You are on page 1of 8

The Explorer Islamabad: Journal of Social Sciences

ISSN: 2411-0132(E), 2411-5487(P)


Vol-1, Issue (11):428-435
www.theexplorerpak.org

LIVELIHOOD OF PEOPLE IN DISTRICT JHELUM


1

Ashar Sultan Kayani , Muhammad Waqas Khalid , Bashir Ahmed , Adil Hameed Shah
1
2
M.Sc. (hons )Department of Economics and Agri. Economics, PMAS-Arid Agriculture Rawalpindi. M. Phil
Economics Department of Economics and Agri.Economics, PMAS-Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi.
3
Lecturer at Department of Economics and Agri. Economics, PMAS-Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi

Corresponding Author:
Ashar Sultan Kayani
Department of Economics and Agri. Economics,
PMAS-Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi

ashar.sultan.kayani@gmail.com
Abstract: Pakistan is an agricultural country and of significant importance for the livelihood security of
millions of rural people who live in and around these arid zone. Policies, institutions and processes form the
context within which individuals and households construct and adapt livelihood strategies, on the other hand
these institutionally shaped livelihood strategies may have an impact on the sustainability of natural resource
use. The present study aims to critically analyze the forest policies of Pakistan agriculture mainly focused on
District Jhelum. Implications for sustainable agriculture management and livelihood security of agriculture
dependent people are also given. Most of the agricultural policies were associated with the change of
government. There was much rhetoric in some recent policies regarding the concept of "participation" and
"sustainable livelihoods" but in practice these policies are also replica of the previously top-down, autocratic
and non-participatory agricultural policies. Pakistan needs to develop a sustainable, workable, research-based,
and people-friendly forest policy enable to catering to the changing needs of stakeholders including
government.

Key words Farmer communities, Land management, Agricultural policy, Sustainable livelihoods
INTRODUCTION
Barani areas make a significant contribution to
agriculture and livestock production of
Pakistan. Out of the total cropped area of 20
million hectares about 5 million hectares do not
have any irrigation facility and completely
depend on rains. In Punjab, barani areas
contribute about 20 percent of cropped area.
While in the Pothowar region, cropped area is
over 90 percent. Livelihood is a means of
living, and the capabilities, assets and activities
required for it (Chambers and Conway 1992).
Livelihood comprises of capabilities, assets
(including both material and social resources)
and activities required for a means of living. A
livelihood is sustainable when it can cope with
and recover from stresses and shocks and
maintain or enhance its capabilities and assets
both now and in the future, while not
undermining the natural resource base (Carney
1998). Livelihood strategies are the sum of all
the different activities that people are doing in
the context of their livelihood (Chambers and
Conway, 1992).
In the research on rural household security
among agro pastoralists (nomads) shows that
chances of agro pastoralists households, to be

food secure are very high. As these people


practice agriculture in association with livestock
in their routine life. The results showed that
more than 65% were food secure .this mean
that these households had negative and
significant relationship with food security. Food
insecurity was more of poverty issue as
household had to sell more of their output to
meet their urgent needs. It was suggested that
community driven approach must be used to
alleviate poverty analysis for upcoming
research studies to find the other parts of
sustainable livelihoods framework (SLF) with
special reference to the changes going on in the
forest sector at institutional level of KPK.
The government did not anticipate that there
would be an increase in demand of electricity
and it was its responsibility to arrange the
supply according to the demand. Consequently,
during summer, 2007, supply of electricity ran
short of 2500 mw. It was being anticipated that
this year the deficit between supply and
demand could be as high as 3000 mw. By the
end of year 2010, the deficit could be as large
as 5500 mw. There were no immediate
solutions to generating additional power
through any source because a unit takes at

