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1

2 CONTENTS

CONTENTS 3

4 CONTENTS

CONTENTS 5

6 CONTENTS

CONTENTS 7

Chapter 1

1. Prove that the fraction

21n + 4

14n + 3

is irreductible for every natural number n

q √ q √

x + 2x − 1 + x − 2x − 1 = A

√

given (a) A = 2, (b) A = 1, (c) A = 2, where only non-negative real numbers are

admitted for square roots?

b cos x + c = 0. Using the numbers a, b and c, form a quadratic ecuation in cos 2x,

whose roots are the same as those of the original ecuation. Compare the ecuations

in cos x and cos 2x for a = 4, b = 2 and c = −1

4. Construct a right triangle with hypotenuse c such that the median drawn to the

hypotenuse is the geometric mean of the two legs of the triangle.

5. An arbitrary point M is selected in the interior of the segment AB. The squares

AM CD and M BEF are constructed on the same side of AB, sith the segments AM

and M B as their respective bases. The circles circumscribed abut these squares,

8

1.2. 2N D IMO, ROMANIA, 1960 9

with centers P and Q intersect at M and also at another point N . Let N 0 denote the

intersection of the straight lines AF and BC.

(b) Prove that the straight lines M N pass throught a fixed point S independent of

the choice of M .

(c) Find the locus of the midpoints of the the segment P Q as M varies between A

and B.

6. Two planes, P and Q, intersect along the line p. The point A is given in the plane

P , and the point C in the plane Q; neither of these points lies on the straight line p.

Construct an isosceles trapezoid ABCD (with AB parallel to CD) in which a circle

can be inscribed, and with vertices B and D lying in the planes P and Q respectively.

1. Determine all three-digit numbers N having the property that N is divisible by 11,

N

and 11 is equal to the sum of the squares of the digits of N .

2. For what values of the variable x does the following inequality hold?

4x2

√ 2 < 2x + 9

1 − 1 + 2x

3. In a given right triangle 4ABC, the hypotenuse BC, of lenght a, is dividen into n

equal parts (n an odd integer). Let α be the acute angle subtending, from A, that

segment which contains the middle point of the hypotenuse. Let h be the lenght of

the altitude to the hypotenuse of the triangle. Prove:

4nh

tan α =

(n2− 1) a

4. Construct a triangle 4ABC, given ha , hb (the altitudes fron A and B) and ma , the

median from vertex A.

5. Consider the cube ABCDA0 B 0 C 0 D 0 (whith face ABCD directly above face A0 B 0 C 0 D 0 ).

(a) Find the locus of the midpoints of segment XY , where X is any point of AC

and Y is any point of B 0 D 0 .

10 CHAPTER 1. INTERNATIONAL MATHEMATICS OLYMPIAD

(b) Find the locus of points Z which lie on the segment XY of part (a) with ZY =

2XZ.

6. Considere a cone of revolution with an inscribed sphere tangent to the base of the

cone. A cylinder is circumscribed about this sphere so that one of its bases lies in

the base of the cone. Let V1 be the volume of the cone and V2 the volumen of the

cilinder.

(a) Prove that V1 6= V2 .

(b) Find the smallest number k for which V1 = kV2 , for this case, construct the

angle subtended by a diameter of the base of the cone at the vertex of the cone.

7. An isosceles trapezoid with bases a and c, and altitude h is given.

(a) On the axis of symmetry of this trapezoid, find all points P such that both legs

of the trapezoid subtended right angles at P .

(b) Calculate the distance of P from either base.

(c) Determine under what conditions such points P actually exist. (Discuss varius

case that might arise)

1. Solve the system of equations:

x+y+z = a

x + y 2 + z 2 = b2

2

xy = z 2

where a and b are constants. Give the conditions that a and b must satisfy so that

x, y, z (the solutions of the system) are distinct positive numbers.

√

2. Let a, b, c the sides of a triangle, and T its area. Prove: a2 + b2 + c2 ≥ 4 3T . In

what case does the equality hold?

3. Solve the equation cosn x − sinn x = 1, where n is a natural number.

4. Consider the triangle 4P1 P2 P3 and a point P within the triangle. Lines P P1 , P P2 ,

P P3 intersect the opposite side in points Q1 , Q2 , Q3 respectively. Prove that, of the

numbers PP1QP1 , PP2QP2 , PP3QP3 at least one is less than or equal to 2 and at least one is

grater than or equal to 2.

1.4. 4T H IMO, CZECHOSLOVAKIA, 1962 11

midpoint of the segment BC and ω < 90◦ . Prove that a solution exists and only if

b tan ω2 ≥ c < b. In what case does the equality hold?

suppose the plane determined by these three points is not parallel to ε. In plane a take

three arbitrary points A0 , B 0 , C 0 . Let L, M, N be the midpoints of segments AA0 ,

BB 0 , CC 0 ; let G the centroid of triangle 4LM N (We will not considere positions of

A0 , B 0 , C 0 such that the points L, M , N do not form a triangle) What is the locus of

point G as A0 , B 0 , C 0 range independently over the plane ε?

1. Find the smallest natural number n which has the following properties:

(b) If the last digit 6 is erased and placed in front of the remaining digits, the

resulting number is four times as large as the original number n

√ √ 1

3−x− x+1>

2

3. Consider the cube ABCDA0 B 0 C 0 D 0 (ABCD and A0 B 0 C 0 D 0 are the upper and lower

bases, respectively, and edges AA0 , BB 0 , CC 0 , DD 0 are parallel) The point X moves

at constant speed along the perimeterof the square ABCD in the direction ABCDA,

and the point Y moves at the same rate along the perimeter of the square B 0 C 0 CB

in the direction B 0 C 0 CBB 0 . Points X and Y begin their motion at the same instant

from the starting position A and B 0 , respectively. Determine and draw the locus of

the midpoints of the segment XY .

5. On the circle K there are given three distinct points A, B, C. Construct (using only

straightedge and compasses) a fourth point D on K such that a circle can be inscribed

in the cuadrilateral thus obtained.

12 CHAPTER 1. INTERNATIONAL MATHEMATICS OLYMPIAD

6. Considere an isosceles triangle. let r be the radius of its circumscribed circle and ρ

the radius of its inscribed circle. Prove that the distance d between the centers of

these two circles is q

d = r (r − 2ρ)

7. The tetrahedon SABC has the following propoerty: there exists five spheres, each

tangent to the edges SA, SB, SC, BC, CA, AB or their extentions.

(b) Prove conversely that for every regular tetrahedron five such spheres exist.

√ 2 √

1. Find all real roots of the equation x − p + 2 x2 − 1 = x, where p is a real param-

eter.

2. Point A and segment BC are given. Determine the locus of points in space which

are vertices of right angles with one side passing throught A, and the other side

intersecting the segment BC.

3. In an n−gon all of whose interior angles are equal, the lenght of consecutive sides

satisfy the relation a1 ≥ a2 ≥ · ≥ an . Prove that a1 = a2 = · = an .

(1) x 5 + x2 = yx1

(2) x 1 + x3 = yx2

(3) x 2 + x4 = yx3

(4) x 3 + x5 = yx4

(5) x 4 + x1 = yx5

where y is a parameter

5. Prove that

π 2π 3π 1

cos − cos + cos =

7 7 7 2

6. Five students, A, B, C, D, E, took part in a contest. One prediction was that

contestants would finish in the order ABCDE. This prediction was very poor. In fact

no contestant finished in the position predicted, and no two contestants predicted to

finish consecutively actually did so. A second prediction has the contestants finishing

1.6. 6T H IMO, USSR, 1964 13

in the order DAECB. This prediction was better. Exactly two of the contestants

finished in the places predicted, and two disjoint pairs of students predicted to finish

consecutively actually did so. Determine the order in which the contestants finished.

1. (a) Find all positive integers n for which 2n − 1 is divisible by 7.

(b) Prove that there is not positive integer n such that 2n + 1 is dibisible by 7.

2. Let a, b, c be the sides of a triangle. Prove that

a2 (b + c − a) + b2 (c + a − b) + c2 (a + b − c) ≤ 3abc

parallel to the sides of the triangle are constructed. Each of these tangents cuts off a

triangle from 4ABC. In each of these triangle, a circle is inscribed. Find the sum

of the areas of all four inscribed circles (in terms of a, b, c)

4. Seventeen people correspond by mail with one another, each one with all the rest.

In their letters only three different topics are discussed. Each pair of correspondent

deals with only one of these topics. Prove that there are at least three people who

write to each other about the same topic.

5. Suppose five points in a plane are situated so that no two of the straight lines joining

the other four points. Determine the maximum number of intersections that these

perpendiculars can have.

6. In tetrahedron ABCD, vertex D is connected with D0 the centroid of 4ABC. Lines

parallel to DD0 are drawn through A, B and C. These lines intersect the planes

BCD, CAD and ABD in points A1 , B1 and C1 , respectively. Prove that the volume

of ABCD is one third the volume of A1 B1 C1 D0 . Is the result true if point D0 is

selected anywhere within 4ABC?

1. Determine all value x in the interval 0 ≤ x ≤ 2π which satisfy the inequality

√

√

√

2 cos x ≤ 1 + sin 2x − 1 − sin 2x ≤ 2

14 CHAPTER 1. INTERNATIONAL MATHEMATICS OLYMPIAD

a21 x1 + a22 x2 + a23 x3 = 0

a31 x1 + a32 x2 + a33 x3 = 0

(b) the remaining coefficients are negative numbers;

(c) in each equation, the sum of the coefficient is positive .

3. Given the tetrahedron ABCD whose edges AB and CD have lenght a and b respec-

tively. The distance between the skew lines AB and CD is d, and the angle between

them is ω. Tetrahedron ABCD is divided into two solid by plane ε, parallel to lines

AB and CD. The ratio of the distances of ε from AB and CD is equal to k. Compute

the ratio of the volumes of the two solids obtained.

4. Find all sets of four real numbers x1 , x2 , x3 , x4 such that the sum of any one and

the product of the other three is equal to 2.

are dawn to OA and OB, the feet of which are P and Q respectively. The point of

intersection of the altitudes of 4OP Q is H. What is the locus of H if M is permitted

to range over

(b) the interior of 4OAB?

segment. Let d be the length of the longest of these segment. We define a diameter of

the set to be any connecting segment of length d. Prove that the number of diameters

of the given set is at most n.

1. In a mathematical contest, three problems, A, B, C were posed. Among the par-

ticipants there were 25 students who solved at least one problem each. Of all the

1.9. 9T H IMO, YUGOSLAVIA, 1967 15

contestants who did not solve problem A, the number who solved B was twice the

number who solved C. The number of students who solved only problem A was one

more than the number of students who solved A and at least one other problem. How

many students solved only problem B?

angles opposite these sides. Prove tat if a + b = tan γ2 (a tan α + b tan β), the triangle

is isosceles.

3. Prove: The sum of the distances of the vertices of a regular tetrahedron from the

centre of its circumscribed sphere is less than the sum of the distances of these vertices

from any other poin in space.

kπ

4. Prove that for every natural number n, and for every real number x 6= 2t

(t any

non-negative integer and k any integer),

1 1 1

+ +···+ = cot x − cot 2n x

sin 2x sin 4x sin 2n x

|a2 − a1 |x2 + |a2 − a3 |x3 + |a2 − a4 |x4 = 1

|a3 − a1 |x1 + |a3 − a2 |x2 + |a3 − a4 |x4 = 1

|a4 − a1 |x1 + |a4 − a2 |x2 + |a4 − a3 |x3 = 1

6. In the interior of sides BC, CA, AB of triangle 4ABC, any points K, L, M , respec-

tively, are selected. Prove that the area of at least one of the triangle 4AM L, 4BKM , 4CLK

is less than or equal to one quarter of the area of 4ABC

1. Let ABCD be a parallelogram with side lengths AB = a, AD = 1, and with ^BAD =

α. If 4ABD is acute, prove that the four circles of√radius 1 with centers A, B, C, D

cover the parallelogram if and only if a ≤ cos α + 3 sin α.

2. Prove that if one and only one edge of a tetrahedron is greater than 1, then its volume

is smaller than or equal to 81

16 CHAPTER 1. INTERNATIONAL MATHEMATICS OLYMPIAD

Let cs = s (s + 1). Prove that the product (cm+1 − ck ) (cm+2 − ck ) · · · (cm+n − ck ) is

divisible by the product c1 c2 · · · cn .

4. Let 4A0 B0 C0 and 4A1 B1 C1 be any two acute-angled triangles. Consider all triangles

4ABC that are similar to 4A1 B1 C1 and circumscribed about triangle 4A0 B0 C0

(where A0 lies on BC, B0 on CA and C0 on AB) Of all such triangles, determine the

one with maximum area, and construct it.

c1 = a 1 + a 2 + · · · + a 8

c2 = a21 + a22 + · · · + a28

..

.

cn = an1 + an2 + · · · + an8

..

.

in which a1 , a2 , . . . , a8 are real numbers not all equal to zero. Suppose that an infinite

number of terms of the sequence {cn } are equal to zero. Find all natural numbers for

which cn = 0.

6. In a sport contest, there were m medals awarded on n successive days (n > 1). On

the first day, one medal and 71 of the remaining medals were awarded. On the second

day, two medals and 71 of the now remaining medals were awarded; and so on. On

the n-th and last day, the remaining n medals were awarded. How many days did

the contest last. and how many medals were awarded altogether?

1. Prove that there is one and only one triangle whose side lengths are consecutive

integers, and one of whose angles is twice as large as another.

2. Find all natural numbers x such that the product of their digits (in decimal notation)

is equal to x2 − 10x − 22.

1.10. 10T H IMO, USSR, 1968 17

ax21 + bx1 + c = x2

ax22 + bx2 + c = x3

..

.

ax2n−1 + bxn−1 + c = xn

ax2n + bxn + c = x1

4ac. Prove that for this system

(b) If 4 = 0, ther is exactly one solution,

(c) If 4 > 0, ther is more than one solution.

4. Prove than in every tetrahedon there is a vertex such that the three edges meeting

there have lengths which are the sides of a triangle.

5. Let f be a real-valued function defined for all real numbers x such that, for some

positive constant a, the equation

1 q

f (x + a) = + f (x) − [f (x)]2

2

(a) Prove that the function f is periodic (i.e. there exists a positive number b such

that f (x + b) = f (x) for all x)

(b) For a = 1, give an example of a non-constant function with the requiered prop-

erties.

∞

$ % $ %

n + 2k n + 2k

X n+1 n+2

= + + · · · + +···

k=0 2k+1 2 4 2k+1

(the symbol bxc denotes the greatest integer not exceding x).

18 CHAPTER 1. INTERNATIONAL MATHEMATICS OLYMPIAD

1. Prove that there are infinitely many numbers a with the following property: the

number z = n4 + a is not prime for any natural number n.

1 1 1

f (x) = cos (a1 + x) + cos (a2 + x) + cos (a3 + x) + · · · + n−1 cos (an + x)

2 4 2

Given that f (x1 ) = f (x2 ) = 0, prove that x2 − x1 = mπ for some integer m.

number a > 0 so that there exist a tetrahedron with k edges of length a, and the

remaining 6 − k edges of lenght 1.

B, and D is the foot of the perpendicular from C to AB. We consider three circles

γ1 , γ2 , γ3 , all tangent to the line AB. Of these, γ1 is inscrived in 4ABC, while γ2

and γ3 are both tangent to CD and to γ, one on each side of CD. Prove that γ1 , γ2

and γ3 have a second tangent in common.

in the plane such that no three are collinear. Prove that there

n−3

are at least 2 convex quadrilaterals whose vertices are four of the given points.

6. Prove that for all real numbers x1 , x2 , y1 , y2 , z1 , z2 with x1 > 0, x2 > 0, x1 y1 − z12 >

0, x2 y2 − z22 > 0, the inequality

8 1 1

2 ≤ +

(x1 + x2 ) (y1 + y2 ) − (z1 + z2 ) x1 y1 − z1 x2 y2 − z22

2

1. Let M be a point on the sede AB of 4ABC. Let r1 , r2 and r be the radii of the

inscribed circles of the triangles 4AM C, 4BM C and 4ABC. Let q1 , q2 and q be

the radii of the excribed circles of the same triangles that lie in the angle 4ACB.

Prove that

r1 r2 r

· =

q1 q2 q

1.12. 12T H IMO, HUNGARY, 1970 19

2. Let a, b and n be integers greater than 1, and let a and b be the two bases of two

number systems. An−1 and An are numbers in the system with base a and Bn−1 and

Bn are numbers in the system with base b; these are related as follows:

Bn = xn xn−1 · · · x0 Bn−1 = xn−1 xn−2 · · · x0

An−1 Bn−1

< ⇐

⇒a > b

An Bn

an ≤ ·. The numbers b1 , b2 , . . . , bn , . . . are defined by

n

X ak−1 1

bn = 1− √

k=1 ak ak

(a) Given c with 0 ≤ c < 2, prove that there exist numbers a0 , a1 , . . . such that

bn > c for large enough n.

4. Find the set of all positive integers n with the property that the set {n, n + 1, n +

2, n + 3, n + 4, n + 5} can be partitioned into sets such that the product of the

numbers in one set equals the product of the numbers in the other set

5. In the tetrahedron ABCD, the angle ^BDC is a right angle. Suppose that the foot

H of the perpendicular from D to the plane ABC is the intersection of the altitudes

of 4ABC. Prove that

(AB + BC + CA)2 ≤ 6 AD 2 + BD 2 + CD 2

6. In the plane are 100 points, no three of them are collinear. Consider all posible

triangles having these points as vertices. Prove that no more than 70% of these

triangles are acute-angled.

1

The xi ’s are the digits in the respective bases, and of course, all of them are lower than the lowest base

20 CHAPTER 1. INTERNATIONAL MATHEMATICS OLYMPIAD

1. Prove that the following assertion is true for n = 3 and n = 5, and that it is false

for every other natural number n > 2. If a1 , a2 , . . . , an are arbitrary real numbers,

then:

(a1 − a2 ) (a1 − a3 ) · · · (a1 − an ) + (a2 − a1 ) (a2 − a3 ) · · · (a2 − an )

+ · · · + (an − a1 ) (an − a2 ) · · · (an − an−1 ) ≤ 0

2. Consider a convex polyhedron P1 with nine vertices A1 A2 , ..., A9 ; let Pi be the poly-

hedron obtained from P1 by a translation that moves vertex A1 to Ai (i = 2, 3, ..., 9).

