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General Characteristics:
1. ribbon-like and dorsoventrally flattened
2. most of the show indirect types of life cycle. The
exceptional type of life cycle is found in Hymenolepis spp
where direct and indirect types are found.
3. they are hermaphrodite
4. cysts or bladderworms are intermediate or larval stage of
the parasite
5. the final host gets infection by ingestion of intermediate
host or flesh of intermediate host containing the bladder
6. the body can be divided into three broad parts

Head/ Scolex
-very minute as compared to other parts Poultry Tapeworm
-shape varies which may be roughly triangular,ball shaped or Genus Raillietina
round -small to medium-sized tapeworm that inhabit the small
-there is presence of sucker (armed or unarmed ) which is not intestine
used for taking food but used as apertures for attachment -cosmopolitan in distribution
-anteriorly there is structure called rostellum
Neck R. cesticillus
-immediately behind the head and without any segment R. echidnobothrida
-segmentation starts here R. tetragona
R. asiatica
Body R. celebensis
-area is completely segmented R. demerariensis

Three types of segments are present: R. cesticillus

IMMATURE- the reproductive system and eggs are absent Morphology:
MATURE- completely developed reproductive system 1. smaller (4-15 cm) than R. tetragona, R.
GRAVID- reproductive system is replaced by the eggs echidnobothrida
-either detached from the parasite or its disintegrated 2. broad rostellum which is armed with 400-
and the eggs are expelled out 500 hooks
3. circular sucker is unarmed
Eggs: 4. egg capsule contains single egg
-have basic structure comprising oncosphere or hexacanth
embryo, a striated shell or embryophore and a delicate R. echidnobothrida
membrane Morphology
-the following are the events which occur during biological 1. size is 8.5-22 cm
development: 2. suckers are circular and surrounded by
a. Eggs are expelled out from the gravid segment several rows of hooks
b. the eggs are ingested by the intermediate hosts and 3. rostellum is very small
hatching occurs in the intermediate host or hatch in the 4. egg capsule contains multiple eggs
environment ( Cotyloda)
-metacestodes / bladderworms / cyst / larval stages are formed R. tetragona
in the intermediate host 1. 25 cm long and largest tapeworm in poultry
-final host gets the infection by ingestion of the intermediate 2. rostellum is small and possesses one or two
host or the muscles and flesh containing the cysts or rows of hooks
bladderworms 3. egg capsule contains multiple eggs
4. sucker is oval and surrounded by several
rows of hooks

• egg
• oncosphere
• cysticercoid ( infective stage )
• adult
Ants and Musca domestica acts as IH of R. tetragona and R. 2. constant irritation of the anal sac resulting to
echidnobothrida. The beetle acts as IH for R. cesticillus anal pruritus
3. intoxication due to absorption of the
Pathogenesis: metabolites released by the parasites which
1. nodule formation in the intestine by R. affects the nervous system
2. enteritis by R. tetragona and R. cesticillus Diagnosis:
1. examination of fecal sample
Genus Davainea 2. dragging anus over the ground or any hard
D. proglottina objects
D. meleagridis
Family Anoplocephalidae: common cestodes of equine
1. very small only several mm that’s why it is Morphology:
advised to take mucosal scraping for its 1. rostellum and hooks are present
detection 2. segments are noticeably broad\
2. has prominent rostellum armed with hammer- 3. presence of egg capsule or paruterine organ
shaped hooks 4. eggs have 3 coverings; the outermost formed by
3. presence of single set of reproductive organ the vitelline gland, middle albuminous and
which alternates regularly inner chitinous
4. has 4-9 segments 5. eggs of many members bear a pear shaped
5. egg capsule contains single egg structure called pyriform apparatus

Life cycle: Genera:

Egg Anoplocephala Moniezia
Oncosphere Paranocephala Cittotaenia
Cysticercoid in IH (infective stage on ants or slugs) Pseudanocephala
Other Species
The gravid segments crawl out of the host. The gravid
segments are actively motile and crawl onto the grass blade Anoplocephala Anoplocephala Pseudoanoplocephala
due to its phototactic nature. The eggs are released during the magna perfoliata mamillana
act of crawling. The eggs hatch after ingested by IH and
cysticercoid is formed within a month. The final host gets the
infection when the infected snails are ingested by the birds. 1. Largest Small intestine Si and stomach
cestode found
Family Dipyliidae: in the horse
Dipylidium caninum- double pored tapeworm of dogs found in SI
and stomach
Morphology: 2. 80 cm long 1-8 cm 0.6- 5 cm
1. head or scolex is pyriform in shaped having
hooks characteristically rose-thorn shaped
2. presence of two sets of reproductive system like
Moniezia spp 3. Testes are 250 100
3. mature segments are cucumber seed shape arranged in
rows. The
LIFE CYCLE: number of
egg testes are 400-
onchosphere 500
cystercercoid in IH (flea C. canis, C. felis, T. canis, Pulex sp ) 4. Pyriform Large and Large and srong
adult apparatus is strong
not strong and
Gravid segments get detached from the adult tapeworm and large
crawl. During crawling the eggs are released from the gravid Lappets are present absent
segment. The IH ingest the eggs and hatched in the gut and absent
oncospheres are released and these migrate in the body cavity.
A cysticercoid with tail appendage is formed within few
weeks. Final host gets the infection by ingestion of the
infected IH.