428

least 2-3years to establish properly. More than


5 years was required to construct a
hydroelectric dam and the investment was
enormous. This crisis had literally paralyzed the
construction
industry,
badly
affected
agriculture and made life hell for the citizens. In
view of existing ground realities and constraints
to address power crisis by generating electricity
within a short span of a few months, the need
to make the best use of existing power
generation by taking conservation measures at
individual, community and national level are
essential. These measures if implemented with
commitment and honesty of purpose could
help a lot of people to overcome negative
implications of power crisis. It hardly needs to
be emphasized that electricity is the lifeline of
national economy and the people at large. The
Economy and public life practically come to a
halt because of the load shedding. The existing
crisis can be addressed by the government by
taking prompt measures. There is hardly any
room for neglect or delay
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The number of inhabitants in the study territory
contains a range of 3,587 km2 is authoritatively
isolated into these tehsils: Sohawa, Pind Dadan
Khan and Dina, which are partitioned into 53
Union Councils speaking to the entire rainfed
cultivating framework. To distinguish diverse
job typologies the information was gathered for
standard overview taking after rundown
outline. Cochran, (1963) formulae for random
sampling of the known populace was utilized.
The information gathered through formal
studies contain diverse data on regular, human,
physical, money related capitals, pay, and
assets of the family as the unit of investigation.
Overview was directed of 150 groups of the
three destinations.
Information was broke down utilizing Principle
Component Analysis (PCA). The principal step
was to choose certain variables speaking to
distinctive work capitals (characteristic, human,
budgetary, physical and social) to make wealth
index. The wealth index was computed through
component investigation.
Wealth index was figured from these
components and the family units were grouped
into three welfare quartiles subsequent to
masterminding
in
climbing
for
the
straightforward instance of looking at variety in
persistent variables crosswise over single
elements, restricted ANOVA was utilized to

figure out if contrasts existed among the


methods. T-test importance and Chi-Square
test hugeness qualities were recorded for
quantitative and subjective examination. Our
information needed data on social capital
accordingly information for the most part on
other three vocation capitals were utilized for
element investigation and distinguishing proof
of employment techniques of the family units
with diverse resources gift. At long last three
fundamental employment systems were
recognized. For information examination SPSS16 bundle was utilized.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Distribution of Households by Welfare Groups
All the sample populace was arranged into four
distinctive welfare gatherings as per the
welfare file created through factor analysis. In
spite of the fact that the general circulation of
families into four welfare gatherings was
practically equivalent (25%) and there was no
significant difference (Chi-sq sig. = 0.08) yet the
family units at diverse areas shift in distinctive
welfare bunches. Generally less family units
(9%) were found in upper quartile at Sohawa
when contrasted with other two locales. The
circulation of family units as indicated by
welfare gatherings is given in Table 1.
Table. 1: Distribution of Households by
Welfare Groups at the Three Locations
Welfare Group
Lowest 2525%
50%
10(31) 10(31)

5075%
9 (28)

Highest
25%
3(9)

16(34)

9(19)

8(17)

14 (30)

47
(100)

Dina

12(17)

1
17(24)

22(31)

20 (28)

71
(100)

Overall

38(25)

36(24)

39(26)

37 (25)

150
(100)

Sites
Sohawa
Pind
Dadan
Khan

Overall
32(100)

(The figures given in the parenthesis are the


percentages)
Human Resource Endowment by Welfare
Group
Family unit head remains the principle main
impetus behind any occupation method of the
family. Qualities of the family head were
requested that specifically comprehend the
homestead administrator's choice making
energy to embrace a specific job technique.
Training, background and age of the head have
solid impact on the choice with respect to the
yields and animals administration and

429

homestead ventures. The family unit takes with


seniority around 50 years old with essential to
additional off ranch employment experience
center training level and 20 years of cultivating
were available in the upper welfare bunches.
knowledge. The lack of education declines as
Huge distinction was found in the age, training,
we move to the upper welfare bunch though
past off homestead employment experience
the training level increments especially 5-10
while aside from the past off ranch occupation
years of educating towards the upper quartile
experience and cultivating background. The
(Table 2).
greater part of the family heads were of
Table. 2: Characteristics of Household Heads by Welfare Groups

56.7
5.9
21.9

Highest
25%
56.2
7.3
18.3

Over
all
53.4
5.8
21.0

3.6

4.1

3.6

3.9

0.982

6.9

13.8

17.6

11.7

0.000

Characteristics

Lowest 25 %

25-50%

50-75%

Ave. age years


Formal education (years)
Farming experience years
Previous off farm job
experience years
Previous off farm job
experience years