Provethat at least two of the polyhedra P1 , P2 , ..., P9 have an interiorpoint in common.

3. Prove that the set of integers of the form 2k − 3(k = 2, 3, ...) contains an infinite

subset in which every two members are relatively prime.

4. All the faces of tetrahedron ABCD are acute-angled triangles. We consider all closed

polygonal paths of the form XY ZT X defined as follows: X is a point on edge AB

distinct from A and B; similarly, Y, Z, T are interior points of edges BCCD, DA,

respectively. Prove:

(a) If ^DAB + ^BCD 6= ^CDA + ^ABC, then among thepolygonal paths, there is

none of minimal length.

(b) If ^DAB + ^BCD = ^CDA + ^ABC, then there areinfinitely many shortest

polygonal paths, their common length being 2AC sin(α/2), where α = ^BAC +

^CAD + ^DAB.

5. Prove that for every natural number m, there exists a finite set S of points in a plane

with the following property: For every point A in S, there are exactly m points in S

which are at unit distance from A.

6. Let A = (aij )(i, j = 1, 2, ..., n) be a square matrix whose elements are non-negative

integers. Suppose that whenever an element aij = 0, the sum of the elements in the

ith row and the jth column is ≥ n. Prove that the sum of all the elements of the

matrix is ≥ n2 /2.

1. Prove that from a set of ten distinct two-digit numbers (in the decimalsystem), it is

possible to select two disjoint subsets whose members havethe same sum.

1.15. 15T H IMO, USSR, 1973 21

dissected into n quadrilaterals each of which is inscribablein a circle.

(2m)!(2n)!

m!n!(m + n)!

is an integer. (0! = 1)

(x21 − x3 x5 )(x22 − x3 x5 ) ≤ 0

(x22 − x4 x1 )(x23 − x4 x1 ) ≤ 0

(x23 − x5 x2 )(x24 − x5 x2 ) ≤ 0

(x24 − x1 x3 )(x25 − x1 x3 ) ≤ 0

(x25 − x2 x4 )(x21 − x2 x4 ) ≤ 0

5. Let f and g be real-valued functions defined for all real values of xand y, and satisfying

the equation

f (x + y) + f (x − y) = 2f (x)g(y)

for all x, y. Prove that if f (x) is not identically zero, and if |f (x)| ≤ 1 for all x, then

|g(y)| ≤ 1 for all y.

6. Given four distinct parallel planes, prove that there exists a regular tetrahedron with

a vertex on each plane.

−−→ −−→ −−→

1. Point O lies on line g; OP1 , OP2 , . . . , OPn are unit vectors such that points P1 , P2 , ..., Pn

all lie in a plane containing g and on one side of g. Prove that if n is odd,

−−→ −−→ −−→

OP1 + OP2 + · · · + OPn ≥1

−−→ −−→

Here OM denotes the length of vector OM .

22 CHAPTER 1. INTERNATIONAL MATHEMATICS OLYMPIAD

2. Determine whether or not there exists a finite set M of points in spacenot lying in

the same plane such that, for any two points A and B of M,one can select two other

points C and D of M so that lines AB and CD are parallel and not coincident.

x4 + ax3 + bx2 + ax + 1 = 0

has at least one real solution. For all such pairs (a, b), find the minimum value of

a2 + b 2 .

equilateral triangle. The radius of action of his detector isequal to half the altitude of

the triangle. The soldier leaves from one vertex of the triangle. What path should he

follow in order to travel the least possible distance and still accomplish his mission?

and b are real numbers, and G has the following properties:

(a) If f and g are in G, then g ◦ f is in G; here (g ◦ f )(x) = g[f (x)].

(b) If f is in G, then its inverse f −1 is in G; here the inverse of f (x) = ax + b is

f −1 (x) = (x − b)/a.

(c) For every f in G, there exists a real number xf such that f (xf ) = xf .

Prove that there exists a real number k such that f (k) = k for all f in G.

6. Let a1 , a2 , ..., an be n positive numbers, and let q be a givenreal number such that

0 < q < 1. Find n numbers b1 , b2 , ..., bn forwhich

(a) ak < bk for k = 1, 2, · · · , n,

bk+1 1

(b) q < bk

< q

for k = 1, 2, ..., n − 1,

1+q

(c) b1 + b2 + · · · + bn < 1−q

(a1 + a2 + · · · + an ).

1. Three players A, B and C play the following game: On each of three cardsan integer

is written. These three numbers p, q, r satisfy 0 < p < q < r. Thethree cards are

shuffled and one is dealt to each player. Each then receivesthe number of counters

indicated by the card he holds. Then the cards areshuffled again; the counters remain

with the players.

1.17. 17T H IMO, BULGARIA, 1975 23

This process (shuffling, dealing, giving out counters) takes place for at least two

rounds. After the last round, A has 20 counters in all, B has 10 and C has 9. At the

last round B received r counters. Who received q counters on the first round?

2. In the triangle 4ABC prove that there is a point D on side AB suchthat CD is the

geometric mean of AD and DB if and only if

C

sin A sin B ≤ sin2 .

2

Pn 2n+1

3. Prove that the number k=0 2k+1

23k is not divisible by 5 for any integer n ≥ 0.

subject to the following conditions:

(i) Each rectangle has as many white squares as black squares.

(ii) If ai is the number of white squares in the i-th rectangle, then a1 < a2 < · · · < ap .

Find the maximum value of p for which such a decomposition is possible. For this

value of p, determine all possible sequences a1 , a2 , · · · , ap .

a b c d

S= + + +

a+b+d a+b+c b+c+d a+c+d

of distinct integers k such that (P (k))2 = 1, prove that n(P ) − deg(P ) ≤ 2, where

deg(P ) denotes the degree of the polynomial P.

1. Let xi , yi (i = 1, 2, ..., n) be real numbers such that

x1 ≥ x2 ≥ · · · ≥ xn and y1 ≥ y2 ≥ · · · ≥ yn

n

X n

X

(xi − yi )2 ≤ (xi − zi )2

i=1 i=1

24 CHAPTER 1. INTERNATIONAL MATHEMATICS OLYMPIAD

2. Let a1 , a2 , a3, · · · be an infinite increasing sequence of positive integers. Prove that for

every p ≥ 1 there are infinitely many am which can be written in the form

am = xap + yaq

3. On the sides of an arbitrary triangle ABC, triangles ABR, BCP, CAQ areconstructed

externally with ^CBP = ^CAQ = 45◦ , ^BCP = ^ACQ = 30◦ , ^ABR = ^BAR =

15◦ . Prove that ^QRP = 90◦ and QR = RP.

4. When 44444444 is written in decimal notation, the sum of its digits is A. Let B be

the sum of the digits of A. Find the sum of the digits of B. (A and B are written in

decimal notation.)

5. Determine, with proof, whether or not one can find 1975 points on the circumference

of a circle with unit radius such that the distance between any two of them is a

rational number.

(i) for a positive integer n and all real t, x, y

(ii) for all real a, b, c,

P (b + c, a) + P (c + a, b) + P (a + b, c) = 0

(iii) P (1, 0) = 1.

1. In a plane convex quadrilateral of area 32, the sum of the lengths of two opposite

sides and one diagonal is 16. Determine all possible lengths ofthe other diagonal.

2. Let P1 (x) = x2 − 2 and Pj (x) = P1 (Pj−1 (x)) for j = 2, 3, · · ·.Show that, for any

positive integer n, the roots of the equation Pn (x) = x are real and distinct.

1.19. 19T H IMO, YUGOSLAVIA, 1977 25

3. A rectangular box can be filled completely with unit cubes. If one places as many

cubes as possible, each with volume 2, in the box, so that their edges are parallel

to the edges of the box, one can fill exactly 40% ofthe box. Determine the possible

dimensions of all such boxes.

4. Determine, with proof, the largest number which is the product of positiveintegers

whose sum is 1976.

a21 x1 + a22 x2 + · · · + a2q xq = 0

···

ap1 x1 + ap2 x2 + · · · + apq xq = 0

with every coefficient aij member of the set {−1, 0, 1}. Prove that the system has a

solution (x1 , x2 , · · · , xq ) such that

(a) all xj (j = 1, 2, ..., q) are integers,

(b) there is at least one value of j for which xj 6= 0,

(c) |xj | ≤ q(j = 1, 2, ..., q).

n −(−1)n ]/3

[un ] = 2[2

1. Equilateral triangles 4ABK, 4BCL, 4CDM, 4DAN are constructed inside the

square ABCD. Prove that the midpoints of the four segments KL, LM, M N, N K

and the midpoints of the eight segments AK, BK, BL, CL, CM, DM, DN, AN

are the twelve vertices of a regular dodecagon.

26 CHAPTER 1. INTERNATIONAL MATHEMATICS OLYMPIAD

2. In a finite sequence of real numbers the sum of any seven successive terms is nega-

tive, and the sum of any eleven successive terms is positive.Determine the maximum

number of terms in the sequence.

3. Let n be a given integer > 2, and let Vn be the set of integers 1+kn, where k = 1, 2, ....

A number m ∈ Vn is called indecomposable in Vn if there do not exist numbers

p, q ∈ Vn such that pq = m. Prove that there exists a number r ∈ Vn that can be

expressed as the product of elements indecomposable in Vn in more than one way.

(Products which differ only in the order of their factors will be considered the same.)

a2 + b2 ≤ 2 and A2 + B 2 ≤ 1.

and the remainder is r. Find all pairs (a, b) suchthat q 2 + r = 1977.

6. Let f (n) be a function defined on the set of all positive integers and having all its

values in the same set. Prove that if f (n + 1) > f (f (n)) for each positive integer n,

then f (n) = n for each n.

1. m and n are natural numbers with 1 ≤ m < n. In their decimal representations, the

last three digits of 1978m are equal, respectively, to the last three digits of 1978n .

Find m and n such that m + n has its least value.

2. P is a given point inside a given sphere. Three mutually perpendicular rays from P

intersect the sphere at points U, V, and W ; Q denotes the vertex diagonally opposite

to P in the parallelepiped determined by P U, P V, and P W. Find the locus of Q for

all such triads of rays from P .

3. The set of all positive integers is the union of two disjoint subsets {f (1), f (2), ..., f (n), ...},

{g(1), g(2), ..., g(n), ...}, where

1.21. 21ST IMO, UNITED KINGDOM, 1979 27

and

g(n) = f (f (n)) + 1 for all n ≥ 1

Determine f (240).

triangle ABC and also to sides AB, AC at P, Q, respectively. Prove that the

midpoint of segment P Q is the center of the incircle of triangle 4ABC.

5. Let {ak }(k = 1, 2, 3, ..., n, ...) be a sequence of distinct positive integers. Prove that

for all natural numbers n,

n n

X ak X 1

2

≥

k=1 k k=1 k

6. An international society has its members from six different countries. The list of

members contains 1978 names, numbered 1, 2, ..., 1978. Prove that there is at least

one member whose number is the sum of thenumbers of two members from his own

country, or twice as large as the numberof one member from his own country.

1. Let p and q be natural numbers such that

p 1 1 1 1 1

= 1− + − +···− +

q 2 3 4 1318 1319

Prove that p is divisible by 1979.

given. Each side of the two pentagons and each of the line-segments Ai Bj for all

i, j = 1, ..., 5, is colored either red or green. Every triangle whose vertices are vertices

of the prism and whose sides have all been colored has two sides of a different color.

Show that all 10 sides of the top and bottom faces are the same color.

3. Two circles in a plane intersect. Let A be one of the points of intersection. Starting

simultaneously from A two points move with constant speeds, each point travelling

along its own circle in the same sense. The two points return to A simultaneously

after one revolution. Prove that there is a fixed point P in the plane such that, at

any time, the distances from P to the moving points are equal.

28 CHAPTER 1. INTERNATIONAL MATHEMATICS OLYMPIAD

4. Given a plane π, a point P in this plane and a point Q not in π, find all points R in

π such that the ratio (QP + P A)/QR is a maximum.

5. Find all real numbers a for which there exist non-negative real numbers x1 , x2 , x3 , x4 , x5

satisfying the relations

5

X 5

X 5

X

kxk = a, k 3 xk = a 2 , k 5 xk = a 3

k=1 k=1 k=1

vertex A. From any vertex of the octagon except E, it may jump to either of the two

adjacent vertices. When it reaches vertex E, the frog stops and stays there.. Let a n

be the number of distinct paths of exactly n jumps ending at E. Prove that a2n−1 = 0,

1

a2n = √ (xn−1 − y n−1 ), n = 1, 2, 3, · · · ,

2

√ √

where x = 2 + 2 and y = 2 − 2

Note. A path of n jumps is a sequence of vertices (P0 , ..., Pn ) such that

(i) P0 = A, Pn = E;

(ii) for every i, 0 ≤ i ≤ n − 1, Pi is distinct from E;

(iii) for every i, 0 ≤ i ≤ n − 1, Pi and Pi+1 are adjacent.

1. P is a point inside a given triangle ABC.D, E, F are the feet of the perpendiculars

from P to the lines BC, CA, AB respectively. Find all P for which

BC CA AB

+ +

PD PE PF

is least.

2. Let 1 ≤ r ≤ n and consider all subsets of r elements of theset {1, 2, ..., n}. Each

of these subsets has a smallest member. Let F (n, r) denote the arithmetic mean of

these smallest numbers; prove that

n+1

F (n, r) =

r+1

1.23. 23RD IMO, BUDAPEST, HUNGARY, 1982 29

m, n ∈ {1, 2, ..., 1981} and (n2 − mn − m2 )2 = 1

4. (a) For which values of n > 2 is there a set of n consecutive positive integers such

that the largest number in the set is a divisor of the least common multiple of the

remaining n − 1 numbers?

(b) For which values of n > 2 is there exactly one set having the stated property?

5. Three congruent circles have a common point O and lie inside a given triangle. Each

circle touches a pair of sides of the triangle. Prove that the incenter and the circum-

center of the triangle and the point O are collinear.

(1) f (0, y) = y + 1,

(2)f (x + 1, 0) = f (x, 1),

(3) f (x + 1, y + 1) = f (x, f (x + 1, y)),

for all non-negative integers x, y. Determine f (4, 1981).

1. The function f (n) is defined for all positive integers n and takes on non-negative

integer values. Also, for all m, n

f (m + n) − f (m) − f (n) = 0 or 1

Determine f (1982).

Ai ). For all i = 1, 2, 3, Mi is the midpoint of side ai , and Ti . is the pointwhere the

incircle touches side ai . Denote by Si the reflection of Ti in the interior bisector of

angle Ai . Prove that the lines M1 , S1 , M2 S2 , and M3 S3 are concurrent.

3. Consider the infinite sequences {xn } of positive real numbers with the following prop-

erties:

x0 = 1, and for all i ≥ 0, xi+1 ≤ xi

30 CHAPTER 1. INTERNATIONAL MATHEMATICS OLYMPIAD

(a) Prove that for every such sequence, there is an n ≥ 1 such that

x20 x21 x2

+ + · · · + n−1 ≥ 3.999

x1 x2 xn

(b) Find such a sequence for which

x20 x21 x2

+ + · · · + n−1 < 4

x1 x2 xn

4. Prove that if n is a positive integer such that the equation x3 − 3xy 2 + y 3 = n has

a solution in integers (x, y), then it has at least three suchsolutions. Show that the

equation has no solutions in integers when n = 2891

5. The diagonals AC and CE of the regular hexagon ABCDEF are divided by the

inner points M and N , respectively, so that

AM CN

= =r

AC CE

Determine r if B, M, and N are collinear.

6. Let S be a square with sides of length 100, and let L be a path within S which does

not meet itself and which is composed of line segments A0 A1 , A1 A2 , · · · , An−1 An with

A0 6= An . Suppose that for every point P of the boundary of S there is a point of L

at a distance from P not greater than 1/2. Prove that there are two points X and Y

in L such that the distance between X and Y is not greater than 1, and the length

of that part of L which lies between X and Y is not smaller than 198.

1. Find all functions f defined on the set of positive real numbers which take positive

real values and satisfy the conditions:

(i) f (xf (y)) = yf (x) for all positive x, y;

(ii) f (x) → 0 as x → ∞

2. Let A be one of the two distinct points of intersection of two unequal coplanar circles

C1 and C2 with centers O1 and O2 , respectively. One of the common tangents to the

circles touches C1 at P1 and C2 at P2 , while the other touches C1 at Q1 and C2 at

Q2 . Let M1 be the midpoint of P1 Q1 ,and M2 be the midpoint of P2 Q2 . Prove that

^O1 AO2 = ^M1 AM2 .

1.25. 25T H IMO, PRAGUE, CZECHOSLOVAKIA, 1984 31

3. Let a, b and c be positive integers, no two of which have a common divisor greater

than 1. Show that 2abc − ab − bc − ca is the largest integer which cannot be expressed

in the form xbc + yca + zab,where x, y and z are non-negative integers.

4. Let ABC be an equilateral triangle and E the set of all points contained in the three

segments AB, BC and CA (including A, B and C). Determine whether, for every

partition of E into two disjoint subsets, at least one of the two subsets contains the

vertices of a right-angled triangle. Justify your answer.

5. Is it possible to choose 1983 distinct positive integers, all less than or equal to 10 5 ,

no three of which are consecutive terms of an arithmetic progression? Justify your

answer.

1. Prove that

7

0 ≤ yz + zx + xy − 2xyz ≤

27

where x, y and z arenon-negative real numbers for which x + y + z = 1.

(i) ab(a + b) is not divisible by 7;

(ii) (a + b)7 − a7 − b7 is divisible by 77 .

Justify your answer.

3. In the plane two different points O and A are given. For each point X of the plane,

other than O, denote by a(X) the measure of the angle between OA and OX in

radians, counterclockwise from OA(0 ≤ a(X) < 2π). Let C(X) be the circle with

center O and radius of length OX + a(X)/OX. Each point of the plane is colored by

one of a finite number ofcolors. Prove that there exists a point Y for which a(Y ) > 0

such that its color appears on the circumference of the circle C(Y ).

32 CHAPTER 1. INTERNATIONAL MATHEMATICS OLYMPIAD

4. Let ABCD be a convex quadrilateral such that the line CD is a tangent to the circle

on AB as diameter. Prove that the line AB is a tangent to the circle on CD as

diameter if and only if the lines BC and AD are parallel.

5. Let d be the sum of the lengths of all the diagonals of a plane convex polygon with

n vertices (n > 3), and let p be its perimeter. Prove that

2d n n+1

n−3< < −2

p 2 2

where [x] denotes the greatest integer not exceeding x.

