelihood until they got married. Widows


who were still of child-bearing age would remain
in the family through the practice of widow
inheritance. Elderly widows who were not
expected to marry again were allowed life-time
usage of the land that passed on to male heirs so
that they could stay in their marital homes. The
main difference is that the Civil Code grants equal
rights to female and male heirs in each category.
According to the Civil Code, descendants are first
to inherit and the estate is divided in equal parts
between the children of the deceased, with the
exception of illegitimate children who receive
half the quota assigned to legitimate children.
Michael (2004) conducted the research on the
Womens Property and Inheritance Rights. He
stated that one of the challenges faced by
women in contemporary Namibian society is
women's unequal access vis-a-vis men to
property, which limits women's ability to strive
for gender equality within both their personal
and social spheres of life. There has been little
systematic, in-depth research and publication
relating to women's property and inheritance
rights in Namibia, although it is known that there
are customary beliefs and practices that
discriminate against women. It is against this
background that the University of Namibia's
Gender Training and Research Program and in
collaboration with the Legal Assistance Centre,
has undertaken research into the topic, in various
regions of the country and involving the major
ethnic groups, with the specific purpose of
producing a report to be used by Government,
Nongovernmental Organizations, Donors and
Community based Organizations in formulating
their policies and information campaigns aimed
at improving women's access to property.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The universe of present research was district
Muzaffargarh. In District Muzaffargarh town shah
Jamal was selected for universe of the study. The
sample of current research is taken by the
researcher is 120 of educated women. Target
population was according to the nature of study
an educated female of town shah Jamal.
Snowball sampling technique was used for
research purposive. Interview schedule was used
for data collection.
It was planned that
questionnaire should be filled in by the
researcher during face-to-face contents. Data

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was analyzed by using Statistical Package for


Social Sciences and chi-square was used to
validate the hypothesis.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Testing of Hypothesis
H0: there is no relationship between awareness
and the level of exploitation among women
HA: there is relationship between awareness and
the level of exploitation among women
Table.1:
The
Cross-Tabulation
between
Awareness and the Level of Exploitation among
Women
Decrease the level
of exploitation
High
Low
Total

Increase
the
level
of
awareness
High
Low
80
10
11
19
91
29

Total

90
30
120

The above table.1 consist cross-tabulation


between awareness and exploitation among
women. The calculated p value is less than 0.5
which shows there is relationship between the
ethnic, and religious group, although conditions
such as poverty, drug or alcohol abuse, and
mental illness increase its likelihood. Studies
indicate that the incidence of domestic violence
among homosexual couples is approximately
equivalent to that found among heterosexual
couples. Any abusive, violent, coercive, forceful,
or threatening act or word inflicted by one
member of a family or household on another can
constitute domestic violence. Womens human
rights are violated in a variety of ways. Of course,
women sometimes suffer abuses such as political
repression that are similar to abuses suffered by
men. In these situations, female victims are often
visible, because the dominant image of the
political actor in our world is ale. However, many
violations of womens human rights are distinctly
connected to being female that is, women are
discriminated against and used on the basis of
gender. Womens right to land is a critical factor
in social status, economic well-being and
empowerment. Land is a basic source of
livelihood providing employment, the key
agricultural input, and a major determinant of a
farmers access to other productive resources
and services. Land is also a social asset, crucial for
cultural identity, political power and participation
in local decision making process.

CONCLUSION
Domestic violence most often refers to violence
between married or cohabiting couples, although
it sometimes refers to violence against other
members of a household, such as children or
elderly relatives. It occurs in every racial,
socioeconomic, two variables which is significant.
On the basis of this we reject the null hypothesis
and accept the alternate hypothesis.
REFERENCES
Michael, Conteh
2004 http://www.Women's Property
and
Inheritance
Rights
in
Namibia_Free Online Library.html.
Pandey, Shanta
2010 Rising
Property
Ownership
among Women in Kathmandu, Nepal:
An
Exploration
of Causes
and
Consequences. International Journal of
Social Welfare 19 (3): 281-292.
Welch, Charlotte Johnson, Nata Duvvury, and
Elizabeth Nicoletti
2007 Women's property rights as an
AIDS response: Lessons from Community
Interventions in Africa. International
Center for Research on Women.
Wamai, Njoki E.
2009 Women and Poverty (land rights
and ownership).A Policy Brief on the
Kenyan situation prepared for the African
Women Rights Observatory, Addis Ababa:
AWRO,
available
at:
http://goo.
gl/bkzWei.
Publication Date: Dec-1-2015
2015The Explorer Islamabad Journal of Social Sciences-Pakistan

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