52.1
5.4
22 9

48.4
4.7
20.8

4.3
8.4

Sig.
0.046
0.057
0.569

Education Level of the Family


educating for both male and female individuals
The education level of the family members
from the family among the four quartiles (Table
assumes an imperative part in welfare and
3). The outcomes get to be clearer when
improvement of a person as a segment and the
looking the family's percent individuals from
general public overall. Critical results were
every quartile with instruction level as given in
found for a long time or more years of
Table 4.
Table. 3: Distribution of Family Members by Education Level
Lowest 25%
Male
Education
Mean Value
Illiterate
0.34
Primary
0.37
Middle
0.45
Matric
0.42
FA
0.C3
Graduate
0.08
Technical
0.00
educated
Female Education
Illiterate
1.37
Primary
0.29
Middle
0.21
Matric
0.05
FA
0.00
Graduate
0.03
Technical
0.00
educated

25-50%

50.75%

Highest 25%

Overall

0.75
0.47
0.81
0.47
0.08
0.06

0.49
0.46
0.95
0.67
0.21
0.10

0.51
0.41
1.08
1.11
0.41
0.38

0.52
0.43
0.82
0.67
0.18
0.15

0.17
0.93
0.19
.0029
0.003
0.032

0.00

0.0

0.00

0.00

1.92
CI0.14
0.08
0.00
0.00

1.77
0.51
0.26
0.26
0.08
0.03

1.70
0.86
0.43
0.32
0.14
0.22

1.69
0.45
0.26
0.18
0.05
0.07

0.300
0.001
0.154
0.027
0.054
0.011

0.00

0.0

0.00

0.00

Sig.

Table. 4: Education Level by Welfare Group


Male Education
Illiterate
Primary
Middle
Matric
FA
Graduate
Technical educated

Lowest 25%
Percent
20
22
27
25
2
5
0

25-50%

50.75%

Highest 25%

Overall

28
18
31
18
3
2
0

17
16
37
23
7
3
0

13
11
28
28
11
10
0

19
16
30
24
6
5
0

430

Female Education
Illiterate
Primary
Middle
Matric
FA
Graduate
Technical educated

70
15
11
3
0
2
0

84
6
6
6
4
0
0

61
18
9
9
3
1
0

46
23
12
9
4
6
0

63
17
10
7
2
3
0

Direct relationship was found between the


Household Employment
welfare and education level of the family
Significant differences were found in the
members as the families with larger amount of
welfare quartiles for on-farm, off-farm for both
instruction and less ignorance were put in the
male and female. The most reduced quartiles
upper welfare quartiles. This circumstance is
were having less work working at homestead
more terrible in the event of the female
and off ranch. The family unit work power
training where 70 and 84 % females were
vocation status is expounded in Table 5.
ignorant in lower quartiles when contrasted
with 61 and 46% in the upper two quartiles
Table. 5: Household Labor Allocation by Welfare Quartiles
Male
On-Farm Full Time
On-Farm Part Time
Off farm
Female
On-Farm Full Time
On-Farm Part Time
Off farm
HHwith
Female
involvement
in
farming (%)

Lowest 25%
Average #
0.8
0.5
0.3

25-50%

50.75%

Highest 25%

Overall

1.0
0.8
1.0

1.1
0.9
1.1

1.5
1.1
1.8

1.1
0.8
1.1

0.008
0.053
0.000

0.8
0.4
0.0

0.6
0.9
0.0

0.4
1.2
0.0

0.4
2.5
0.1

0.5
1.3
0.0

0.29
0.000
0.093

76

78

77

95

81

Chi-Sq
0.126

Type of Jobs of Off Farm Workers


Off farm employment was the principle
wellspring of pay for the family units in upper
welfare quartiles and its offer increments as we
move from lower to the upper quartile. General
governments divisions and armed force turned
out to be the biggest manager for rainfed
regions. Almost 50% of the work power was
utilized out in the open area with 24% Working
in armed force and 23% utilized in all other
government offices. Work was the second

Sig.

fundamental pay source as 36% were acting as


worker. Little scale business especially retail
shop was the third off ranch salary producing
movement of the general population in rainfed
territories. There were clear contrasts inside of
the welfare quartiles for distinctive off ranch
exercises. The work power in the lower
quartiles was chiefly filling in as every day wage
workers and less in changeless government
occupations (Table 6).