6. Let a, b, c and d be odd integers such that 0 < a < b < c < d and ad = bc. Prove that

if a + d = 2k and b + c = 2m for some integers k and m, then a = 1.

1. A circle has center on the side AB of the cyclic quadrilateral ABCD. The other three

sides are tangent to the circle. Prove that AD + BC = AB

2. Let n and k be given relatively prime natural numbers, k < n. Each number in the

set M = {1, 2, ..., n − 1} is colored either blue or white. It is given that

(i) for each i ∈ M, both i and n − i have the same color;

(ii) for each i ∈ M, i 6= k both i and |i − k| have the same color. Prove that all

numbers in M must have the same color.

of coefficients which are odd is denoted by w(P ). For i = 0, 1, ..., let Qi (x) = (1 + x)i .

Prove that if i1 i2 , ..., in are integers such that 0 ≤ i1 < i2 < · · · < in then

4. Given a set M of 1985 distinct positive integers, none of which has a prime divisor

greater than 26. Prove that M contains at least one subset of four distinct elements

whose product is the fourth power of an integer.

5. A circle with center O passes through the vertices A and C of triangle ABC and

intersects the segments AB and BC again at distinct points K and N, respectively.

The circumscribed circles of the triangles 4ABC and 4EBN intersect at exactly

two distinct points B and M. Provethat angle ^OM B is a right angle.

1.27. 27T H IMO, WARSAW, POLAND, 1986 33

1

xn+1 = xn xn + for each n ≥ 1

n

Prove that there exists exactly one value of x1 for which

for every n.

1. Let d be any positive integer not equal to 2, 5, or 13. Show that one canind distinct

a, b in the set {2, 5, 13, d} such that ab − 1 is not perfect square.

2. A triangle 4A1 A2 A3 and a point P0 are given in the plane. We define As = As−3 for

all s ≥ 4. We construct a set of points P1 , P2 , P3 , . . . , such that Pk+1 is the image

of Pk under a rotation withenter Ak+1 through angle 120◦ clockwise (for k = 0, 1,

2,ldots). Prove that if P1986 = P0 , then the triangle 4A1 A2 A3 equilateral.

3. To each vertex of a regular pentagon an integer is assigned in such a way that the sum

of all five numbers is positive. If three consecutive vertices are assigned the numbers

x, y, z respectively and y < 0 then the following operation is allowed: the numbers

x, y, z are replaced by x + y, −y, z + y respectively. Such an operation is performed

repeatedly as long as at least one of the five numbers is negative. Determine whether

this procedure necessarily comes to and end after a finite number of steps.

O. A triangle XY Z, which is congruent to andnitially conincides with OAB, moves

in the plane in such a way that Y and Z each trace out the whole boundary of the

polygon, X remaining inside the polygon. Find the locus of X.

5. Find all functions f , defined on the non-negative real numbers and taking non-

negative real values, such that:

(ii) f (2) = 0,

(iii) f (x) 6= 0 for 0 ≤ x < 2.

34 CHAPTER 1. INTERNATIONAL MATHEMATICS OLYMPIAD

6. One is given a finite set of points in the plane, each point having integeroordinates.

Is it always possible to color some of the points in the set rednd the remaining points

white in such a way that for any straight line Larallel to either one of the coordinate

axes the difference (in absolutealue) between the numbers of white point and red

points on L is not greaterhan 1?

1. Let pn (k) be the number of permutations of the set {1, . . . , n}, n ≥ 1, which have

exactly k fixed points. Prove that

n

X

k · pn (k) = n!

k=0

element i in S is called a fixed point of the permutation f if f (i) = i.)

BC at L and intersects the circumcircle of 4ABC again at N . From point L per-

pendiculars are drawn to AB and AC, the feet of theseerpendiculars being K and M

respectively. Prove that the quadrilateral AKN M and the triangle ABC have equal

areas.

3. Let x1 , x2 , . . . , xn be real numbers satisfying x21 + x22 + · · · + x2n = 1. Prove that for

every integer k ≥ 2 there are integers a1 , a2 , . . . , an , not all 0, such that |ai | ≤ k − 1

For all i and √

(k − 1) n

|a1 x1 + a1 x2 + · · · + an xn | ≤

kn −

4. Prove that there is no function f from the set of non-negative integers into itself such

that f (f (n)) = n + 1987 for every n.

5. Let n be an integer greater than or equal to 3. Prove that there is a set of n points

in the plane such that the distance between any two points is irrational and each set

of three points determines a non-degenerate triangle with rational area.

6. Let n be an integer greater thanq

all integers k such that 0 ≤ k ≤ n3 , then k 2 + k + n is prime for all integers k such

that 0 ≤ k ≤ n − 2.

1.29. 29T H IMO, CAMBERRA, AUSTRALIA, 1988 35

1. Consider two coplanar circles of radii R and r (R > r) with the same center. Let P

be a fixed point on the smaller circle and B a variable point on the larger circle. The

line BP meets the larger circle again at C. The perpendicular l to BP at P meets

the smaller circle again at A. (If l is tangent to the circle at P then A = P .)

(i) Find the set of values of BC 2 + CA2 + AB 2 .

(ii) Find the locus of the midpoint of BC.

2. Let n be a positive integer and let A1 , A2 , . . . , A2n+1 be subsets of a set B. Suppose

that

(a) Each Ai has exactly 2n elements,

(b) Each Ai ∩ Aj (1 ≤ i < j ≤ 2n + 1) contains exactly one element, and

(c) Every element of B belongs to at least two of the Ai .

For which values of n can one assign to every element of B one of the numbers 0 and

1 in such a way that Ai has 0 assigned to exactly n of its elements?

3. A function f is defined on the positive integers by

f (1) = 1, f (3) = 3,

f (2n) = f (n),

f (4n + 1) = 2f (2n + 1) − f (n),

f (4n + 3) = 3f (2n + 1) − 2f (n),

for all positive integers n.

Determine the number of positive integers n, less than or equal to 1988, for which

f (n) = n.

4. Show that set of real numbers x which satisfy the inequality

70

X k 5

≥

k=1 x − k 4

is a union of disjoint intervals, the sum of whose lengths is 1988.

5. 4ABC is a triangle right-angled at A, and D is the foot of the altituderom A. The

straight line joining the incenters of the triangles 4ABD, 4ACD intersects the sides

AB, AC at the points K, L respectively. S and T denote the areas of the triangles

4ABC and 4AKL respectively.how that S ≥ 2T .

36 CHAPTER 1. INTERNATIONAL MATHEMATICS OLYMPIAD

a2 + b 2

ab + 1

is the square of an integer.

1. Prove that the set {1, 2, . . . , 1989} can be expressed as the disjoint union of subsets

Ai (i = 1, 2, . . . , 117) such that:

(i) Each Ai contains 17 elements;

(ii) The sum of all the elements in each Ai is the same.

2. In an acute-angled triangle ABC the internal bisector of angle A meets their cumcircle

of the triangle again at A1 . Points B1 and C1 are defined similarly. Let A0 be the

point of intersection of the line AA1 with the external bisectors of angles B and C.

Points B0 and C0 are defined similarly. Prove that:

(i) The area of the triangle A0 B0 C0 is twice the area of the hexagon AC1 BA1 CB1 .

(ii) The area of the triangle A0 B0 C0 is at least four times the area of the triangle

ABC.

3. Let n and k be positive integers and let S be a set of n points in the plane such that

(i) No three points of S are collinear, and

(ii) For any point P of S there are at least k points of S equidistant from P .

Prove that:

1 √

k< + 2n

2

4. Let ABCD be a convex quadrilateral such that the sides AB, AD, BC satisfy AB =

AD + BC. There exists a point P inside the quadrilateral at a distance h from the

line CD such that AP = h + AD and BP = h + BC. Show that:

1 1 1

√ ≥√ +√

h AD BC

5. Prove that for each positive integer n there exist n consecutive positive integers none

of which is an integral power of a prime number.

1.30. 30T H IMO, BRAUNSCHWEIG, WEST GERMANY, 1989 37

is said to have property P if |xi − xi+1 | = n for at least one i in {1, 2, . . . , 2n − 1}.

Show that, for each n, there are more permutations with property P than without.

38 CHAPTER 1. INTERNATIONAL MATHEMATICS OLYMPIAD

1990

1. Chords AB and CD of a circle intersect at a point E inside the circle. Let M be an

interior point of the segment EB. The tangent line at E to the circle through D, E,

and M intersects the lines BC and AC at F and G, respectively. If

AM

= t,

AB

find

EG

EF

in terms of t.

2. Let n ≥ 3 and consider a set E of 2n − 1 distinct points on a circle. Suppose that

exactly k of these points are to be colored black. Such a coloring is “good” if there

is at least one pair of black points such that the interior of one of the arcs between

them contains exactly n points from E. Find the smallest value of k so that every

such coloring of k points of E is good.

3. Determine all integers n > 1 such that

2n + 1

n2

is an integer.

4. Let Q+ be the set of positive rational numbers. Construct a function f : Q+ → Q+

such that

f (x)

f (xf (y)) =

y

+

for all x, y in Q .

5. Given an initial integer n0 > 1, two players, A and B, choose integers n1 , n2 , n3 ,

. . . alternately according to the following rules:

Knowing n2k , A chooses any integer n2k+1 such that

n2k+1

n2k+2

1.32. 32N D IMO, SIGTUNA, SWEDEN, 1991 39

Player A wins the game by choosing the number 1990; player B wins by choosing the

number 1. For which n0 does:

(a) A have a winning strategy?

(b) B have a winning strategy?

(c) Neither player have a winning strategy?

6. Prove that there exists a convex 1990-gon with the following two properties:

(a) All angles are equal.

(b) The lengths of the 1990 sides are the numbers 12 , 22 , 32 , . . . , 19902 in some

order.

1. Given a triangle ABC, let I be the center of its inscribed circle. The internal

bisectors of the angles A, B, C meet the opposite sides in A0 , B 0 , C 0 respectively.

Prove that

1 AI · BI · CI 8

< 0 0 0

≤

4 AA · BB · CC 27

2. Let n > 6 be an integer and a1 , a2 , . . . , ak be all the natural numbers less than n

and relatively prime to n. If

a2 − a1 = a3 − a2 = · · · = ak − ak−1 > 0

3. Let S = {1, 2, 3, . . . , 280}. Find the smallest integer n such that each n-element

subset of S contains five numbers which are pairwise relatively prime.

4. Suppose G is a connected graph with k edges. Prove that it is possible to label

the edges 1, 2, . . . , k in such a way that at each vertex which belongs to two or more

edges, the greatest common divisor of the integers labeling those edges is equal to 1.

[A graph consists of a set of points, called vertices, together with a set of edges

joining certain pairs of distinct vertices. Each pair of vertices u, v belongs to at

most one edge. The graph G is connected if for each pair of distinct vertices x, y

there is some sequence of vertices x = v0 , v1 , v2 , . . . , vm = y such that each pair

vi , vi+1 (0 ≤ i < m) is joined by an edge of G.]

40 CHAPTER 1. INTERNATIONAL MATHEMATICS OLYMPIAD

5. Let 4ABC be a triangle and P an interior point of 4ABC. Show that at least one

of the angles ^P AB, ^P BC, ^P CA is less than or equal to 30◦ .

6. An infinite sequence x0 , x1 , x2 , . . . of real numbers is said to be bounded if there is a

constant C such that |xi | ≤ C for every i ≥ 0.

Given any real number a > 1, construct a bounded infinite sequence x0 , x1 , x2 , . . .

such that

|xi − xj ||i − j|a ≥ 1

for every pair of distinct nonnegative integers i, j.

1. Find all integers a, b, c with 1 < a < b < c such that

(a − 1)(b − 1)(c − 1) is a divisor of abc − 1

2. Let R denote the set of all real numbers. Find all functions f : R → R such that

f x2 + f (y) = y + (f (x))2 forall x, y ∈ R

3. Consider nine points in space, no four of which are coplanar. Each pair of points is

joined by an edge (that is, a line segment) and each edge is either colored blue or red

or left uncolored. Find the smallest value of n such that whenever exactly n edges

are colored, the set of colored edges necessarily contains a triangle all of whose edges

have the same color.

4. In the plane let C be a circle, L a line tangent to the circle C, and M a point

on L. Find the locus of all points P with the following property: there exists two

points Q, R on L such that M is the midpoint of QR and C is the inscribed circle

of triangle 4P QR.

5. Let S be a finite set of points in three-dimensional space. Let Sx , Sy , Sz be the

sets consisting of the orthogonal projections of the points of S onto the yz-plane,

zx-plane, xy -plane, respectively. Prove that

where |A| denotes the number of elements in the finite set |A|. (Note: The orthogonal

projection of a point onto a plane is the foot of the perpendicular from that point to

the plane.)

1.34. 34T H IMO, ISTAMBUL, TURKEY, 1993 41

6. For each positive integer n, S(n) is defined to be the greatest integer such that, for

every positive integer k ≤ S(n), n2 can be written as the sum of k positive squares.

(b) Find an integer n such that S(n) = n2 − 14.

(c) Prove that there are infintely many integers n such that S(n) = n2 − 14.

1. Let f (x) = xn + 5xn−1 + 3, where n > 1 is an integer. Prove that f (x) cannot be

expressed as the product of two nonconstant polynomials with integer coefficients.

2. Let D be a point inside acute triangle ABC such that ∠ADB = ^ACB + π/2 and

AC · BD = AD · BC.

(b) Prove that the tangents at C to the circumcircles of 4ACD and 4BCD are

perpendicular.

arranged on the chessboard in an n by n block of adjoining squares, one piece in each

square. A move in the game is a jump in a horizontal or vertical direction over an

adjacent occupied square to an unoccupied square immediately beyond. The piece

which has been jumped over is removed.

Find those values of n for which the game can end with only one piece remaining on

the board.

4. For three points P, Q, R in the plane, we define m(P QR) as the minimum length of

the three altitudes of 4P QR. (If the points are collinear, we set m(P QR) = 0.)

Prove that for points A, B, C, X in the plane,

5. Does there exist a function f : N → N such that f (1) = 2, f (f (n)) = f (n) + n for

all n ∈ N, and f (n) < f (n + 1) for all n ∈ N?

42 CHAPTER 1. INTERNATIONAL MATHEMATICS OLYMPIAD

6. There are n lamps L0 , . . . , Ln−1 in a circle (n > 1), where we denote Ln+k = Lk . (A

lamp at all times is either on or off.) Perform steps s0 , s1 , . . . as follows: at step si , if

Li−1 is lit, switch Li from on to off or vice versa, otherwise do nothing. Initially all

lamps are on. Show that:

(a) There is a positive integer M (n) such that after M (n) steps all the lamps are

on again;

(b) If n = 2k , we can take M (n) = n2 − 1;

(c) If n = 2k + 1, we can take M (n) = n2 − n + 1.

1. Let m and n be positive integers. Let a1 , a2 , . . . , am be distinct elements of {1, 2, . . . , n}

such that whenever ai +aj ≤ n for some i, j, 1 ≤ i ≤ j ≤ m, there exists k, 1 ≤ k ≤ m,

with ai + aj = ak . Prove that

a1 + a 2 + · · · + a m n+1

≥

m 2

(a) M is the midpoint of BC and O is the point on the line AM such that OB is

perpendicular to AB;

(b) Q is an arbitrary point on the segment BC different from B and C;

(c) E lies on the line AB and F lies on the line AC such that E , Q, F are distinct

and collinear.

3. For any positive integer k, let f (k) be the number of elements in the set {k + 1, k +

2, . . . , 2k} whose base 2 representation has precisely three 1s.

(a) Prove that, for each positive integer m, there exists at least onepositive integer

k such that f (k) = m.

(b) Determine all positive integers m for which there exists exactly one k with

f (k) = m.

1.36. 36T H IMO, TORONTO, CANADA, 1995 43

n3 + 1

mn − 1

is an integer.

5. Let S be the set of real numbers strictly greater than −1. Find all functions f : S → S

satisfying the two conditions:

f (x)

(b) x

is strictly increasing on each of the intervals −1 < x < 0 and 0 < x.

6. Show that there exists a set A of positive integers with the following property: For

any infinite set S of primes there exist two positive integers m ∈ A and n ∈

/ A each

of which is a product of k distinct elements of S for some k ≥ 2.

1. Let A, B, C, D be four distinct points on a line, in that order. The circles with

diameters AC and BD intersect at X and Y . The line XY meets BC at Z. Let

P be a point on the line XY other than Z. The line CP intersects the circle with

diameter AC at C and M , and the line BP intersects the circle with diameter BD

at B and N . Prove that the lines AM, DN, XY are concurrent.

1 1 1 3

+ 3 + 3 ≥

a3 (b+ c) b (c + a) c (a + b) 2

3. Determine all integers n > 3 for which there exist n points A1 , . . . , An in the plane,

no three collinear, and real numbers r1 , . . . , rn such that for 1 ≤ i < j < k ≤ n, the

area of 4Ai Aj Ak is ri + rj + rk .

4. Find the maximum value of x0 for which there exists a sequence x0 , x1 . . . , x1995 of

positive reals with x0 = x1995 , such that for i = 1, . . . , 1995,

2 1

xi−1 + = 2xi +

xi−1 xi

44 CHAPTER 1. INTERNATIONAL MATHEMATICS OLYMPIAD

such that ^BCD = ^EF A = π/3. Suppose G and H are points in theinterior of the

hexagon such that ^AGB = ^DHE = 2π/3. Provethat AG + GB + GH + DH +

HE ≥ CF .

6. Let p be an odd prime number. How many p-element subsets A of {1, 2, . . . 2p} are

there, the sum of whose elements is divisible by p?

1. We are given a positive integer r and a rectangular board ABCD with dimensions

|AB| = 20, |BC| = 12. The rectangle is divided into a grid of 20 × 12 unit squares.

The following moves are permitted on the board: one can move from√one square to

another only if the distance between the centers of the two squares is r. The task is

to find a sequence of moves leading from the square with A as a vertex to the square

with B as a vertex.

(b) Prove that the task is possible when r = 73.

(c) Can the task be done when r = 97?

meet at a point.