1. sloughing, denudation of mucosa
Taenia pisiformis Cysticercus rabbits
LIFE CYCLE: pisiformis
Onchosphere Taenia Cysticercus rodents
Cysticercoid in IH ( mite) taeniaformis fasciolaris

Pathogenesis: Taenia multiceps Coenurus Sheep And

A. perfoliata particularly affects the ileocecal orifices and cerebralis goat
they produce depressed ulcers which is dasrk in color and may
cause perforation of SI
A. magna causes hemorrhagic enteritis obstruction of the
intestinal lumen Taenia saginata Taenia solium
P. mamillana less significant
Host is man man
Family Hymenolepididae

H. carioca H. diminuta H. nana Rostellum is absent Present armed with

dwarf hooks
1000-2000 segments 800- 1000
1. 3-8 cm 2-6 cm 7-80 cm

2. 500 500 segments Few segments Ovary is bilobed trilobed

3. testes lie Testes are Testes lie in line
across the ovoid and separated by Oval egg Spherical
segment the ovary

Uterus has 14-32 16 branches

LIFE CYCLE: branches
cysticercoid in IH Taenia solium
Life cycle:
Family Taeniidae egg ( hatch after being ingested)
Morphology Onchosphere ( migrates in different organs and tissues)
1. large tapeworm Cysticercus ( infective stage in the pork )
2. proglottids are rectangular Adult ( ingestion of infected ham and pork )
3. rostellum may or may not be present
4. segments are longer and broader Man gets infection by the ff: ways
5. uterus has median stem and lateral branches 1. ingestion of pork containing cysticercus
6. egg capsule is easily lost and the embryo pore is striated in 2. ingestion of eggs through the food and cysticercus
appearnace develops in man
3. by autoinfection due to retrosperistaltic movement. The
eggs return to the stomach and hatch
Intermediate Intermediate
Stage host Predisposing factors:
1. eating habits of people
Taenia solium Cysticercus pig 2. large scale implementation of insewcticide
Taenia saginata Cysticercus cattle 1. utilize the nutrition of the host
bovis 2. causes enteritis
3. neurocysticercosis
Taenia Cysticercus Sheep,
hydatigena tenuicollis ruminants Pig
1. measly pork- presence of cysticerci in different organs
or tissue
Clinical signs: individual and there would be hypersensitive reaction
Man Neurocysticercosis within 15 mins or less in positive cases
1. diarrhea 1. encephalitis and meningitis
2. abdominal pain 2. epileptic fit and excitement Family Mesocestoididae:
3. vomiting Genus Mesocestoides
4. flatulence M. lineatus M. jonesi
M. variabilis
Taenia multiceps M. tenuis

Life cycle: Morphology:

egg 1. head or scolex is devoid of rostellum and hooks
Onchosphere 2. presence of single set of reproductive system
Coenurus ( infective stage in the brain of sheep and goat ) 3. genital pore is dorsally situated
Adult 4. bilobed ovary and vitelline glands
5. testes are situated on either side of the excretory canal
Migratory onchospheres care dangerous in the sheep. This DH- dog, fox, cat
causes meningitis and encephalitis IH- 1st – mites
Gradually the cyst creates pressure in the brain as per the 2nd - birds
advancement of development of cyst. The brain muscles get
atrophied Developmental stages:
The skull gets atrophied and ultimately maybe soft and easily egg
felt when touching onchosphere
Aside from brain several nerves are also affected ( ocular, cysticercoid in IH
auditory ) tetrathyridium in birds, lizards, snakes
Clinical signs:
1. the animal looses the condition and fails to respond to the *M. corti can asexually multiply in the IH and DH
2. circling movement ( gid ) is an important sign Pathogenesis:
3. sometimes the animals move in straight and keep its head 1. enteritis
on the hard surface 2. nervous disorder
3. anal priritus
Genus Echinicoccus
E. granulosus Genus Diphyllobothrium
E. vogeli Species:
E. multilocularis D. latum
E. oligarthus D. mansonoides