Table. 6: Type of Jobs of Off-Farm Workers by Welfare Quartiles


Job Type

Lowest 25%

25-50%

50-75%

Highest 25%

Overall

Army

17

31

24

21

24

431

Govt,
service

17

12

24

38

23

Labour

42

50

38

17

36

Business

25

14

25

16

Significance level of Chi Square test =0.23


Composition of Operational Land Holding
assumes a critical part in the job and the
Exceedingly noteworthy contrasts were seen in
cultivations pay group in the country zones of
area assets of the families among all the
the rain fed Pothwar where off homestead
welfare bunches for a wide range of area
livelihood opportunities are exceptionally
possessions. The agriculturists in the lower two
constrain, so to expand the expectation for
quartiles have likewise leased in some area
everyday comforts of the provincial poor calls
hence their operational landholding was
for upgrade profitability of the homestead
minimal higher than the own developed area
assets. The innovative work mediations ought
holding and for upper two quartiles it was the
to focus on these little poorest of the poor
other way around. The area proprietorship
ranchers (Table 7).
Table. 7: Composition of Operational Landholding by Welfare Quartiles (Hectares)
Type of Land
Total own land
Cultivated
Non cultivated
Operational land
Irrigated
Un-irrigated

Lowest 25%
1.6
1.2
0.4
1.4
0.5
0.9

25-50%
1.8
1.3
0.5
1.5
0.9
0.6

Income of Household from Different Sources


Family unit salary from every one of the sources
was ascertained and compressed in Table 8.
Salary was arranged into two gatherings an) off
homestead wage and b) ranch wage.
Noteworthy contrasts were seen in wage
structure off ranch exercises and homestead
area. The wage from all sources increments as
we move from lower to upper quartile. In the
lower three quartiles females were not utilized
in the off ranch exercises and there was no pay
from settlements and employing out of tractor
as no family in the lower two quartiles own
tractor. Salary from yields was additionally
higher in upper quartiles because of more

50.75%
3.9
2.5
1.4
2.4
1.3
1.1

Highest 25%
7.8
4.0
3.8
3.8
1.4
2.5

Overall
32.8
2.3
1.5
2.3
1.0
1.3

Sig.
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

developed zone. Unequal conveyance of assets


was found in the study territory, as pay of the
lower quartile (Rs. 37332/year) was 4 times not
exactly the pay of the most noteworthy quartile
(Rs. 152732/year). Additionally exceedingly
critical results were discovered when
contrasting the per capita wage however the
force was moderately less as the distinctions
decreased to about two times against four
times in the event of general family pay every
year. The family unit's wage was low as on
general premise all the family lies underneath
the worldwide destitution line of IS per capita
everyday.

Table. 8: Income of Household by Welfare Quartiles


Income Source
Off Farm
Adult male
Adult female
Pension
Remittances
Hiring out tractor
Farm Income
Khaarif crops
Rabi crops
Livestock
Total Income Rs./Year

Lowest
25%
Rupees
9135
0
2653
0
0
4640
14455
6451
37332

25-50%

50.75%

Highest 25%

Overall

21167
0
2693
0
0

30166
0
7918
923
2026

71222
2173
8748
15703
5189

32805
536
5535
413
1807

0.000
0.176
0.000
0.004
0.011

4905
11728
10575
50068

6155
16806
11366
75360

10024
31097
8577
152732

6185
18517
9243
78741

0.018
0.000
0.093
0.000

Sig.

432

Per capita income (Rs/year)


Per capita income ($/ycar)
Per capita income (Rs/month)
Per capita income (S/day)