3. Let S denote the set of nonnegative integers. Find all functions f from S to itself

such that

f (m + f (n)) = f (f (m)) + f (n) ∀m, n ∈ S

4. The positive integers a and b are such that the numbers 15a + 16b and 16a − 15b are

both squares of positive integers. What is the least possible value that can be taken

on by the smaller of these two squares?

to EF , and CD is parallel to F A. Let RA , RC , RE denote the circumradii of trian-

gles F AB, BCD, DEF , respectively, and let P denote the perimeter of the hexagon.

1.38. 38T H IMO, MAR DEL PLATA, ARGENTINA, 1997 45

Prove that

P

RA + R C + R E ≥

2

6. Let p, q, n be three positive integers with p + q < n. Let (x0 , x1 , . . . , xn ) be an (n + 1)-

tuple of integers satisfying the following conditions:

(a) x0 = xn = 0.

(b) For each i with 1 ≤ i ≤ n, either xi − xi−1 = p or xi − xi−1 = −q.

Show that there exist indices i < j with (i, j) 6= (0, n), such that xi = xj .

1. In the plane the points with integer coordinates are the vertices of unit squares. The

squares are colored alternately black and white (as on a chessboard). For any pair of

positive integers m and n, consider a right-angled triangle whose vertices have integer

coordinates and whose legs, of lengths m and n,ie along edges of the squares.

Let S1 be the total area of the black part of the triangle and S2 be the total area of

thehite part. Let

f (m, n) = |S1 − S2 |

(a) Calculate f (m, n) for all positive integers m and n which are eitheroth even or

both odd.

1

(b) Prove that f (m, n) ≤ 2

max{m, n} for all m and n.

(c) Show that there is no constant C such that f (m, n) < C for all m and n.

endenumerate

2. The angle at A is the smallest angle of triangle 4ABC. The points B and C divide

the circumcircle of the triangle into two arcs. Let U be an interior point of the arc

between B and C which does not contain A. The perpendicular bisectors of AB and

AC meet the line AU at V and W , respectively. The lines BV and CW meet at T .

Show that

AU = T B + T C

|x1 + x2 + · · · + xn | = 1

46 CHAPTER 1. INTERNATIONAL MATHEMATICS OLYMPIAD

and

n+1

|xi | ≤ i = 1, 2, . . . , n

2

Show that there exists a permutation y1 , y2 , . . . , yn of x1 , x2 , . . . , xn such that

n+1

|y1 + 2y2 + · · · + nyn | ≤

2

a silver matrix if, for each i = 1, 2, . . . , n, the ith row and the ith column together

contain all elements of S. Show that

(a) there is no silver matrix for n = 1997;

(b) silver matrices exist for infinitely many values of n.

5. Find all pairs (a, b) of integers a, b ≥ 1 that satisfy the equation

2

ab = b a

6. For each positive integer n , let f (n) denote the number of ways of representing n as

a sum of powers of 2 with nonnegative integer exponents.epresentations which differ

only in the ordering of their summands are considered to be the same. For instance,

f (4) = 4, because the number 4 can be represented in the following four ways:

4; 2 + 2; 2 + 1 + 1; 1 + 1 + 1 + 1.

2 /4 2 /2

2n < f (2n ) < 2n .

1. In the convex quadrilateral ABCD, the diagonals AC and BD are perpendicular and

the opposite sides AB and DC are not parallel. Suppose that the point P , where the

perpendicular bisectors of AB and DC meet, is inside ABCD. Prove that ABCD is

a cyclic quadrilateral if and only if the triangles ABP and CDP have equal areas.

2. In a competition, there are a contestants and b judges, where b ≥ 3 is an odd integer.

Each judge rates each contestant as either pass or fail. Suppose k is a number such

that, for any two judges, their ratings coincide for at most k contestants. Prove that

k/a ≥ (b − 1)/(2b).

1.40. 40T H IMO, BUCHAREST, ROMANIA, 1999 47

3. For any positive integer n, let d(n) denote the number of positive divisors of n (in-

cluding 1 and n itself). Determine all positive integers k such that d(n2 )/d(n) = k

for some n.

4. Determine all pairs (a, b) of positive integers such that ab2 + b + 7 divides a2 b + a + b.

5. Let I be the incenter of triangle ABC. Let the incircle of ABC touch the sides BC,

CA, and AB at K, L, and M , respectively. The line through B parallel to M K

meets the lines LM and LK at R and S, respectively. Prove that angle RIS is acute.

6. Consider all functions f from the set N of all positive integers into itself satisfying

f (t2 f (s)) = s(f (t))2 for all s and t in N . Determine the least possible value of

f (1998).

1. Determine all finite sets S of at least three points in the plane which satisfy the

following condition:

for any two distinct points A and B in S, the perpendicular bisector of the

line segment AB is an axis of symmetry for S.

4

X X

xi xj (x2i + x2j ) ≤ C xi

1≤i<j≤n 1≤i≤n

3. Consider an n × n square board, where n is a fixed even positive integer. The board

is divided into n2 unit squares. We say that two different squares on the board are

adjacent if they have a common side.

N unit squares on the board are marked in such a way that every square (marked or

unmarked) on the board is adjacent to at least one marked square.

Determine the smallest possible value of N .

48 CHAPTER 1. INTERNATIONAL MATHEMATICS OLYMPIAD

p is a prime,

n not exceeded 2p, and

(p − 1)n + 1 is divisible by np−1 .

5. Two circles G1 and G2 are contained inside the circle G, and are tangent to G at the

distinct points M and N , respectively. G1 passes through the center of G2 . The line

passing through the two points of intersection of G1 and G2 meets G at A and B.

The lines M A and M B meet G1 at C and D, respectively.

Prove that CD is tangent to G2 .

6. Determine all functions f : R −→ R such that

f (x − f (y)) = f (f (y)) + xf (y) + f (x) − 1

for all real numbers x, y.

1. Two circles ω1 and ω2 intersect at M and N . Line ` is tangent to the circles at A

and B, respectively, so that M lies closer to ` than N . Line CD, with C on ω1 and

D on ω2 , is parallel to ` and passes through M . Let lines AC and BD meet at E;

let lines AN and CD meet at P ; and let lines BN and CD meet at Q. Prove that

EP = EQ.

2. Let a, b, c be positive real numbers such that abc = 1. Prove that:

1 1 1

a−1+ b−1+ c−1+ ≤1

b c a

3. Let n ≥ 2 be a positive integer. Initially, there are n fleas on a horizontal line, not

all at the same point.

choose any two fleas at points A and B, with A to the left of B; let the flea

at A jump to the point C on the line to the right of B with BCAB

= λ.

Determine all the values of λ such that for any point M on the line and any initial

position of the n fleas, there is a sequence of moves that will take all the fleas to the

position to the right of M .

1.42. 42N D IMO, WASHINGTON DC, USA, 2001 49

4. A magician has one hundred cards numbered 1 to 100. He puts them into three boxes,

a red one, a white one and a blue one, so that each box contain at least one card.

A member of the audience selects two of the three boxes, choose one card from each

and announces the sum of the numbers on the chosen cards. Given this sum, the

magician identifies the box from which no card has been choosen.

How many ways are there to put all the cards into the boxes so that this trick always

works? (Two ways are considered diferent if at least one of card is put nto a different

box)

5. Determine whether or not there exists a positive integer n such that:

n is divisible by exactely 2000 different prime numbers, and

2n + 1 is divisible by n.

6. Let AH1 , BH2 , CH3 be the altitudes of an acute-angled triangle 4ABC. The incircle

of the triangle 4ABC touches the sides BC, CA, AB at T1 , T2 , T3 , respectively. Let

the lines `1 , `2 , `3 be the reflections of the lines H2 H3 , H3 H1 H1 H2 in the lines T2 T3 ,

T3 T1 , T1 T2 , respectively.

Prove that `1 , `2 , `3 determine a triangle whose vertices lie on the incircle of the

triangle 4ABC.

1. Let 4ABC be an acute-angled triangle with circumcentre O. Let P on BC be the

foot of the altitude from A. Suppose that ^BCA ≥ ^ABC + 30◦ . Prove that

^CAB + ^COP < 90◦

2. Prove that

a b c

√ +√ 2 +√ 2 ≥1

a2

+ 8bc b + 8ca c + 8ab

for all positive real numbers a, b and c.

3. Twenty-one girls and twenty-one boys took part in a mathematical contest.

• Each contestant solved at most six problems.

• For each girl and each boy, at least one problem was solved by both of them

Prove that there was a problem that was solved by at least three girls and at least

three boys.

50 CHAPTER 1. INTERNATIONAL MATHEMATICS OLYMPIAD

4. Let n be an odd integer greater than 1, and let k1 , k2 , . . . , kn be given integers. For

each of the n! permutations a = (a1 , a2 , . . . , an ) of 1, 2, . . . , n, let

n

X

S (a) = ki ai

i=1

Prove that there are two permutations b and c, such that n! is a divisor of S (b)−S (c).

5. In a triangle 4ABC, let AP bisect ^BAC, with P on BC, and let BQ bisect ^ABC,

with Q on CA. It is known that ^BAC = 60◦ and that AB + BP = AQ + QB.

What are the possible angles of triangle 4ABC?

ac + bd = (b + d + a − c) (b + d − a + c)

1. S is the set of all (h, k) with h, k non-negative integers such that h + k < n. Each

element of S is colored red or blue, so that if (h, k) is red and h0 ≤ h, k 0 ≤ k, then

(h0 , k 0 ) is also red. A type 1 subset of S has n blue elements with different first

member and a type 2 subset of S has n blue elements with different second member.

Show that there are the same number of type 1 and type 2 subsets.

2. BC is a diameter of a circle center O. A is any point on the circle with ∠AOC >

60o . EF is the chord which is the perpendicular bisector of AO. D is the midpoint of

the minor arc AB. The line through O parallel to AD meets AC at J. Show that J

is the incenter of triangle CEF .

3. Find all pairs of integers m > 2, n > 2 such that there are infinitely many positive

integers k for which k n + k 2 − 1 divides k m + k − 1.

4. The positive divisors of the integer n > 1 are d1 < d2 < . . . < dk , so that d1 = 1, dk =

n. Let d = d1 d2 + d2 d3 + · · · + dk−1 dk .

(b) Determine all n for which D is a divisor of n2 .

1.44. 44T H IMO, TOKYO, JAPAN, 2003 51

5. Find all functions f from the set R of real numbers to itself such that

(f (x) + f (z))(f (y) + f (t)) = f (xy − zt) + f (xt + yz)

for all x, y, z, t in R.

6. n > 2 circles of radius 1 are drawn in the plane so that no line meets more than two

of the circles. Their centers are O1 , O2 , · · · , On . Show that 1≤i<j≤n Oi1Oj ≤ (n−1)π

P

4

1. Let A be a 101-element subset of the set S = {1, 2, . . . , 1000000}. Prove that there

exist numbers t1 , t2 , . . . , t100 in S such that the sets

Aj = {x + tj | x ∈ A} j = 1, 2, . . . , 100

are pairwise disjoint.

m2

2. Find all pairs (m, n) of positive integers such that 2mn2 −n3 +1

is a positive integer.

3. A convex hexagon is given in which any two

√ opposite sides have the following property:

the distance between their midpoints is 3/2 times the sum of their lengths. Prove

that all the angles of the hexagon are equal.

(A convex ABCDEF has three pairs of opposite sides: AB and DE, BC and EF ,

CD and F A.)

4. Let ABCD be a cyclic quadrilateral. Let P, Q and R be the feet of perpendiculars

from D to lines BC, CA and AB, respectively. Showhat P Q = QR if and only if the

bisectors of angles ^ABC and ^ADC meet on segment AC.

5. Let n be a positive integer and x1 , x2 , . . . , xn be real numbers with x1 ≤ x2 ≤ . . . ≤ xn .

(a) Prove that

2

n X

n n X n

X 2(n2 − 1) X

|xi − x j | ≤ (xi − xj )2

i=1 j=1 3 i=1 j=1

(b) Show that the equality holds if and only if x1 , x2 , . . . , xn form an arithmetic

sequence.

6. Show that for each prime p, there exists a prime q such that np − p is not divisible

by q for any positive integer n.

Chapter 2

Iberoamerican Mathematics

Olympiad

bia, 1985

1. Find all the triples of integers (a, b, c) such that:

a + b + c = 24

a + b2 + c2 = 210

2

abc = 440

2. Let P be a point in the interior of the equilateral triangle 4ABC such that P A = 5,

P B = 7, P C = 8. Find the length of the side of the triangle 4ABC.

3. Find all the roots r1 , r2 , r3 y r4 of the equation 4a4 − ax3 + bx2 − cx + 5 = 0 knowing

that they are real, positive and that

r1 r2 r3 r4

+ + + = 1.

2 4 5 8

4. If x 6= 1, y 6= 1, and

yz − x2 xz − y 2

=

1−x 1−y

show that both fractions are equal to x + y + z.

52

2.2. 2N D IBEROAMERICAN OLYMPIAD, SALTO Y PAYSANDÚ, URUGUAY, 198753

5. To each positive integer n it is assigned a non-negative integer f (n) such that the

following conditions are satisfied:

f (n) = 0 If the first digit (from right to left) of n is 3.

f (10) = 0.

6. Given an acute triangle ABC, let D, E and F be points in the lines BC, AC and AB

respectively. If the lines AD, BE and CF Pass al by O the center of the circumference

circumscrite to the triangle ABC, whose radio is R, show that

1 1 1 2

+ + =

AB BE CF R

.

Uruguay, 1987

1. Find all f (x) such that [f (x)]2 · f 1−x

1+x

= 64x for all x diferent from 0, 1 y −1.

2. In a triangle ABC, M and N are the midpoints of the sides AC and AB respectively,

and P is the point of interesection of BM and CN . Show that if it is posible to inscribe

a circumference in the cuadrilateral AN P M , then the triangle ABC is isosceles.

√ √ 2r−1

1+m+n 3= 2+ 3

p1 = 2, and for all n ≥ 2, pn is the greatest prime divisor of the expression p1 p2 · · · pn−1 +

1. Show that pn 6= 5 for all integer n.

54 CHAPTER 2. IBEROAMERICAN MATHEMATICS OLYMPIAD

tively such that

AP AB BQ

= =

PD DC QC

Show that the angles that are formed by the lines P Q with AB and CD are equal.

1. The measure of the angles of a triangle are in arithmetic progression and the length

of the highs are also in arithmetic progression. Show that the triangle is equilateral

ad − bc = 1

a

b

> pq > c

d

Show that:

(a) q ≥ b + d

(b) Si q = b + d, then p = a + c.

3. Show that between all triangles such that the distance from their vertices to a given

point P are 3, 5 and 7, the one with the greatest perimeter has P as incenter.

4. Let ABC a triangle with sides length a, b, c. Each side of ABC is divided in n equal

segments. Let S the sum of the squares of the distance of each vertex to each one of

the points of division of the opositive side. Show that a2 +bS2 +c2 is a rational number.

5. Consider all the expression of the form x + yt + zt2 with x, y, z rational numbers and

t3 = 2. Show that if x + yt + zt2 6= 0 then there exist ratinal numbers u, v, w such

that

x + yt + zt2 u + vt + wt2 = 1

6. Consider the sets of n natural numbers diferent from zero in which there is no three

elements in arithmetic progresion. Show that in one of those sets the sum is maximal.

2.4. 4T H IBEROAMERICAN OLYMPIAD, LA HABANA, CUBA, 1989 55

1989

1. Find all triples if real numbers that satisfy the following equation system:

x + y − z = −1

x2 − y 2 + z 2 = 1

−x3 + y 3 + z 3 = −1

2. Let x, y, z three real numbers such that 0 < x < y < z < π2 . Show that

π

+ 2 sin x cos y + 2 sin y cos z > sin 2x + sin 2y + sin 2z

2

a − b b − c c − a 1

+ + <

a + b b + c c + a 16

4. The inscrite circumference in the triangle ABC, is tangente to the sides AC and BC

in the points M y N respectively. The angle bisectors of the angles A and B intersect

to M N in the points P and Q respectively. Let O be the incenter of the triangle

ABC. Show that M P · OA = BC · OQ.

5. Let f be a function defined on the set of al positive integer numbers {1, 2, 3, . . .} by:

f (1) = 1

f (2n + 1) = f (2n) + 1

f (2n) = 3f (n).

6. Show that there are infinite many pairs of natural numbers (x, y) solutions of the

equation

2x2 − 3x − 3y 2 − y + 1 = 0.

56 CHAPTER 2. IBEROAMERICAN MATHEMATICS OLYMPIAD

1990

1. Let f be a function defined on the set of the numbers greater than or equal to zero,

and,

ii) If n 6= 2j − 1 for j = 0, 1, 2, . . . then f (n + 1) = f (n) − 1.

(a) Show that for every nonnegative integer n there exists a nonnegative integer k

such that f (n) + n = 2k − 1.

(b) Calculate f (21990 ).

2. Let ABC a triangle, and let I be the center of the circumference inscrite and D, E,

F its tangent points with BC, CA and AB respectively. Let P be the other point

of intersection of the line AD with the circumference inscrite. If M is the mid point

of EF , show that the for points P , I, M , D are either on the same circumference or

they are colinear.

(a) If p is a prime number such that p divides c and p2 do not divide c, show that

for any integer number n, p2 do not divide to f (n).

(b) Let q be a prime number distict from 2 such that q do not divide to c. If q divide

to f (n) for some integer n, show that for every positive integer r there exists an

positive integer number n0 such that q r divide to f (n0 ).

point on C1 distinct of A and B. It is constructed a circumference C2 tangent to C1

on M , and to the line t.

(a) Find the point of tangency P to t and C2 , and find the locus of the centers of

the circumferences C2 when M varies.

(b) Show that there exists a circumference ortogonal to all the circumferences C2 .

Note: Two circumferences are ortogonal one to the other if they intersect and the respective

tangents to the point of intersection are ortogonal.

2.6. 6T H IBEROAMERICAN OLYMPIAD, CÓRDOBA, ARGENTINA, 1991 57

square it is drawn the diagonal parallel to AB, forming then 2n2 equal triangles. A

token moves along a path from A to B formed by segments of the board, and each

time that a segment is passed by, a seed is put on each of the triangles that admits

that segment as side. Theway is followed in a way that the token do not pass by any

segment more than once, and after that there are exactly two seeds on each of the

2n2 triangles on the board. For what values of n is this situation possible?

6. Let f (x) be a polynomial of degree 3 with rational coeficients. Show that if the

graphic of f is tangente to the x-axis, then f (x) has all its roots rational.