Morphology: Morphology:
1. very small only few segments are present 1. long and maybe reaching up to several meters
2. terminal segment is the gravid segment 2. thousands of segments are presents
3. scolex has the rostellum which is armed with hooks 3. head is spatula shaped with a deep groove in the middle
4. ovary is kidney shaped called bothria
4. no rostellum
Life cycle: 5. genital organs are situated mid-ventrally
egg 6. eggs are oval and operculated and have fair resemblance
onchosphere to trematodes
hydatid cyst in IH 7. ovary is bilobed and uterus is rosette-shaped
Life cycle:
Pathogenesis: Egg
1. enteritis Ciliated coracidium
2. pressure atrophy in the vital organs due to pressure of Procercoid (cyclops)
large- sized cyst Plerocercoid (fish)
3. functional disturbance Adult

Diagnosis: Pathogenesis
1. examination of feces 1. enteritis
2. detection of cysticercus in the tongue and other palpable 2. anemia ( B12 def. or Pernicious anemia )
areas 3. anal pruritus
3. Casonis Test- hydatid fluid is inoculated in the suspected 4. epileptic fit
NEMATODE sense organs (phasmids, amphids, cervical papillae and
genital papillae )
General morphology of nematode
General biological development of nematodes
1. are cylindrical in outline 1. The eggs are expelled out. The eggs do not hatch in the
2. outer covering is the cuticle. The cuticle is formed by environment. Within the eggs the larvae develop. The
a. hypodermis larvae hatch after being ingested by the host. ( Ascarid
b. muscle layer worm)
The cuticle not only acts as outer covering but also has 2. The eggs are expelled out of the host and the eggs
significance in performing many roles in functional hatch in the presence of different environmental factors.
activity. The larvae develop to a certain limit to reach to the
3. The cuticle of the parasite may be expanded at the infective stage. Final host gets the infection by
anterior part of the parasite which is called as the ingestion of infective larvae ( Strongyle )
cervical alae. 3. The eggs are expelled out of the host and the eggs when
4. Cuticle may be expanded at the posterior part of the of these eggs are ingested by the intermediate hosts. In the
the nematode which is called the caudal alae. Intermediate host the larvae reached to the infective
5. At the anterior part of the body, cuticle may form stage. (Spiruroidea )
cervical papillae. 4. The eggs are hatched and the larvae developed to the
6. Cuticle may form the pre-cloacal and post cloacal infective stage after being ingested by the intermediate
papillae. host. ( Metastrongyloidea)
5. The worms are viviparous and the larvae mix up in the
7. Cuticle from different types of thickenings which have blood or lymph of the host. These larvae reach to the
got taxonomic importance. In Gongylonema there are infective stage in the IH (Filarid worms )
many cuticular thickenings. In the Acuaria and
Dispharynx there are presence of cordons which are FAMILY ASCARIDIDAE
recurring or non-recurring types. In some nematodes Characteristics:
cuticles forms some ridges or in others, forms epaulletes 1. Three lips are present. One dorsal and two
( Stephanurus ) or dentigerous structures. In some subventral. Each lips bears two papillae.
nematodes there may be formation of leaf crown ( 2. In between the lips there maybe small
Strongylus) or cutting plates or teeth (Ancylostoma). intermediate lips which are called interlabia.
The cuticle also forms one important structure which is 3. Teeth or cutting plates are absent
called bursa which is the posterior expansion of the 4. Pharynx and oesophageal bulb are absent.
cuticle (Haemonchus). Spicule is another structure 5. Usually two spicules are present. Bursa is absent.
formed by the cuticle. Some sensory organs are also 6. Eggs are typically round or subglobular and outer
formed by the cuticle, like phasmid (present in the wall is pitted.
posterior part of the nematode) and amphids (present in
the anterior part of the nematode) Genus Ascaris
8. Moderately digestive system is found in the nematodes. Ascaris suum
The digestive system starts in the mouth. The mouth may Host- pig
be surrounded by lips. Structure and arrangements of lips Site/location- small intestine
9. Other structures found in the digestive system are Developmental stages:
pharynx, oesophagus, intestines, anus etc. Esophagus is Eggs are expelled out. Larvae developed within the egg
very important in respect of taxonomic identification. shell. Second larvae (L2) within the egg shell are the infective
The different types are: stage. The host gets the infection by ingestion of the infective
Bulbus- presence of posterior bulb ( eg. Heterakis eggs. Hatching occurs in the intestine and the larvae reach the