8289
142.91
691
0.39

9074
156.45
756
0.43

9908
170.82
826
0.47

Livelihood Typologies
Occupation systems are different (Ellis 1998),
impacted by linkages in and outside farming
(Bebbington 1999; De Haan 2000; Reardon, et
al. 1992), and life cycle family attributes, for
example, age, training, and the quantity of
relatives (Kusterer 1989; Valdivia 2000). The
legree of expansion of the family unit portfolio
is controlled by these attributes, and by ne
family unit's and singular's goals, for example,
hazard administration rehearses, and/or
methods accessible to adapt to stuns. In ranges
of more serious danger family unit methods are
required to be more broadened as an intend to
minimize conceivable stuns from negative
atmosphere occasions, particularly when
misfortune administration methodologies are
constrained (Dunn, et al, 1996).
As Hans et al have reasoned that occupation
systems can be a helpful and quantifiable idea
particularly when investigating land and soil
protection measures. Protection practices and
ventures should be fitting for the creation
framework, agro-biological conditions, and the
employment procedure; the work method
system can possibly be an imperative apparatus
in both the plan and focusing of arrangement.
Water, land, animals, products and information
are fundamental assets/resources in creating
the families in country ranges of the world.
Despite the fact that horticulture may not be
the sole wellspring of their wage, it is a
noteworthy part in the Tropics. Access, control,
and administration of these assets add to shape
which exercises are sought after, which
merchandise delivered, and me capacity to hold

15117
260.64
1260
0.71

10582
182.46
882
0.50

0.003
0.003
0.003
0.003

the advantages of their work. Get to and


control of assets and capitals, through various
social, political, monetary, biological and
horticultural settings, the connection's nature
in the middle of access and control of assorted
resources permit people to arrange their
business techniques and enhance prosperity in
country zones (Valdivia and Gilles 1996). At the
point when access is constrained or astute
because of absence of establishments
supporting this entrance by people, the
capacity to manage the normal asset base and
other human resources is jeopardized. In
general, rustic families rely on upon the salary
from off-ranch work (57%). taken after by yield
generation and domesticated animals (12%).
The most noteworthy welfare quartiles were
those generally more subject to off-ranch
occupation, less on harvests and have minimal
salary from animals. The most minimal quartiles
in destitution record are those more reliant on
pay from harvest creation, taking after by offranch wage and animals generation. In any
case, the most minimal quartiles are
moderately more subject to domesticated
animals as contrasted and those in the most
noteworthy quartiles (Table 9).
Keeping in view the above discourse on the
accessibility of all assets and wage of the family
unit from diverse exercises the families could
be assembled into three groups with
comparative occupation typologies.

Table. 9: Income from Different Sources


Income Sources
Income from crops
Income from Livestock
Income from Off Farm
Activities

Lowest 25%
Percent Share
51
17

25-50%

50-75%

Highest 25%

Overall

31
21

30
15

27
5

31
12

32

48

54

67

57

Group 1

433

Mixed crop livestock farming: Crop creation as


the essential development nearby trained
creatures developing yet the offer of pay
structure off farm activities is situated at
second number. The families in the most
decreased quartile mainly take after this
typology. Regardless, the most lessened
quartile is respectably more subject to
creatures as differentiated and those in the
most hoisted quartiles.
Group II
Agriculture and off farm employment: Families
focus half of the pay structure items and tamed
creatures and half from off residence
occupations. The dependence on harvest is not
precisely the first arrangement and more on
creatures still the pay from yields was just
about half higher than kick the container
compensation from tamed creatures.
Group III
Most critical welfare quartiles were those
decently more subject to off-farm business, less
on
harvests
and
have
insignificant
compensation from trained creatures. The offer
of tamed creatures pay is only 6%. The greater
parts of the relatives are involved with off
residence practices moreover settlements from
the
genuine
offer of
compensation.
Agribusiness is seen as low support activity and
less resource are diverted from off-estate to
extend the farm gainfulness and pay.
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
The ways individuals bring home the bacon,
and the imperatives and opportunities they
confront in doing as such can unequivocally
influence the status and administration of
regular pool assets. Business techniques in the
downpour encouraged ranges are rapid
especially because of instability in agribusiness
because of inconsistent precipitation. In this
manner individuals are occupied with
distinctive
employment
exercises
and
continually searching for sufficient salary
sources. Crop change exploration confronts
more difficulties in the dry zones and the
appropriation of soil and water protection
rehearses for reasonable occupation with long
haul ecological and monetary advantages is
questionable. Ranchers in the dry ranges face
both natural and financial obstacles that make
the rate of destitution moderately high. Under
these conditions NARC ought to acknowledge
the test to create and give innovative bundles
that could acquire substantial enhancements