1991

1. To each vertex of a cube it is assigned the value +1 or −1, and to each face it

is assigned the product of its vertices. What values may take the sum of the 14

numbers obtained on this way?

2. Two perpendicular lines divide a square in for parts, three of them has area equal to

1. Show that the area of the full square is four.

3. Let F be an increasing function defined for all real number x such that 0 ≤ x ≤ 1,

and

F (0) = 0

x F (x)

F 3

= 2

18

Find F 1991

.

4. Find a number N of five diferent, non zero digits, such that it is equal to the sum of

all the numbers of three diferent digits that can be formed with the digits of N (in

any order).

integer numbers B and C such that A = P (B, C).

ii) Show that the product of two values of P is a value of P .

58 CHAPTER 2. IBEROAMERICAN MATHEMATICS OLYMPIAD

6. Given three non colinear points M, N, P , if M and N are the middle points of the

sides of a triangle and P is the intersection point of the highs of such triangle. Show

that such triangle is constructible with compas and ruler.

1992

1. For each positive integer n, let an be the last digit of the number

1+2+···+n

. Calculate

a1 + a2 + · · · + a1992

2. Given n real numbers a1 , . . . , an such that 0 < a1 < a2 < · · · < an and given the

function

a1 a2 an

f (x) = + +···+

x + a1 x + a2 x + an

find the sum of the lengths of the disjoint intervals formed for al the values x such

that f (x) > 1.

(a) Show that for all point P of Γ the sum of the squares of the distance of the

vertices A, B and C is 5.

(b) Show that for all point P of Γ it is possible to construct a triangle such√that its

sides has the length of the segments AP , BP and CP , and its area is 43 .

4. Let (an ) and (bn ) be two sequences of integer numbers such that:

(a) a0 = 0, b0 = 8

(b) an+2 = 2an+1 − an + 2, bn+2 = 2bn+1 − bn

(c) a2n + b2n is a perfect square for all n.

5. Let Γ be a circumference and let h, m positive numbers such that there exists a

trapecious ABCD inscrite in Γ, of high h and such that the sum of the bases AB+CD

es m. Construct the trapecious ABCD.

2.8. 8T H IBEROAMERICAN OLYMPIAD, CIUDAD DE MÉXICO, MÉXICO, 1993 59

A1 , A2 , B1 , B2 , C1 and C2 as in the picture. Show that the area of the exagon H is

greates than or equal to three times the area of the triangle T .

A2 A1

a a

A c

c b C2

b a C

B1 B c

b

B2 C1

México, 1993

1. A number is called capicua if when it is written in decimal notation, it can be read

equal from left to right as from right to left. Examples: 8, 23432, 6446. Let x1 <

x2 < · · · < xi < xi+1 , · · · the sequence of al capicua numbers. For each i it is defined

yi = xi+1 − xi . How many distinct primes contains the set {y1 , y2 , . . .}?

2. Show that for every convex poligon with area less than or equal to one there exists a

paralelogram with area equal to two that contains it.

(b) f (yf (x)) = x2 f (xy) for all the x, y ∈ N∗ .

4. Let ABC an equilateral triangle and Γ its inscribed circle. If D and E are points in the

AD AE

sides AB and AC respectively, such that DE is tangent to Γ, show that DB + EC = 1.

5. Let P and Q be two distinct points in the plane. Let us denote by m(P Q) the segment

bisector of P Q. Let S be a finite subset of the plane, with more than one element,

that satisfies the following porpoerties:

60 CHAPTER 2. IBEROAMERICAN MATHEMATICS OLYMPIAD

(b) If P1 Q1 , P2 Q2 , P3 Q3 are three diferent segments such that its endpoints are points

of S, then, there is non point in S such that it intersects the three lines m(P1 Q1 ),

m(P2 Q2 ), and m(P3 Q3 )

6. Two non negative integers a and b are tuanis if the decimal expresion of a+b contains

only 0 and 1 as digits. Let A and B be two infinite sets of non negative integers such

that B is the set of all the tuanis numbers to elements of the set A and A the set of

all the tuanis numbers to elements of the set B. Show that in at least one of the sets

A and B there is an infinite number of pairs (x, y) such that x − y = 1.

1994

1. A number n is said to be nice if it exists an integer r > 0 such that the expresion of

n in base r has all its digits equal. For example, 62 and 15 are nice because 62 is 222

in base 5, and 15 is 33 in base 4. Show that 1993 is not nice, but 1994 is.

semicircumference with its center on AB, that is tangent to the other three sides of

the cuadrilateral.

ii Calculate, in term of x = AB and y = CD, the maximal area that can be

reached for such cuadrilateral.

3. In each sqare of an n × n grid there is a lamp. If the lamp is touched it changes its

state every lamp in the same row and every lamp in the same column (the one that

are on are turned off and viseversa). At the begining, all the lamps are off. Show that

always is posible, with an appropiated sequence of touches, that all the the lamps on

the board end on and find, in function of n the minimal number of touches that are

necesary to turn on evey lamp.

4. Let A, B and C be given points on a circumference K such that the triangle 4ABC

is acute. Let P be a point in the interior of K. X, Y and Z be the other intersection

of AP, BP and CP with the circumference. Determine the position of P to obtain

4XY Z equilateral

2.10. 10T H IBEROAMERICAN OLYMPIAD, REGION V, CHILE, 1995 61

the set {0, 1, · · · , n−1} such that all those subsets contain exactly k elements and such

that, for all integer x with 0 ≤ x ≤ n − 1 there exist x1 ∈ A1 , x2 ∈ A2 . . . , xr ∈ Ar

(an element of each set) with

x = x1 + x2 + · · · + x r

6. Show that evey natural number n ≤ 21 000 000 can be obtained begining with 1 doing

less than 1 100 000 sums; more precisely, there is a finite sequence of natural numbers

such that for all i = 1, 2, . . . , k there exist r, s with 0 ≤ r ≤ s < i such that

xi = x r + x s .

1995

1. Find all the possible values of the sum of the digits of all the perfect squares1 .

2. Let n be a positive integer greater than 1. Determine all the collections or real

numbers

x1 , x2 , . . . , xn ≥ 1 and xn+1 ≤ 0

such that the next two conditions hold:

1 3

n− 21 1

i x12 + x22 + · · · + xn = nxn+1

2

x1 +x2 +···+xn

ii n

= xn+1

3. Let r and s two orthogonal lines that does not lay on the same plane. Let AB be their

common perpendicular, where A ∈ r and B ∈ s2 . Consider the sphere of diameter

AB. The points M ∈ r and N ∈ s varies with the condition that M N is tangent to

the sphere on the point T . Find the locus of T .

1

Sorry for the coment, but I translated this problem as good as I could. This is the problem worst

redacted that I have ever seen, and it says the same in Spanish and Portuges. After I looked on the

solution, I would rewrite it as follows: Let f : N → N such that f (n) is the sum of all the digits of the

number n2 . Find the image of f (where, by image it is understood the set of all x such that exists an n

with f (n) = x)

2

The plane that contains B and r is perpendicular to s

62 CHAPTER 2. IBEROAMERICAN MATHEMATICS OLYMPIAD

4. In a m × n grid are there are token. Every token dominates every square on its

same row (↔), its same column (l), and diagonal (&-)(Note that the token does not

.), determine the lowest number of tokens that must be on

dominate the diagonal (%

the board to dominate all the squares on the board.

on the points D, E and F respectively. Suppose that such circumference cout again

AD on its midpoint X, this means, AX = XD. The lines XB and XC intersect the

circumference in Y and Z respectively. Show that EY = F Z

such that f n (p) = p (f composed with itself n times) The function f has repulsion

degree k > 0 if for every p ∈ N f i (p) 6= p for every i = 1, 2, . . . , b kp c3 . Determine the

maximun repulsion degree can have a circular function.

ca, 1996

1. Let n be a natural number. A cube of edge n may be divided in 1996 cubes whose

edges length are also natural numbers. Find the minimum possible value for n.

2. Let 4ABC be a triangle, D the midpoint of BC, and M be the midpoint of AD.

The line BM intersects the side AC on the point N . Show that AB is tangent to the

circumference circunscrite to the triangle 4N BC if and only if the following equality

is true

BM (BC)2

=

MN (BN )2

prime. For each prime p, give a method to put the numbers 0 and 1, one number for

each square in the grid, such that on each row there are exactly k 0’s,on each column

there are exactly k 0s, and there is non rectangle with sides parallel to the sides of

the grid with 0s on each four vertices.

1

4. Given a natural number n ≥ 2, consider all the fractions of the form ab

, where a and

b are natural numbers, relative primes and such that

a<b≤n

3

Here bxc is the integer part of x

2.11. 11T H IBEROAMERICAN OLYMPIAD, LIMON, COSTA RICA, 1996 63

a+b>n

. Show that for each n, the sum of all this fractions are 21 .

Its divided on equilateral triangles of side 1, such as it is shown in the figure for the

case n = 3

B A

Initially, all the lines of the figure are painted blue. The tokens are moving along the

lines painting them of red, following the next two rules:

(a) First A moves, after that B moves, and then C, by turns. On each turn, the

token moves over exactly one line of one of the little triangles, form one side to

the other.

(b) Non token moves over a line that is already painted red, but it can rest on one

endpoint of a side that is already red, even if there is another token there wating

its turn.

Show that for every positive ingeter n it is possible to paint red all the sides of the

little triangles.

6. There are n diferent points A1 , . . . , An in the plain and each point Ai it is assigned a

real number λi distinct from zero in such way that

Show that

(a) n ≤ 4

1 1 1 1

(b) If n = 4, then λ1

+ λ2

+ λ3

+ λ4

= 0.

64 CHAPTER 2. IBEROAMERICAN MATHEMATICS OLYMPIAD

1997

1. Let r ≥ 1 be areal number that holds with the property that for each pair of positive

integer numbers m and n, with n a multiple of m, it is true that bnrc is multiple of

bmrc. Show that r has to be an integer number4 .

itemIn a triangle ABC, it is drawn a circumference with center in the incenter I and

that intersect twice each of the sides of the triangle: the segment BC on D and P

(where D is nearer two B); the segment CA on E and Q (where E is nearer to C);

and the segment AB on F and R ( where F is nearer to A).

Let S be the point of intersection of the diagonals of the cuadrilateral EQF R. Let

T be the point of intersection of the diagonals of the cuadrilateral F RDP . Let U be

the point of intersection of the diagonals of the quadrilateral DP EQ.

Show that the circumferences circumscrites to the triangle 4F RT , 4DP U and

4EQS have a unique point in common.

2. Let n ≥ 2 be an integer number and Dn the set of all the points (x, y) in the plane

such that its coordinates are integer numbers with −n ≤ x ≤ n and −n ≤ y ≤ n.

There are three posible colors in which the points of Dn are painted with (each point

has a unique color). Show that with any distribution of the colors, there are always

two points of Dn with the same color such that the line that contains them does not

go thrue any other point of Dn .

Find a way to paint the points of Dn with 4 colors such that if a line contains exactly

two points of Dn , then, this points have diferent colors.

values of the variables x1 , x2 , . . . , xn , y1 , y2 , . . . , yn are either 0 or 1.

Let I(n) be the number of 2n-tuples (x1 , x2 , . . . , xn , y1 , y2 , . . . , yn ) such that the sum of

the number is odd, and let P (n) be the number of 2n-tuples (x1 , x2 , . . . , xn , y1 , y2 , . . . , yn )

such that the sum is an even number. Shot that

P (n) 2n + 1

= n

I(n) 2 −1

4. In an acute triangle 4ABC, let AE and BF be highs of it, and H its orthocenter.

The symetric line of AE with respect to the angle bisector of ^A and the symetric

4

If x is a real number, bxc is the greatest integer lower than or equal to x

2.13. 13T H IBEROAMERICAN OLYMPIAD, PUERTO PLATA, REPÚBLICA DOMINCANA, 199865

line of BF with respect to the angle bisector of ^B intersect each other on the point

O. The lines AE and AO intersect again the circumscrite circumference to 4ABC

on the points M and N respectively.

Let P be the intersection of BC with HN ; R the intersection of BC with OM ; and

S the intersection of HR with OP .

Show that AHSO is a paralelogram.

5. Let P = {P1 , P2 , ..., P1997 } be a set of 1997 points in the interior of a circle of radius

1, where P1 is the center of the circle. For each k = 1. . . . , 1997, let xk be the distance

of Pk to the point of P closer to Pk , but diferent from it. Show that

Domincana, 1998

1. There are 98 points given over a circumference. Mary and Joseph play alternatively

in the next way: each one draw a segment joining two points that have not been

joined before. The game ends when the 98 points have been used as end points of

a segments at least once. The winner is the person that draw the last segment. If

Joseph starts the game, who can assure that is going to win the game.

2. The circumference inscribed on the triangle ABC is tangent to the sides BC, CA

and AB on the points D, E and F , respectively. AD intersect the circumference on

the point Q. Show that the line EQ intersect the segment AF on its midpoint if and

only if AC = BC.

3. Find the minimum natural number n with the following property: between any col-

lection of n distinct natural numbers in the set {1, 2, . . . , 999} it is possible to choose

four diferent a, b, c, d such that a + 2b + 3c = d.

4. There are representants from n diferent contries sit around a circular talbe (n ≥ 2),

in such way that if two representants are from the same country, then, their neighbors

to the right are not from the same country. Find, for every n, the maximal number

of people that can be sit around the table.

5. Find the maximal posible value of n such that there exist points P1 , P2 , P3 , . . . , Pn

in the plane and real numbers r1 , r2 , . . . , rn such that the distance between any two

diferent points Pi and Pj is ri + rj .

66 CHAPTER 2. IBEROAMERICAN MATHEMATICS OLYMPIAD

6. Let λ the positive root of the equation t2 − 1998t − 1 = 0. It is defined the sequence

x0 , x1 , x2 , . . . , xn , . . . by

Note: bxc is the greatest integer less than or equal to x.

1999

1. Find all the positive integers less than 1000 such that the cube of the sum of its digits

is equal to the square of such integer.

2. Given two circumferences M and N , we say that M bisects N if they intersect in two

points and the common chord is a diameter of N .

Consider two fixed circumferences C1 and C2 not concentric.

(a) Show that there exists infinite many circumferences B such that B bisects both

C1 and C2

(b) Find the locus of the centers of such circumferences B.

3. Let P1 , P2 , . . . , Pn be n disctinct points over a line in the plane (n ≥ 2). Consider all

the circumferences with diameters Pi Pj (1 ≤ i, j ≤ n) and they are painted with k

given colors. Lets call this configuration a (n, k)-cloud.

For each positive integer k, find all the positive integers n such that every posible

(n, k)-cloud has two mutually exterior tangent circumferences of the same color.

4. Let B be an integer greater than 10 such that everyone of its digits belongs to the

set {1, 3, 7, 9}. Show that B has a factor greater than or equal to 11.

the triangle are AD, BE and CF . The line EF cut the circumference on P and Q.

(b) If M is the midpoint of BC, show that AP 2 = 2AD · OM .

2.15. 15T H IBEROAMERICAN OLYMPIAD, MÉRIDA, VENEZUELA, 2000 67

6. Let A and B points in the plane and C a point in the segment bisector of AB. It

is constructed a sequence of points C1 , C2 , . . . , Cn , . . . in the following way: C1 = C

and for n ≥ 1, if Cn does not belongs to AB, then Cn+1 is the circumcenter of the

triangle 4ABCn .

Find all the points C such that the sequence C1 , C2 , . . . is defined for all n and turns

eventually periodic5

2000

1. It is constructed a regular polygon of n sides (n ≥ 3) and its vertex are numbered

from 1 to n. One draws all the diagonals of the polygon. Show that if n is odd, it is

posible to assign to each side and to each diagonal an integer number between 1 and

n, such that the next two conditions are simultaneusly satisfied:

(a) The number assigned to each side or diagonal is diferent to the number assigned

to any of the vertices that is endpoint of it.

(b) For each vertex, all the sides and diagonals that have it as an endpoint, have

diferent number assigned.

2. Let S1 and S2 be two circumferences, with centers O1 and O2 respectively, and secants

on M and N . The line t is the common tangent to S1 and S2 closer to M . The points

A and B are the intersection points of t with S1 and S2 , C is the point such that BC is

a diameter of S2 , and D the intersection point of the line O1 O2 with the perpendicular

line to AM thru B. Show that M , D and C are colinear

(x + 1)y − xz = 1

deleted, obtaining an infinite geometric progression 1, b1 , b2 , . . . whose ratio is q. Find

all the possible values of q.

5

A sequence C1 , C2 , . . . is called eventually periodic if there exist positive integers k and p such that

Cn+p = cn for all n ≥ k

68 CHAPTER 2. IBEROAMERICAN MATHEMATICS OLYMPIAD

5. There are a buch of 2000 stones. Two players play alternatively, following the next

rules:

(a) On each turn, the player can take 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5 stones or the bunch.

(b) On each turn, the player has forbiden to take the exact same amount of stones

that the other player took just before of him in the last play.

The player that on its turn can not do a valid play. Determine which player has

winning strategy and give such strategy.

6. A convex hexagon is called pretty if it has for diagonals of length 1, such that their

endpoints are all the vertex of the hexagon.

(a) Given any real number k with 0 < k < 1 find a pretty hexagon with area equal

to k

(b) Show that the area of any pretty hexagon is less than 1.

2001

1. We say that a natural number n is bogus if it satisfy simultaneously the next condi-

tions:

• Every time that four digits of n are multiplied, it is obtained a divisor of n

Show that every natural number k there exists a bogus number with more than k

digits.

2. The inscrite circumference of the triangle 4ABC has center at O and it is tangent

to the sides BC, AC and AB at the points X, Y and Z, respectively. The lines BO

and CO intersect the line Y Z at the points P and Q, respectively.

Show that if the segments XP and XQ has the same lenght, then the triangle 4ABC

is isosceles.

every one of them has at least r elements.

2.17. 17T H IBEROAMERICAN OLYMPIAD, SAN SALVADOR, EL SALVADOR, 200269

\ nk

|Si Sj | ≤ r −

4(k − 1)

4. Find the maximum number or increasing arithmetic progresions that can have a finite

sequence of real numbers a1 < a2 < · · · < an of n real numbers.

Note: Three terms on ai , aj , ak of a sequence of real numbers are in increasing arith-

metic progresion if i < j < k, ai < aj < ak and aj − ai = ak − aj

5. In a board of 2000 × 2001 squares with integer coordinates (x, y), 0 ≤ x ≤ 1999 and

0 ≤ y ≤ 2000. An ship in the table moves in the next way: before each movement,

the ship is in position (x, y) and has a velocity of (h, v) where h and v are integers.