gallinarum). Some roundworms is double bulbed ( liver either by active penetration by active penetration via
Oxyuroids) peritoneal cavity or hepatoportal circulation. The larvae are
Rhabditiform- shows anterior pyriform and posterior transported to heart and then to lungs where these are found as
bulbous appearance ( Strongyloides ) 3rd larvae. Then the larvae follow the tracheal migration. The
Ventriculus- anterior part of the esophagus is muscular larvae are coughed up and develop to the fourth stage in the
and posterior part of the same is glandular (all spirurid intestine and to adult stage subsequently.
worm )
Filariform- esophagus is tubular ( filarial worm) Pathogenesis:
Trichuroid- esophagus is composed of cells arranged
in a row ( Trichinella spp) 1. Migration of larvae causes hemorrhagic lesions in
10. Flame cells are absent. In most nematodes excretion is liver and creates a “milk spot” appearance.
performed by a ventral pore and a pair of lateral 2. The migrating larvae also creates lesions in the
longitudinal vessels bronchiole and alveoli which results in pneumonia
11. The nervous system includes oesophageal nerve ring,
nerve ganglia, nerve fibers connecting nerve ganglia, Genus Toxocara
T. canis- dangerous to the puppies
T. cati This occurs in children due to migration of ascarid larvae in
T. vitolorum- causes calf-hood mortality in buffaloes in the different vital organs of the abnormal host ( means not the
India definitive host which is the dog). The habit of dirt eating
predispose to this condition. Mainly the liver is affected but
Toxocara canis ( also known as Arrow-headed worm or some organs maybe affected too. Eosinophilia occurs in the
arrow worm) organs affected. It is caused by Toxocara canis, T. cati, T.
Life cycle: leonine , Capillaria hepatica and Lagochilascaris minor.
Egg> larva 1 in the egg shell> larva 2 in the egg shell
(infective stage)> larva 3>larva 4 >adult Family Oxyuridae:
-whip like, non-bursate nematodes.
Routes of Infection
a. oral infection or ingestion of infective stage of eggs Genus Oxyuris
i. tracheal route of migration Oxyuris equi ( pin worm or seat worm of horses)
-when the pups are below 3 months of age, the -causes rat tailed appearance due to the
tracheal route of migration occurs. After ingestion of the eggs, irritation caused by the crawling female worms in the anus
hatching occurs due to the presence of different biochemical
factors present in the host. The larvae come out and start Life cycle: The female parasites crawl out of the anus and
migration. The larvae penetrate into the wall of the intestine lay a number of eggs. Wirthin the eggs the larvae develop. The
and enter into the general circulation. By the hepatoportal eggs fall on the ground and the host gets the infection by
circulation the larvae are transported to the liver and it ingestion of the eggs along with the feed materials. After
penetrates the liver capsule. Then the larvae are transported to ingestion the eggs hatch and the larvae come out of the egg.
the lungs through the pulmonary circulation. The larvae are The larvae develop to the adult stage in the intestine.
found first in the lower lung and then migrate to the upper part ( egg>larva1 in the egg shell>larva2 in the egg shell (infective
of the respiratory tract. They reach the bronchi, trachea etc. In stage)>larva3>larva4>adult)
the lung one moulting occurs and the second stage larvae are
transformed into the third stage larvae. Then the larvae Family Heterakidae
reached the GI tract when the cough containing the larvae is Genus Ascaridia
ingested and the larvae developed furthewr to become adult. Ascaridia galli
-non-bursate nematode of birds. The incidence or the
ii. somatic route of migration manifestation of this parasitic infection does not apparently
-occurs when the dog is pregnant. The larvae migrate cause significant damage to the host
to different organs and remain in dormant stage. The activity
and mobility are seized. The reason of this dormancy is not Life cycle: The eggs are expelled out of the host. In the
clearly but it is supposed to be due to the alternation of environment the eggs develop to reach to the infective stage
hormonal status of the blood during pregnancy stage. (L2). The birds get the infection when the eggs are ingested
After about 1.5 months of the infection the larvae mobilize along with the food material. After ingestion the eggs hatch
from the dormant stage and reach the general circulation. and the larvae come out and develop to adulthood. No
Through the blood the larvae enter the different organs of the migration occurs.
fetus. In the liver of the fetus the larvae perform one month
moulting again. In this way the transuterine or congenital Genus Heterakis
infection occurs. Heterakis gallinarum