the job of country poor in the downpour


bolstered zones with blend product and
domesticated animals cultivating framework.
The present study utilizes the employment
method reasonable system to dissect
information gathered on 150 country family
units from the three Integrated Research Sites
of BVDP. Family units were assembled into four
welfare quartiles to distinguish diverse work
systems utilizing Principle Component Analysis
in light of the family unit resources. Three
fundamental vocation procedures were
recognized through examining the asset
accessibility and wage in distinctive welfare
quartiles of the example families. The job
procedures recognized include: a) Mixed
harvest domesticated animals cultivating with
more reliance on yield generation; b)
Agriculture and off homestead occupation with
half of the wage from products and animals and
half from off ranch livelihoods; c) The most
elevated welfare quartile were those
moderately more subject to off-ranch business,
less on harvests and had minimal wage from
domesticated animals.
The principle conclusions drawn from the
present study on business typologies of area
jhelum are taking after that Crop domesticated
animals framework ought to be enhanced
through advancement of dry spell tolerant
nourishment and feed yields. Efficiency
upgrade of domesticated animals through
enhanced breeds and enhanced herd
administration. Change underway of money
products, for example, groundnut and
heartbeats alongside the advancement of high
esteem crops at the rare watering system water
wherever accessible in downpour nourished
regions. Enhanced soil and water protection
practices ought to be received for reasonable
utilization of accessible assets. Advancement of
neighborhood organizations, country systems,
endeavors, and agriculturist vested parties are
key to out-scale the dissemination of these
promising advances. More dynamic support of
agriculturists in innovation era and assessment
is crucial for quick innovation reception. An
incorporated
methodology
with
solid
coordination in the middle of innovative work is
obliged to have any sizeable effect on salary to
cover a few generation exercises. Market
advancement for ranch yield is basic to
enhance money wage. This would propel the
families with additional off homestead pay

434

(upper quartile) to occupy the assets of off


ranch to agribusiness creating more job and
wage for the provincial landless. Advancement
of smaller scale undertakings, for example,
sheep/goat stuffing are connected with
homestead creation. Advancement of little
scale watering system offices, for example,
burrowed wells and smaller than expected
dams ought to be enhanced for nourishment
and grain security in the discriminating periods.
Miniaturized scale credit for harvest
domesticated animals and small scale endeavor
advancement.
REFERENCES
Bebbington, Anthony
1999 Capitals and Capabilities: A
Framework for Analyzing Peasant
Viability, Rural Livelihoods and Poverty.
World Development 27(12):2021-2044.
Carney, Diana
1998 Sustainable
Rural
Livelihoods: What Contribution can we
Make? Natural Resource Advisers
Conference. July 1998. DFID London,
UK.
Chambers, Robert, and Gordon Conway
1992 Sustainable Rural Livelihoods:
Practical Concepts for the 21st Century.
Institute of Development Studies UK.

Livelihood Diversification. The Journal


of Development Studies. 35(1): 1-38.
Kusterer, Ken
.
1989 Small Fanner Attitudes and
Aspirations. US AID Program. USAID,
Washington. DC.
Reardon, Thomas, Christopher Delgado, and
Peter Matlon
1992 Determinants and effects of
Income Diversification amongst Farm
Households in Burkina Faso. The
Journal of Development Studies 28 (2):
264-296.
Valdivia, Corinne
2001 Gender,
Livestock
Assets,
Resource Management, and Food
Security: Lessons from the SR-CRSP.
Agriculture and Human Values 18 (1):
27-39.
Valdivia.
Corinne,
and
Jere
Gilles
2001 Gender
and
resource
management: Households and groups.
Strategies and transitions. Agriculture
and Human Values 18(1): 5-9.
Publication Date: Dec-1-2015
2015The Explorer Islamabad Journal of Social Sciences-Pakistan

De Haan, Leo J.
2000 Globalization, Localization and
Sustainable
Livelihood.
Sociologia
Ruralis 40(3): 339 365.
Dunn, Elizabeth, Nicholas Kalaitzandonakes,
and Corinne Valdivia
1996 Risk and the impacts of microenterprise services. Assessing the
Impacts of Microenterprise Services
(AIMS). MSI. Washington DC.
Ellis, Frank
1993 Peasant Economics: Farm
households and agrarian development.
Second Edition. Cambridge University
Press.
Ellis, Frank
1998

Household Strategies and Rural

435