The ship choosea new velocity (h0 , v 0 ) such that h0 − h is either -1, 0 or 1, and v 0 − v is

either -1, 0 or 1. The new position of the ship will be (x0 , y 0 ) where x0 is the remainder

of the division of x + h0 by 2000 and y 0 is the remainder of the division of y + v 0 by

2001.

There are two ships in the board: The Martian ship and the Terrestrian ship. The

Terrestrian ship wants to catch the Martian ship. Initially each ship is in a different

square and has velocity (0, 0). The first ship to move is the Terrestrian, and they

continue moving alternatively.

There exists a strategy such that the Terrestrian ship always catch to the Martian

ship, whatever are the initial positions?

Note: The Terrestrial ship always see the Martian ship and it catch it if after a

movement it reaches the same position of the Martian ship.

6. Show that it is impossible to cover a unit sqare with five equal squares with side

s ≤ 21 .

Salvador, 2002

1. The integer numbers from 1 to 2002, are written in a chalkboard on increasing order

1, 2,. . . , 2001, 2002. After that, somebody erase the numbers in the (3k + 1th places

(1,4,7,. . . ). After that, the same person erase the numbers in the (3k + 1)th positions

of the new list (in this case, 2, 5, 9,. . . ). This process is repited all the times that it is

necesary to erase all the numbers in the list. What is the last number to be erased?

70 CHAPTER 2. IBEROAMERICAN MATHEMATICS OLYMPIAD

2. Given any set of 9 points in the plane such that there is no 3 of them colinear, show

that for each point P of the set, the number of triangles with its vertices on the other

8 points and that contain P on its interior is even.

3. Let P be a point in the interior of the equilateral triangle 4ABC such that ^AP C =

120◦ . Let M be the intersection of CP with AB, and N the intersection of AP and

BC. Find the locus of the circumcenter of the triangle 4M BN when P varies.

4. In a triangle 4ABC with all its sides of diferent length, D is on the side AC, such

that BD is the angle bisector of ^ABC. Let E and F , respectively, be the feet of

the perpendicular drawn from A and C to the line BD and let M be the point on

BC such that DM is perpendicular to BC. Show that ^EM D = ^DM F .

1

a1 = 56 and an+1 = an − for n ≥ 1

an

Show that there is an integer k, 1 ≤ k ≤ 2002 such that ak < 0.

6. A policeman try to catch a rober in a board of 2001 × 2001 squares. They play

alternatively, and each one of them on its turn should move a space on each one of

the next directions: ↓(down); → (right); - (up-left diagonal).

If the policeman is on the square in the right-down corner, he can go directly to the

square in the left-up corner (the rober can not do this). Initially the pliceman is in the

central square, and the rober is in the square over the diagonal from the right-up to

the left-down corners, that is contiguos (right-up) to the square where the policeman

is. Show that:

(a) The rober may move at least 10000 times before the policeman catch it.

(b) The policeman has an strategy such that he will eventually catch the rober

Note: The policeman catch the rober if he reaches the square where the rober is. If

the rober reaches the policeman square, there is not catch.

gentina, 2003

1. (a) There are two sequences of numbers, with 2003 consecutive integers each, and a

2.18. 18T H IBEROAMERICAN OLYMPIAD, BUENOS AIRES, ARGENTINA, 2003 71

······

······

Say if it is always positive to distribut the numbers on the first sequence in the

first row and the second sequence in the second row, such that the sequence

obtained of the 2003 columnwise sums form a new sequence of 2003 consecutive

integers.

(b) Same question, if 2003 is replaced with 2004?

In both cases, if the answer is affirmative, explain how are the numbers distributed,

and if the answer is negative, explain why.

2. Let C and D be two points on the semicircumference with diameter AB such that B

and C are in distinct semiplanes with respect to the line AD. Denote by M , N and P

the midpoints of AC, BD and CD respectively. Let OA and OB the circumcenters of

the triangles 4ACP and 4BDP . Show that the lines OA OB and M N are parallel.

Consider all the sequences of 2004 real numbers (x1 , x2 , . . . , x2003 ) such that

x0 = 1

0 ≤ x1 ≤ 2x0

0 ≤ x2 ≤ 2x1

..

.

0 ≤ x2003 ≤ 2x2002

From all this sequences, determine that one where the next expression reach-

es its maximum value

S = ···

When Pablo was going to copy the expression, it was erased from the board. The

only thing that he could remember was that S was of the form

where the last term had coeficient +1 and the others has coeficients either +1 or -1.

Show that, even when Pablo does not have the complete statement, he can determine

the solution of the problem.

72 CHAPTER 2. IBEROAMERICAN MATHEMATICS OLYMPIAD

4. Let M = {1, 2, . . . , 49} the set of the first 49 positive integers. Determine the maxi-

mum integer k such that the set M has a subset of k elements such that there is no

6 consecutive integers in such subset. For that value of k, calculate the amount of

subset of M with k elements and the given property.

diferent from its endpoints, such that BP = CQ. Consider points X and Y such

that X 6= Y , in the segments AP and AQ respectively. Show that, for every X and

X choosen, there exists a triangle whose sides have lengths BX, XY and DY .

an+1 = a2001

n + bn , bn+1 = b2001

n + an

Show that 2003 is not divisor of any of the terms in these two sequences.

Chapter 3

1985

1. Determine, with proof, the number of ordered triples (A1 , A2 , A3 ) of sets which have

the property that

(i) A1 ∪ A2 ∪ A3 = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10}, and

(ii) A1 ∩ A2 ∩ A3 = ∅.

Express your answer in the form 2a 3b 5c 7d , where a, b, c, d are nonnegative integers.

2. Let T be an acute triangle. Inscribe a rectangle R in T with one side along a side of

T . Then inscribe a rectangle S in the triangle formed by the side of R opposite the

side on the boundary of T , and the other two sides of T , with one side along the side

of R. For any polygon X, let A(X) denote the area of X. Find the maximum value,

or show that no maximum exists, of A(R)+A(S)

A(T )

, where T ranges over all triangles and

R, S over all rectangles as above.

3. Let d be a real number. For each integer m ≥ 0, define a sequence {am (j)}, j =

0, 1, 2, . . . by the condition

am (0) = d/2m ,

am (j + 1) = (am (j))2 + 2am (j), j ≥ 0.

73

74 CHAPTER 3. WILLIAM LOWELL PUTNAM COMPETITION

4. Define a sequence {ai } by a1 = 3 and ai+1 = 3ai for i ≥ 1. Which integers between

00 and 99 inclusive occur as the last two digits in the decimal expansion of infinitely

many ai ?

R 2π

5. Let Im = 0 cos(x) cos(2x) · · · cos(mx) dx. For which integers m, 1 ≤ m ≤ 10 is

Im 6= 0?

Let F (x) = 3x2 + 7x + 2. Find, with proof, a polynomial g(x) with real coefficients

such that

(ii) Γ(f (x)n ) = Γ(g(x)n )

7. Let k be the smallest positive integer for which there exist distinct integers m1 , m2 , m3 , m4 , m5

such that the polynomial

for which this minimum k is achieved.

d

fn+1 (x) = (n + 1)fn (x + 1)

dx

for n ≥ 0. Find, with proof, the explicit factorization of f100 (1) into powers of distinct

primes.

9. Let

a1,1 a1,2 a1,3 ...

a2,1 a2,2 a2,3 ...

a3,1 a3,2 a3,3 ...

.. .. .. ..

. . . .

be a doubly infinite array of positive integers, and suppose each positive integer

appears exactly eight times in the array. Prove that am,n > mn for some pair of

positive integers (m, n).

3.2. 47T H ANUAL WILLIAM LOWELL PUTNAM COMPETITION, 1986 75

10. Let C be the unit circle x2 +y 2 = 1. A point p is chosen randomly on the circumference

C and another point q is chosen randomly from the interior of C (these points are

chosen independently and uniformly over their domains). Let R be the rectangle with

sides parallel to the x and y-axes with diagonal pq. What is the probability that no

point of R lies outside of C?

R R ∞ −x2 √

11. Evaluate 0∞ t−1/2 e−1985(t+t ) dt. You may assume that −∞

−1

e dx = π.

12. Let G be a finite set of real n × n matrices {Mi }, 1 ≤ i ≤ r, which form a group

P

under matrix multiplication. Suppose that ri=1 tr(Mi ) = 0, where tr(A) denotes the

Pr

trace of the matrix A. Prove that i=1 Mi is the n × n zero matrix.

1986

1. Find, with explanation, the maximum value of f (x) = x3 − 3x on the set of all real

numbers x satisfying x4 + 36 ≤ 13x2 .

$ %

1020000

?

10100 + 3

P

3. Evaluate ∞ 2

n=0 Arccot(n + n + 1), where Arccot t for t ≥ 0 denotes the number θ in

the interval 0 < θ ≤ π/2 with cot θ = t.

or column. Let f (n) be the number of n × n matrices A satisfying the following two

conditions:

(b) The sum of the n entries of a transversal is the same for all transversals of A.

−1 0 −1

A = 0 1 0 .

0 1 0

76 CHAPTER 3. WILLIAM LOWELL PUTNAM COMPETITION

f (n) = a1 bn1 + a2 bn2 + a3 bn3 + a4 ,

where the ai ’s and bi ’s are rational numbers.

5. Suppose f1 (x), f2 (x), . . . , fn (x) are functions of n real variables x = (x1 , . . . , xn ) with

continuous second-order partial derivatives everywhere on Rn . Suppose further that

there are constants cij such that

∂fi ∂fj

− = cij

∂xj ∂xi

for all i and j, 1 ≤ i ≤ n, 1 ≤ j ≤ n. Prove that there is a function g(x) on Rn such

that fi + ∂g/∂xi is linear for all i, 1 ≤ i ≤ n. (A linear function is one of the form

a0 + a1 x1 + a2 x2 + · · · + an xn .)

Suppose that there is a polynomial f (x) satisfying the identity

n

X

n

(1 − x) f (x) = 1 + a i xb i .

i=1

Find a simple expression (not involving any sums) for f (1) in terms of b1 , b2 , . . . , bn

and n (but independent of a1 , a2 , . . . , an ).

7. Inscribe a rectangle of base b and height h in a circle of radius one, and inscribe

an isosceles triangle in the region of the circle cut off by one base of the rectangle

(with that side as the base of the triangle). For what value of h do the rectangle and

triangle have the same area?

8. Prove that there are only a finite number of possibilities for the ordered triple T =

(x − y, y − z, z − x), where x, y, z are complex numbers satisfying the simultaneous

equations

x(x − 1) + 2yz = y(y − 1) + 2zx + z(z − 1) + 2xy,

and list all such triples T .

9. Let Γ consist of all polynomials in x with integer coefficienst. For f and g in Γ and

m a positive integer, let f ≡ g (mod m) mean that every coefficient of f − g is an

integral multiple of m. Let n and p be positive integers with p prime. Given that

f, g, h, r and s are in Γ with rf + sg ≡ 1 (mod p) and f g ≡ h (mod p), prove

that there exist F and G in Γ with F ≡ f (mod p), G ≡ g (mod p), and F G ≡ h

(mod pn ).

3.3. 48T H ANUAL WILLIAM LOWELL PUTNAM COMPETITION, 1987 77

√

10. For a positive real number r, let G(r) be the minimum value of |r − m2 + 2n2 | for

all integers m and n. Prove or disprove the assertion that limr→∞ G(r) exists and

equals 0.

11. Let f (x, y, z) = x2 + y 2 + z 2 + xyz. Let p(x, y, z), q(x, y, z), r(x, y, z) be polynomials

with real coefficients satisfying

Prove or disprove the assertion that the sequence p, q, r consists of some permutation

of ±x, ±y, ±z, where the number of minus signs is 0 or 2.

12. Suppose A, B, C, D are n × n matrices with entries in a field F , satisfying the condi-

tions that AB T andCD T are symmetric and AD T − BC T = I. Here I is the n × n

identity matrix, and if M is an n × n matrix, M T is its transpose. Prove that

AT D + C T B = I.

1987

1. Curves A, B, C and D are defined in the plane as follows:

( )

2 x 2

A = (x, y) : x − y = 2 ,

x + y2

( )

y

B = (x, y) : 2xy + 2 =3 ,

x + y2

n o

C = (x, y) : x3 − 3xy 2 + 3y = 1 ,

n o

D = (x, y) : 3x2 y − 3x − y 3 = 0 .

Prove that A ∩ B = C ∩ D.

123456789101112131415161718192021 . . .

is obtained by writing the positive integers in order. If the 10n -th digit in this sequence

occurs in the part of the sequence in which the m-digit numbers are placed, define

f (n) to be m. For example, f (2) = 2 because the 100th digit enters the sequence in

the placement of the two-digit integer 55. Find, with proof, f (1987).

78 CHAPTER 3. WILLIAM LOWELL PUTNAM COMPETITION

y 00 − 2y 0 + y = 2ex .

(a) If f (x) > 0 for all real x, must f 0 (x) > 0 for all real x? Explain.

(b) If f 0 (x) > 0 for all real x, must f (x) > 0 for all real x? Explain.

of two variables such that

complex numbers with P (A, B, C) = 0 and |B − A| = 10. Find |C − A|.

5. Let !

~ −y x

G(x, y) = , ,0 .

x2 + 4y 2 x2 + 4y 2

Prove or disprove that there is a vector-valued function

(i) M, N, P have continuous partial derivatives for all (x, y, z) 6= (0, 0, 0);

(ii) Curl F~ = ~0 for all (x, y, z) 6= (0, 0, 0);

(iii) F~ (x, y, 0) = G(x,

~ y).

6. For each positive integer n, let a(n) be the number of zeroes in the base 3 represen-

tation of n. For which positive real numbers x does the series

∞

X xa(n)

3

n=1 n

converge?

7. Evaluate q

Z 4 ln(9 − x) dx

q q .

2 ln(9 − x) + ln(x + 3)

3.4. 49T H ANUAL WILLIAM LOWELL PUTNAM COMPETITION, 1988 79

s s s

0 1 s t+1

t

+

t

+···+

t

=

t−s

r r+1 r+s

(t + 1 − s) r

9. Let F be a field in which 1 + 1 6= 0. Show that the set of solutions to the equation

x2 + y 2 = 1 with x and y in F is given by (x, y) = (1, 0) and

!

r 2 − 1 2r

(x, y) = ,

r2 + 1 r2 + 1

10. Let (x1 , y1 ) = (0.8, 0.6) and let xn+1 = xn cos yn − yn sin yn and yn+1 = xn sin yn +

yn cos yn for n = 1, 2, 3, . . .. For each of limn→∞ xn and limn→∞ yn , prove that the

limit exists and find it or prove that the limit does not exist.

complex numbers such that whenever (z1 , z2 , . . . , z2n )M = On , with complex zi , not

all zero, then at least one of the zi is not real. Prove that for arbitrary real numbers

r1 , r2 , . . . , r2n , there are complex numbers w1 , w2 , . . . , wn such that

w1 r1

. ..

re M ..

=

.

.

wn rn

(Note: if C is a matrix of complex numbers, re(C) is the matrix whose entries are

the real parts of the entries of C.)

12. Let F be the field of p2 elements, where p is an odd prime. Suppose S is a set of

(p2 − 1)/2 distinct nonzero elements of F with the property that for each a 6= 0 in F ,

exactly one of a and −a is in S. Let N be the number of elements in the intersection

S ∩ {2a : a ∈ S}. Prove that N is even.

1988

1. Let R be the region consisting of the points (x, y) of the cartesian plane satisfying

both |x| − |y| ≤ 1 and |y| ≤ 1. Sketch the region R and find its area.

80 CHAPTER 3. WILLIAM LOWELL PUTNAM COMPETITION

2. A not uncommon calculus mistake is to believe that the product rule for derivatives

2

says that (f g)0 = f 0 g 0 . If f (x) = ex , determine, with proof, whether there exists an

open interval (a, b) and a nonzero function g defined on (a, b) such that this wrong

product rule is true for x in (a, b).

∞ x

X 1 1

csc −1

n=1 n n

converges.

4. (a) If every point of the plane is painted one of three colors, do there necessarily

exist two points of the same color exactly one inch apart?

(b) What if three is replaced by nine?

5. Prove that there exists a unique function f from the set R+ of positive real numbers

to R+ such that

f (f (x)) = 6x − f (x)

and

f (x) > 0

for all x > 0.

such that any n of them are linearly independent, does it follow that A is a scalar

multiple of the identity? Prove your answer.

integers in {2, 3, 4, . . .}. Show that every composite is expressible as xy + xz + yz + 1,

with x, y, z positive integers.

8. Prove or disprove: If x and y are real numbers with y ≥ 0 and y(y + 1) ≤ (x + 1)2 ,

then y(y − 1) ≤ x2 .

9. For every√n in the set N = {1, 2, . . .} of positive integers, let rn be the minimum value

of |c − d 3| for all nonnegative integers c and d with c + d = n. Find, with proof,

the smallest positive real number g with rn ≤ g for all n ∈ N.

P

10. Prove that if ∞ n=1 an is a convergent series of positive real numbers, then so is

P∞ n/(n+1)

(a

n=1 n ) .

3.5. 50T H ANUAL WILLIAM LOWELL PUTNAM COMPETITION, 1989 81

which each entry in the first n subdiagonals below the main diagonal is 1 and each

of the remaining entries below the main diagonal is -1. Find, with proof, the rank

of Mn . (According to one definition, the rank of a matrix is the largest k such that

there is a k × k submatrix with nonzero determinant.)

One may note that

0 −1 1

M1 = 1 0 −1

−1 1 0

0 −1 −1 1 1

1 0 −1 −1 1

M2 =

1 1 0 −1 −1

−1 1 1 0 −1

−1 −1 1 1 0

12. Prove that there exist an infinite number of ordered pairs (a, b) of integers such that

for every positive integer t, the number at + b is a triangular number if and only if t

is a triangular number. (The triangular numbers are the tn = n(n + 1)/2 with n in

{0, 1, 2, . . .})

1989

1. How many primes among the positive integers, written as usual in base 10, are alter-

nating 1’s and 0’s, beginning and ending with 1?

Z a Z b 2 x2 ,a2 y 2 }

2. Evaluate emax{b dy dx where a and b are positive.

0 0

3. Prove that if

11z 10 + 10iz 9 + 10iz − 11 = 0,

then |z| = 1. (Here z is a complex number and i2 = −1.)