b. transuterine infection (congenital infection) Life cycle: The eggs are expelled out the host .The eggs
c. Transmammary infection ( lactogenic infection) develop in the environment. Within the eggs, the second stage
-the offspring gets the infection when it sucks the larvae are formed. The second stage larva within the shell is
colostrums from its mother. Through the colostrums the larvae the infect5ive stage. The birds gert the infection when the eggs
enter the GI tract and they directly develop into the adult are ingested. After ingestion the eggs hatch and the larvae
stage. come out. The larvae develop very simply in the GI tract. No
migration of the larvae occurs
d. Paratenic host transmission
- rodents acts as the paratenic host for transmission of Heterakis gallinarum Ascaridia galli
the parasite. 1. occurs in the ceca of 1. occurs in the small
fowl intestine
Pathogenesis and clinical signs: 2. oesophagus has strong 2. oesophagus has no
1. hepatic damage due to migrating larvae posterior bulb posterior bulb
2. alveolar destruction 3. earth worm may act as 3. there is no evidence of
3. pneumonia ( ascarid pneumonia) the transport host transport host
4. vomiting 4. The eggs of Heterakis 4. does not transmit any
5. pendulous pot bellied abdomen gallinarum transmit protozoan parasite
Histomonas melagridis
Visceral Larva Mirgrans (VLM)
3. the anterior part contains the GI tract and the
posterior part contains the reproductive system
4. The posterior end of the male parasite is slightly
Genus Subulura spiral and one spicule is protruded out of the hind
Subulura brumpti- pinmorm of fowl end. The spicule remains within a spicule sheath.
*guys kindly check your manual regarding this, sorry
Family Strongyloididae coz I consulted a picture regarding the parts of trichuris and it
Strongyloides spp discovered by Bavay in the year 1876 showed that the posterior part bears the whip.. *
Species: Life cycle:
S.papillosus- Si of sheep, goat, cattle The host gets the infection by ingestion of infective stage
S. cati- cat of eggs. After hatching the larva comes out and then the
S. westeri- pigs and horse parasite reaches the adult stage after several moultings.
S. ransomi- pigs
S. stercoralis human being Capillaridae:
-known as hair worms
Disease/pathological condition caused- Strongyloidosis, Foot -egg barrel shaped and with sides nearly parallel and with
rot, Larva migrans, Larva currens polar plugs.

Salient morphology: Family Trichinellidae:

1. parasites show free living and parasitic life cycle Morphology
2. oesophagus is rhabditiform in free living generation 1. spicules are absent
and filariform in parasitic generation. 2. the parasite is posteriorly thicker than the anterior
3. the adult parasite has noticeably long esophagus part.
4. the female worm is parthenogenetic 3. the male parasite has two lateral flaps on either
side at the posterior end.
Life cycle:
a. Homogonic Life cycle: The seat of predilection site of the parasite is small
The eggs are expelled out of the host and hatch intestine. After copulation the male parasite dies and the
and larvae come out. The larvae reach the infective stage. The female parasite burrows the wall of the intestine. During this
final host get the infection by skin penetration or orally. The activity the larvae get entrance in the blood circulation via
larvae get entry into the blood circulation and transported to lymphatic vessel and the larvae enter the different
the lungs. They penetrate the lung alveoli and gradually musculatures like subcostal muscles, tongue and diaphragm.
ascend up the respiratory tract. Then they dome down to the The affected muscle is called nurse cell. The larvae get
esophagus and finally reach the intestine. maturity in the striated muscle fiber and the larvae remain
there forming a coil. The whole coil remains encapsulated.
b. Heterogonic The final host gets infection by ingestion of the muscles
The eggs are expelled out of the host and hatch in the containing the larva. ( egg>L1 the infective stage>L2>L3>L4
environment and larvae cone out. The larvae directly develop >adult)
to adult male and female. This free living male and female
parasite copulate and the gravid female lay the eggs. The eggs PICTURES
hatch in the environment and the larvae come out. The larvae 1. Trichuris trichura a. female, b. male
directly develop to become infective stage parasite. The final
host gets the infection by skin penetration performed by the
infective larvae or by ingestion. Further development occurs
as that mentioned in homogenic life cycle.

The larvae cause formation of lesion when they penetrate
the skin. Foot rot condition is commonly found in the sheep
and goat. The cutaneous lesion is called larva migrans. The
lesions are circular or straight in appearance as linear urticarial
lesion called as larva currens

Biological control is applied by nematode-trapping fungi,
Arthrobotrys oligospora

Family Trichuridae:
Salient morphology:
1. appearance is like a whip
2. parasite is slender anteriorly and thick posteriorly
Ova of capillaria

ova of Toxocara canis ova of trichuris

Trichinella spiralis larva

Ova of Toxocara cati

Trichuris trichiura male and female

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