4. If α is an irrational number, 0 < α < 1, is there a finite game with an honest coin

such that the probability of one player winning the game is α? (An honest coin is one

for which the probability of heads and the probability of tails are both 12 . A game is

finite if with probability 1 it must end in a finite number of moves.)

82 CHAPTER 3. WILLIAM LOWELL PUTNAM COMPETITION

5. Let m be a positive integer and let G be a regular (2m + 1)-gon inscribed in the unit

circle. Show that there is a positive constant A, independent of m, with the following

property. For any points p inside G there are two distinct vertices v1 and v2 of G such

that

1 A

| |p − v1 | − |p − v2 | | < − 3.

m m

Here |s − t| denotes the distance between the points s and t.

two elements. Let

1 if every block of zeros in the binary expansion of n

has an even number of zeros in the block

an =

0 otherwise.

Prove that α3 + xα + 1 = 0.

7. A dart, thrown at random, hits a square target. Assuming that any two parts of the

target of equal area are equally likely to be hit, find the probability that the point

√ hit

a b+c

is nearer to the center than to any edge. Express your answer in the form ,

d

where a, b, c, d are integers.

8. Let S be a non-empty set with an associative operation that is left and right can-

cellative (xy = xz implies y = z, and yx = zx implies y = z).ssume that for every a

in S the set {an : n = 1, 2, 3, . . .} is inite. Must S be a group?

9. Let f be a function on [0, ∞), differentiable and satisfying

√

for x > 0. Assume that |f (x)| ≤ e− x for x ≥ 0 (so that f (x) tends rapidly to 0 as x

increases). For n a non-negative integer, define

Z ∞

µn = xn f (x) dx

0

a) Express µn in terms of µ0 .

n

b) Prove that the sequence {µn 3n! } always converges, and that the limit is 0 only

if µ0 = 0.

3.6. 51T H ANUAL WILLIAM LOWELL PUTNAM COMPETITION, 1990 83

10. Can a countably infinite set have an uncountable collection of non-empty subsets such

that the intersection of any two of them is finite?

11. Label the vertices of a trapezoid T (quadrilateral with two parallel sides) inscribed

in the unit circle as A, B, C, D so that AB is parallel to CD and A, B, C, D are

in counterclockwise order. Let s1 , s2 , and d denote the lengths of the line segments

AB, CD, and OE, where E is the point of intersection of the diagonals of T , and O

is the center of the circle. Determine the least upper bound of s1 −s d

2

over all such T

for which d 6= 0, and describe allases, if any, in which it is attained.

12. Let (x1 , x2 , . . . xn ) be a point chosen at random from the n-dimensional region defined

by 0 < x1 < x2 < · · · < xn < 1. Let f be a continuous function on [0, 1] with f (1) = 0.

Set x0 = 0 and xn+1 = 1. Show that the expected value of the Riemann sum

n

X

(xi+1 − xi )f (xi+1 )

i=0

R

is 01 f (t)P (t) dt, where P is a polynomial of degree n, independent of f , with 0 ≤

P (t) ≤ 1 for 0 ≤ t ≤ 1.

1990

1. Let

T0 = 2, T1 = 3, T2 = 6,

and for n ≥ 3,

Tn = (n + 4)Tn−1 − 4nTn−2 + (4n − 8)Tn−3 .

The first few terms are

Find, with proof, a formula for Tn of the form Tn = An + Bn , where {An } and {Bn }

are well-known sequences.

√ √ √

2. Is 2 the limit of a sequence of numbers of the form 3 n − 3 m (n, m = 0, 1, 2, . . .)?

3. Prove that any convex pentagon whose vertices (no three of which are collinear) have

integer coordinates must have area greater than or equal to 25 .

84 CHAPTER 3. WILLIAM LOWELL PUTNAM COMPETITION

4. Consider a paper punch that can be centered at any point of the plane and that,

when operated, removes from the plane precisely those points whose distance from

the center is irrational. How many punches are needed to remove every point?

5. If A and B are square matrices of the same size such that ABAB = 0, does it follow

that BABA = 0?

6. If X is a finite set, let X denote the number of elements in X. Call an ordered pair

(S, T ) of subsets of {1, 2, . . . , n} admissible if s > |T | for each s ∈ S, and t > |S| for

each t ∈ T . How many admissible ordered pairs of subsets of {1, 2, . . . , 10} are there?

Prove your answer.

7. Find all real-valued continuously differentiable functions f on the real line such that

for all x, Z x

2

(f (x)) = [(f (t))2 + (f 0 (t))2 ] dt + 1990.

0

∞

X

1+ (1 + xj )Pj = 0,

j=1

where Pj is

(1 − z)(1 − zx)(1 − zx2 ) · · · (1 − zxj−1 )

.

(z − x)(z − x2 )(z − x3 ) · · · (z − xj )

9. Let S be a set of 2 × 2 integer matrices whose entries aij (1) are all squares of integers

and, (2) satisfy aij ≤ 200. Show that if S has more than 50387 (= 154 − 152 − 15 + 2)

elements, then it has two elements that commute.

10. Let G be a finite group of order n generated by a and b. Prove or disprove: there is

a sequence

g1 , g2 , g3 , . . . , g2n

such that

(1) every element of G occurs exactly twice, and

(2) gi+1 equals gi a or gi b for i = 1, 2, . . . , 2n. (Interpret g2n+1 as g1 .)

11. Is there an infinite sequence a0 , a1 , a2 , . . . of nonzero real numbers such that for n =

1, 2, 3, . . . the polynomial

pn (x) = a0 + a1 x + a2 x2 + · · · + an xn

has exactly n distinct real roots?

3.7. 52T H ANUAL WILLIAM LOWELL PUTNAM COMPETITION, 1991 85

12. Let S be a nonempty closed bounded convex set in the plane. Let K be a line and t

a positive number. Let L1 and L2 be support lines for S parallel to K1 , and let L be

the line parallel to K and midway between L1 and L2 . Let BS (K, t) be the band of

points whose distance from L is at most (t/2)w, where w is the distance between L1

and L2 . What is the smallest t such that

\

S∩ BS (K, t) 6= ∅

K

1991

1. A 2 × 3 rectangle has vertices as (0, 0), (2, 0), (0, 3), and (2, 3). It rotates 90 ◦ clockwise

about the point (2, 0). It then otates 90◦ clockwise about the point (5, 0), then 90◦

clockwise about the point (7, 0), and finally, 90◦ clockwise about the point (10, 0).

(The side originally on the x-axis is now back on the x-axis.) Find the area of the

region above the x-axis and below the curve traced out by the point whose initial

position is (1,1).

can A2 + B 2 be nvertible?

3. Find all real polynomials p(x) of degree n ≥ 2 for which there exist real numbers

r1 < r2 < · · · < rn such that

ri +ri+1

(b) p0 2

=0 i = 1, 2, . . . , n − 1,

4. Does there exist an infinite sequence of closed discs D1 , D2 , D3 , . . . in the plane, with

centers c1 , c2 , c3 , . . ., respectively, such that

(b) the sum of the areas of the Di is finite, and

(c) every line in the plane intersects at least one of the Di ?

86 CHAPTER 3. WILLIAM LOWELL PUTNAM COMPETITION

Z y q

x4 + (y − y 2 )2 dx

0

for 0 ≤ y ≤ 1.

a1 + a 2 + · · · + a r

a1 > a 2 + a 3 , a2 > a 3 + a 4 , . . .

Let B(n) denote the number of b1 + b2 + · · · + bs which add up to n, with

(a) b1 ≥ b2 ≥ . . . ≥ bs ,

(b) each bi is in the sequence 1, 2, 4, . . . , gj , . . . defined by g1 = 1, g2 = 2, and

gj = gj−1 + gj−2 + 1, and

(c) if b1 = gk then every element in {1, 2, 4, . . . , gk } appears at least once as a bi .

(For example, A(7) = 5 because the relevant sums are 7, 6 + 1, 5 + 2, 4 + 3, 4 + 2 + 1,

and B(7) = 5 because the relevant sums are 4 + 2 + 1, 2 + 2 + 2 + 1, 2 + 2 + 1 + 1 +

1, 2 + 1 + 1 + 1 + 1 + 1, 1 + 1 + 1 + 1 + 1 + 1 + 1.)

7. For each integer n ≥ 0, let S(n) = n − m2 , where m is the greatest integer with

m2 ≤ n. Define a sequence (ak )∞ k=0 by a0 = A and ak+1 = ak + S(ak ) for k ≥ 0. For

what positive integers A is this sequence eventually constant?

(−∞, ∞). Furthermore, suppose that for each pair of real numbers x and y,

g(x + y) = f (x)g(y) + g(x)f (y).

9. Does there exist a real number L such that, if m and n are integers greater than L,

then an m × n rectangle may be expressed as a nion of 4 × 6 and 5 × 7 rectangles,

any two of which intersect at most along their boundaries?

3.8. 53T H ANUAL WILLIAM LOWELL PUTNAM COMPETITION, 1992 87

p ! !

X p p+j

≡ 2p + 1 (mod p2 ).

j=0 j j

11. Let p be an odd prime and let Zp denote (the field of) integers modulo p. How many

elements are in the set

{x2 : x ∈ Zp } ∩ {y 2 + 1 : y ∈ Zp }?

12. Let a and b be positive numbers. Find the largest number c, in terms of a and b, such

that

sinh ux sinh u(1 − x)

ax b1−x ≤ a +b

sinh u sinh u

for all u with 0 < |u| ≤ c and for all x, 0 < x < 1. (Note: sinh u = (eu − e−u )/2.)

1992

1. Prove that f (n) = 1 − n is the only integer-valued function defined on the integers

that satisfies the following conditions.

(ii) f (f (n + 2) + 2) = n for all integers n;

(iii) f (0) = 1.

2. Define C(α) to be the coefficient of x1992 in the power series about x = 0 of (1 + x)α .

Evaluate !

Z 1 1992

X 1

C(−y − 1) dy.

0 k=1 y + k

3. For a given positive integer m, find all triples (n, x, y) of positive integers, with n

relatively prime to m, which satisfy

(x2 + y 2 )m = (xy)n .

88 CHAPTER 3. WILLIAM LOWELL PUTNAM COMPETITION

If

n2

1

f = 2 , n = 1, 2, 3, . . . ,

n n +1

compute the values of the derivatives f (k) (0), k = 1, 2, 3, . . ..

5. For each positive integer n, let an = 0 (or 1) if the number of 1’s in the binary

representation of n is even (or odd), respectively. Show that there do not exist

positive integers k and m such that

for 0 ≤ j ≤ m − 1.

6. Four points are chosen at random on the surface of a sphere. What is the probability

that the center of the sphere lies inside the tetrahedron whose vertices are at the

four points? (It is understood that each point is independently chosen relative to a

uniform distribution on the sphere.)

7. Let S be a set of n distinct real numbers. Let AS be the set of numbers that occur

as averages of two distinct elements of S. For a given n ≥ 2, what is the smallest

possible number of elements in AS ?

expansion of (1 + x + x2 + x3 )n . Prove that

k

! !

X n n

Q(n, k) = ,

j=0 j k − 2j

a

where is the standard binomial coefficient. (Reminder: For integers a and b with

b

a a! a

a ≥ 0, b

= b!(a−b)!

for 0 ≤ b ≤ a, with b

= 0 otherwise.)

9. For any pair (x, y) of real numbers, a sequence (an (x, y))n≥0 is defined as follows:

a0 (x, y) = x,

(an (x, y))2 + y 2

an+1 (x, y) = , for n ≥ 0.

2

Find the area of the region

3.9. 54T H ANUAL WILLIAM LOWELL PUTNAM COMPETITION, 1993 89

10. Let p(x) be a nonzero polynomial of degree less than 1992 having no nonconstant

factor in common with x3 − x. Let

!

d1992 p(x) f (x)

=

dx1992 x3 − x g(x)

for polynomials f (x) and g(x). Find the smallest possible degree of f (x).

11. Let Dn denote the value of the (n − 1) × (n − 1) determinant

3 1 1 1 ··· 1

1 4 1 1 ··· 1

1 1 5 1 ··· 1

1 1 1 6 ··· 1 .

.. .. .. .. .. ..

. . . . . .

1 1 1 1 ··· n+1

n o

Dn

Is the set n!

bounded?

n≥2

(i) I ∈ M, where I is the n × n identity matrix;

(ii) if A ∈ M and B ∈ M, then either AB ∈ M or −AB ∈ M, but not both;

(iii) if A ∈ M and B ∈ M, then either AB = BA or AB = −BA;

(iv) if A ∈ M and A 6= I, there is at least one B ∈ M such that AB = −BA.

Prove that M contains at most n2 matrices.

1993

1. The horizontal line y = c intersects the curve y = 2x − 3x3 in the first quadrant as

in the figure. Find c so that the areas of the two shaded regions are equal. [Figure

not included. The first region is bounded by the y-axis, the line y = c and the curve;

the other lies under the curve and above the line y = c between their two points of

intersection.]

2. Let (xn )n≥0 be a sequence of nonzero real numbers such that x2n − xn−1 xn+1 = 1 for

n = 1, 2, 3, . . .. Prove there exists a real number a such that xn+1 = axn − xn−1 for

all n ≥ 1.

90 CHAPTER 3. WILLIAM LOWELL PUTNAM COMPETITION

3. Let Pn be the set of subsets of {1, 2, . . . , n}. Let c(n, m) be the number of functions

f : Pn → {1, 2, . . . , m} such that f (A ∩ B) = min{f (A), f (B)}. Prove that

m

X

c(n, m) = j n.

j=1

4. Let x1 , x2 , . . . , x19 be positive integers each of which is less than or equal to 93. Let

y1 , y2 , . . . , y93 be positive integers each of which is less than or equal to 19. Prove

that there exists a (nonempty) sum of some xi ’s equal to a sum of some yj ’s.

5. Show that

!2 !2 !2

x2 − x x2 − x x2 − x

Z Z 1 Z 11

−10 11 10

dx + dx + dx

−100 x3 − 3x + 1 1

101

x3 − 3x + 1 101

100

x3 − 3x + 1

is a rational number.

2, 3, 3, 2, 3, 3, 3, 2, 3, 3, 3, 2, 3, 3, 2, 3, 3, 3, 2, 3, 3, 3, 2, 3, 3, 3, 2, 3, 3, 2, 3, 3, 3, 2, . . .

as the property that, if one forms a second sequence that records the number of 3’s

between successive 2’s, the result is identical to the iven sequence. Show that there

exists a real number r such that, for ny n, the nth term of the sequence is 2 if and

only if n = 1 + brmc for some nonnegative integer m. (Note: bxrf loor denotes the

largest integer less than or equal to x.)

7. Find the smallest positive integer n such that for every integer m with 0 < m < 1993,

there exists an integer k for which

m k m+1

< < .

1993 n 1994

8. Consider the following game played with a deck of 2n cards numbered from 1 to 2n.

The deck is randomly shuffled and n cards are dealt to each of two players. Beginning

with A, the players take turns discarding one of their remaining cards and announcing

its number. The game ends as soon as the sum of the numbers on the discarded cards

is divisible by 2n + 1. The last person to discard wins the game. Assuming optimal

strategy by both A and B, what is the probability that A wins?

9. Two real numbers x and y are chosen at random in the interval (0,1) with respect

to the uniform distribution. What is the probability that he closest integer to x/y is

even? Express the answer in the form r + sπ, where r and s are rational numbers.

3.10. 55T H ANUAL WILLIAM LOWELL PUTNAM COMPETITION, 1994 91

10. The function K(x, y) is positive and continuous for 0 ≤ x ≤ 1, 0 ≤ y ≤ 1, and the

functions f (x) and g(x) are positive and continuous for 0 ≤ x ≤ 1. Suppose that for

all x, 0 ≤ x ≤ 1, Z 1

f (y)K(x, y) dy = g(x)

0

and Z 1

g(y)K(x, y) dy = f (x).

0

Show that f (x) = g(x) for 9 ≤ x ≤ 1.

11. Show there do not exist four points in the Euclidean plane such that the pairwise

distances between the points are all odd integers.

12. Let S be a set of three, not necessarily distinct, positive integers. Show that one can

transform S into a set containing 0 by a finite number of applications of the following

rule: Select two of the three integers, say x and y, where x < y and replace them

with 2x and y − x.

1994

1. Let (an ) be a sequence of positive reals such that, for all n, an ≤ a2n + a2n+1 . Prove

P

that ∞ n=1 an diverges.

2. Find the positive value of m such that the area in the first quadrant enclosed by the

2

ellipse x9 + y 2 = 1, the x-axis, and the line y = 2x/3 is equal to the area in the first

2

quadrant enclosed by the ellipse x9 + y 2 = 1, the y-axis, and the line y = mx.

3. Prove that the points of an isosceles triangle of side length

√ 1 annot be colored in four

colors such that no two points at distance at least 2 − 2 from each other receive the

same color.

4. Let A and B be 2 × 2 matrices with integer entries such that each of A, A + B, A +

2B, A + 3B, A + 4B has an inverse with integer entries. Prove that the same must

be true of A + 5B.

5. Let (rn ) be a sequence of positive reals with limit 0. Let S be the set of all numbers

expressible in the form ri1 + . . . + ri1994 for positive integers i1 < i2 < . . . < i1994 .

Prove that every interval (a, b) contains a subinterval (c, d) whose intersection with

S is empty.

92 CHAPTER 3. WILLIAM LOWELL PUTNAM COMPETITION

6. Let f1 , . . . , f10 be bijections of the integers such that for every integer n, there exists

a sequence i1 , . . . , ik for some k such that fi1 ◦ . . . ◦ fik (0) = n. Prove that if A is

any nonempty finite set, there exist at most 512 sequences (e1 , . . . , e10 ) of zeroes and

ones such that f1e1 ◦ . . . ◦ f10e10

maps A to A. (Here f 1 = f and f 0 means the identity

function.)

7. Find all positive integers n such that |n − m2 | ≤ 250 for exactly 15 nonnegative

integers m.

8. Find all c such that the graph of the function x4 + 9x3 + cx2 + ax + b meets some line

in four distinct points.

9. Let f (x) be a positive-valued function over the reals such that f 0 (x) > f (x) for all x.

For what k must there exist N such that f (x) > ekx for x > N ?

!

3 2

10. Let A be the matrix and for positive integers n, define dn as the greatest

4 2

common divisor of the entries of An − I, where I = ((10)(01)). Prove that dn → ∞

as n → ∞.

11. Fix n a positive integer. For α real, define fα (i) as the greatest integer less than or

equal to αi, and write f k for the k-th iterate of f (i.e. f 1 = f and f k+1 = f ◦ f k ).

Prove there exists α such that fαk (n2 ) = fαk (n2 ) = n2 − k for k = 1, . . . , n.

12. Suppose a, b, c, d are integers with 0 ≤ a ≤ bleq99, 0 ≤ c ≤ d ≤ 99. For any integer i,

let ni = 101i + 1002i . Show that if na + nb is congruent to nc + nd mod 10100, then

a = c and b = d.

1995

1. Let S be a set of real numbers which is closed under multiplication (that is, if a and

b are in S, then so is ab). Let T and U be disjoint subsets of S whose union is S.

Given that the product of any three (not necessarily distinct) elements of T is in T

and that the product of any three elements of U is in U , show that at least one of

the two subsets T, U is closed under multiplication.

2. For what pairs (a, b) of positive real numbers does the improper integral

Z ∞ q√

√ q√ √

x+a− x− x− x − b dx

b

3.11. 56T H ANUAL WILLIAM LOWELL PUTNAM COMPETITION, 1995 93

converge?

3. The number d1 d2 . . . d9 has nine (not necessarily distinct) decimal digits. The number

e1 e2 . . . e9 is such that each of the nine 9-digit numbers formed by replacing just one

of the digits di is d1 d2 . . . d9 by the corresponding digit ei (1 ≤ i ≤ 9) is divisible by 7.

The number f1 f2 . . . f9 is related to e1 e2 . . . e9 is the same way: that is, each of the nine

numbers formed by replacing one of the ei by the corresponding fi is divisible by 7.

Show that, for each i, di −fi is divisible by 7. [For example, if d1 d2 . . . d9 = 199501996,

then e6 may be 2 or 9, since 199502996 and 199509996 are multiples of 7.]

4. Suppose we have a necklace of n beads. Each bead is labeled with an integer and the

sum of all these labels is n − 1. Prove that we can cut the necklace to form a string

whose consecutive labels x1 , x2 , . . . , xn satisfy

k

X

xi ≤ k − 1 for k = 1, 2, . . . , n.

i=1

satisfy

dx1

= a11 x1 + a12 x2 + · · · + a1n xn

dt

dx2

= a21 x1 + a22 x2 + · · · + a2n xn

dt

.. ..

. .

dxn

= an1 x1 + an2 x2 + · · · + ann xn

dt

for some constants aij > 0. Suppose that for all i, xi (t) → 0 as t → ∞. Are the

functions x1 , x2 , . . . , xn necessarily linearly dependent?

6. Suppose that each of n people writes down the numbers 1,2,3 in random order in

one column of a 3 × n matrix, with all orders equally likely and with the orders for

different columns independent of each other. Let the row sums a, b, c of the resulting

matrix be rearranged (if necessary) so that a ≤ b ≤ c. Show that for some n ≥ 1995,

it is at least four times as likely that both b = a + 1 and c = a + 2 as that a = b = c.

7. For a partition π of {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9}, let π(x) be the number of elements in the

part containing x. Prove that for any two partitions π and π 0 , there are two distinct

numbers x and y in {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9} such that π(x) = π(y) and π 0 (x) = π 0 (y).

[A partition of a set S is a collection of disjoint subsets (parts) whose union is S.]

94 CHAPTER 3. WILLIAM LOWELL PUTNAM COMPETITION

8. An ellipse,

whose

semi-axes have lengths a and b, rolls without slipping on the curve

x

y = c sin a . How are a, b, c related, given that the ellipse completes one revolution

when it traverses one period of the curve?

9. To each positive integer with n2 decimal digits, we associate the determinant of the

matrix obtained by writing the digits in order across

! the rows. For example, for

8 6

n = 2, to the integer 8617 we associate det = 50. Find, as a function of n,

1 7

the sum of all the determinants associated with n2 -digit integers. (Leading digits are

assumed to be nonzero; for example, for n = 2, there are 9000 determinants.)

10. Evaluate v

u

u 1

8

t 2207 − 1 .

2207 − 2207−...

√

a+b c

Express your answer in the form d

, where a, b, c, d are integers.

11. A game starts with four heaps of beans, containing 3,4,5 and 6 beans. The two players

move alternately. A move consists of taking either

a) one bean from a heap, provided at least two beans are left behind in that heap,

or

b) a complete heap of two or three beans.

The player who takes the last heap wins. To win the game, do you want to move first

or second? Give a winning strategy.

12. For a positive real number α, define

S(α) = {bnαc : n = 1, 2, 3, . . .}.

Prove that {1, 2, 3, . . .} cannot be expressed as the disjoint union of three sets S(α), S(β)

and S(γ). [As usual, bxc is the greatest integer ≤ x.]

1996

1. Find the least number A such that for any two squares of combined area 1, a rectangle

of area A exists such that the two squares can be packed in the rectangle (without

interior overlap). You may assume that the sides of the squares are parallel to the

sides of the rectangle.

3.12. 57T H ANUAL WILLIAM LOWELL PUTNAM COMPETITION, 1996 95

2. Let C1 and C2 be circles whose centers are 10 units apart, and whose radii are 1 and

3. Find, with proof, the locus of all points M for which there exists points X on C1

and Y on C2 such that M is the midpoint of the line segment XY .

3. Suppose that each of 20 students has made a choice of anywhere from 0 to 6 courses

from a total of 6 courses offered. Prove or disprove: there are 5 students and 2 courses

such that all 5 have chosen both courses or all 5 have chosen neither course.

4. Let S be the set of ordered triples (a, b, c) of distinct elements of a finite set A.

Suppose that

(b) (a, b, c) ∈ S if and only if (c, b, a) ∈

/ S;

(c) (a, b, c) and (c, d, a) are both in S if and only if (b, c, d) and (d, a, b) are both in

S.

Prove that there exists a one-to-one function g from A to R such that g(a) < g(b) <

g(c) implies (a, b, c) ∈ S. Note: R is the set of real numbers.

5. If p is a prime number greater than 3 and k = b2p/3c, prove that the sum

! ! !

p p p

+ +···+

1 2 k

6. Let c > 0 be a constant. Give a complete description, with proof, of the set of all

continuous functions f : R → R such that f (x) = f (x2 + c) for all x ∈ R. Note that

R denotes the set of real numbers.

7. Define a selfish set to be a set which has its own cardinality (number of elements)

as an element. Find, with proof, the number of subsets of {1, 2, . . . , n} which are

minimal selfish sets, that is, selfish sets none of whose proper subsets is selfish.

2n−1 2n+1

2n − 1 2 2n + 1 2

< 1 · 3 · 5 · · · (2n − 1) < .

e e

9. Given that {x1 , x2 , . . . , xn } = {1, 2, . . . , n}, find, with proof, the largest possible value,

as a function of n (with n ≥ 2), of

x1 x2 + x2 x3 + · · · + xn−1 xn + xn x1 .

96 CHAPTER 3. WILLIAM LOWELL PUTNAM COMPETITION

10. For any square matrix A, we can define sin A by the usual power series:

∞

X (−1)n

sin A = A2n+1 .

n=0 (2n + 1)!

Prove or disprove: there exists a 2 × 2 matrix A with real entries such that

!

1 1996

sin A = .

0 1

11. Given a finite string S of symbols X and O, we write ∆(S) for the number of X’s in

S minus the number of O’s. For example, ∆(XOOXOOX) = −1. We call a string

S balanced if every substring T of (consecutive symbols of) S has −2 ≤ ∆(T ) ≤ 2.

Thus, XOOXOOX is not balanced, since it contains the substring OOXOO. Find,

with proof, the number of balanced strings of length n.

12. Let (a1 , b1 ), (a2 , b2 ), . . . , (an , bn ) be the vertices of a convex polygon which contains

the origin in its interior. Prove that there exist positive real numbers x and y such

that

(a1 , b1 )xa1 y b1 + (a2 , b2 )xa2 y b2 + · · · + (an , bn )xan y bn = (0, 0)

1997

1. A rectangle, HOM F , has sides HO = 11 and OM = 5. A triangle ABC has H

as the intersection of the altitudes, O the center of the circumscribed circle, M the

midpoint of BC, and F the foot of the altitude from A. What is the length of BC?

2. Players 1, 2, 3, . . . , n are seated around a table, and each has a single penny. Player

1 passes a penny to player 2, who then passes two pennies to player 3. Player 3 then

passes one penny to Player 4, who passes two pennies to Player 5, and so on, players

alternately passing one penny or two to the next player who still has some pennies.

A player who runs out of pennies drops out of the game and leaves the table. Find

an infinite set of numbers n for which some player ends up with all n pennies.

3. Evaluate

! !

x3 x5 x7 x2 x4 x6

Z ∞

x− + − +··· 1 + 2 + 2 2 + 2 2 2 + · · · dx.

0 2 2·4 2·4·6 2 2 ·4 2 ·4 ·6

3.13. 58T H ANUAL WILLIAM LOWELL PUTNAM COMPETITION, 1997 97

φ(g1 )φ(g2 )φ(g3 ) = φ(h1 )φ(h2 )φ(h3 )

whenever g1 g2 g3 = e = h1 h2 h3 . Prove that there exists an element a ∈ G such that

ψ(x) = aφ(x) is a homomorphism (i.e. ψ(xy) = ψ(x)ψ(y) for all x, y ∈ G).

5. Let Nn denote the number of ordered n-tuples of positive integers (a1 , a2 , . . . , an ) such

that 1/a1 + 1/a2 + . . . + 1/an = 1. Determine whether N10 is even or odd.

6. For a positive integer n and any real number c, define xk recursively by x0 = 0,

x1 = 1, and for k ≥ 0,

cxk+1 − (n − k)xk

xk+2 = .

k+1

Fix n and then take c to be the largest value for which xn+1 = 0. Find xk in terms

of n and k, 1 ≤ k ≤ n.

7. Let {x} denote the distance between the real number x and the nearest integer. For

each positive integer n, evaluate

6n−1

X m m

Fn = min({ }, { }).

m=1 6n 3n

(Here min(a, b) denotes the minimum of a and b.)

8. Let f be a twice-differentiable real-valued function satisfying

f (x) + f 00 (x) = −xg(x)f 0 (x),

where g(x) ≥ 0 for all real x. Prove that |f (x)| is bounded.

P

9. For each positive integer n, write the sum nm=1 1/m in the form pn /qn , where pn and

qn are relatively prime positive integers. Determine all n such that 5 does not divide

qn .

10. Let am,n denote the coefficient of xn in the expansion of (1 + x + x2 )m . Prove that

for all [integers] k ≥ 0,

b 2k

3

c

X

0≤ (−1)i ak−i,i ≤ 1.

i=0

n terms n − 1 terms

z }| { z }| {

2 ···2 ···2

2 ≡ 22 (mod n).

98 CHAPTER 3. WILLIAM LOWELL PUTNAM COMPETITION

12. The dissection of the 3–4–5 triangle shown below (into four congruent right triangles

similar to the original) has diameter 5/2. Find the least diameter of a dissection of

this triangle into four parts. (The diameter of a dissection is the least upper bound

of the distances between pairs of points belonging to the same part.)

1998

1. A right circular cone has base of radius 1 and height 3. A cube is inscribed in the

cone so that one face of the cube is contained in the base of the cone. What is the

side-length of the cube?

2. Let s be any arc of the unit circle lying entirely in the first quadrant. Let A be the

area of the region lying below s and above the x-axis and let B be the area of the

region lying to the right of the y-axis and to the left of s. Prove that A + B depends

only on the arc length, and not on the position, of s.

3. Let f be a real function on the real line with continuous third derivative. Prove that

there exists a point a such that

f (a) · f 0 (a) · f 00 (a) · f 000 (a) ≥ 0.

decimal expansions of An−1 and An−2 from left to right. For example A3 = A2 A1 = 10,

A4 = A3 A2 = 101, A5 = A4 A3 = 10110, and so forth. Determine all n such that 11

divides An .

5. Let F be a finite collection of open discs in R2 whose union contains a set E ⊆ R2 .

Show that there is a pairwise disjoint subcollection D1 , . . . , Dn in F such that

E ⊆ ∪nj=1 3Dj .

Here, if D is the disc of radius r and center P , then 3D is the disc of radius 3r and

center P .

6. Let A, B, C denote distinct points with integer coordinates in R2 . Prove that if

(|AB| + |BC|)2 < 8 · [ABC] + 1

then A, B, C are three vertices of a square. Here |XY | is the length of segment XY

and [ABC] is the area of triangle ABC.

3.15. 60T H ANUAL WILLIAM LOWELL PUTNAM COMPETITION, 1999 99

(x + 1/x)6 − (x6 + 1/x6 ) − 2

(x + 1/x)3 + (x3 + 1/x3 )

for x > 0.

8. Given a point (a, b) with 0 < b < a, determine the minimum perimeter of a triangle

with one vertex at (a, b), one on the x-axis, and one on the line y = x. You may

assume that a triangle of minimum perimeter exists.

{(x, y, 0) : x2 + y 2 = 1}, and P the regular pentagon inscribed in C. Determine the

surface area of that portion of H lying over the planar region inside P , and write

your answer in the form A sin α + B cos β, where A, B, α, β are real numbers.

10. Find necessary and sufficient conditions on positive integers m and n so that

mn−1

X

(−1)bi/mc+bi/nc = 0.

i=0

11. Let N be the positive integer with 1998 decimal digits, all of them 1; that is,

N = 1111 · · · 11.

√

Find the thousandth digit after the decimal point of N.

√

12. Prove that, for any integers a, b, c, there exists a positive integer n such that n3 + an2 + bn + c

is not an integer.

1999

1. Find polynomials f (x),g(x), and h(x), if they exist, such that for all x,

−1 if x < −1

|f (x)| − |g(x)| + h(x) = 3x + 2 if −1 ≤ x ≤ 0

−2x + 2 if x > 0.

100 CHAPTER 3. WILLIAM LOWELL PUTNAM COMPETITION

2. Let p(x) be a polynomial that is nonnegative for all real x. Prove that for some k,

there are polynomials f1 (x), . . . , fk (x) such that

k

X

p(x) = (fj (x))2 .

j=1

∞

1 X

= a n xn .

1 − 2x − x2 n=0

a2n + a2n+1 = am .

∞

X m2 n

m m n

.

m=1 n=1 3 (n3 + m3 )

5. Prove that there is a constant C such that, if p(x) is a polynomial of degree 1999,

then Z 1

|p(0)| ≤ C |p(x)| dx.

−1

an = .

an−2 an−3

Show that, for all n, an is an integer multiple of n.

7. Right triangle ABC has right angle at C and ∠BAC = θ; the point D is chosen on

AB so that |AC| = |AD| = 1; the point E is chosen on BC so that ∠CDE = θ. The

perpendicular to BC at E meets AB at F . Evaluate limθ→0 |EF |.

8. Let P (x) be a polynomial of degree n such that P (x) = Q(x)P 00 (x), where Q(x) is a

quadratic polynomial and P 00 (x) is the second derivative of P (x). Show that if P (x)

has at least two distinct roots then it must have n distinct roots.

X

S(x, y) = xm y n ,

1

2

≤m

n

≤2

3.15. 60T H ANUAL WILLIAM LOWELL PUTNAM COMPETITION, 1999 101

where the sum ranges over all pairs (m, n) of positive integers satisfying the indicated

inequalities. Evaluate

(x,y)→(1,1),(x,y)∈A

10. Let f be a real function with a continuous third derivative such that f (x), f 0 (x), f 00 (x), f 000 (x)

are positive for all x. Suppose that f 000 (x) ≤ f (x) for all x. Show that f 0 (x) < 2f (x)

for all x.

11. For an integer n ≥ 3, let θ = 2π/n. Evaluate the determinant of the n × n matrix

I +A, where I is the n×n identity matrix and A = (ajk ) has entries ajk = cos(jθ+kθ)

for all j, k.

12. Let S be a finite set of integers, each greater than 1. Suppose that for each integer

n there is some s ∈ S such that gcd(s, n) = 1 or gcd(s, n) = s. Show that there exist

s, t ∈ S such that gcd(s, t) is prime.

102 CHAPTER 3. WILLIAM LOWELL PUTNAM COMPETITION

2000

P∞

1. Let A be a positive real number. What are the possible values of j=0 x2j , given that

P

x0 , x1 , . . . are positive numbers for which ∞j=0 xj = A?

2. Prove that there exist infinitely many integers n such that n, n + 1, n + 2 are each the

sum of the squares of two integers. [Example: 0 = 02 + 02 , 1 = 02 + 12 , 2 = 12 + 12 .]

circumference in the given order. Given that the polygon P1 P3 P5 P7 is a square of

area 5, and the polygon P2 P4 P6 P8 is aectangle of area 4, find the maximum possible

area of the octagon.

4. Show that the improper integral

Z B

lim sin(x) sin(x2 ) dx

B→∞ 0

converges.

5. Three distinct points with integer coordinates lie in the plane on a circle of radius

r > 0. Show that two of these points are separated by a distance of at least r 1/3 .

integers such that a0 = 0 and an+1 = f (an ) for all n ≥ 0. Prove that if there exists a

positive integer m for which am = 0 then either a1 = 0 or a2 = 0.

odd. Show that there exist integers r, s, t such that raj + sbj + tcj is odd for at least

4N/7 values of j, 1 ≤ j ≤ N .

gcd(m, n) n

n m

is an integer for all pairs of integers n ≥ m ≥ 1.

P

9. Let f (t) = Nj=1 aj sin(2πjt), where each aj is real and aN is not equal to 0. Let Nk

k

denote the number of zeroes (including multiplicities) of ddtkf . Prove that

k→∞

3.17. 62N D ANUAL WILLIAM LOWELL PUTNAM COMPETITION, 2001 103

10. Let f (x) be a continuous function such that f (2x2 − 1) = 2xf (x) for all x. Show that

f (x) = 0 for −1 ≤ x ≤ 1.

11. Let S0 be a finite set of positive integers. We define finite sets S1 , S2 , . . . of positive

integers as follows: the integer a is in Sn+1 if and only if exactly one of a − 1 or a is

in Sn . Show that there exist infinitely many integers N for which SN = S0 ∪ {N + a :

a ∈ S0 }.

n+1

12. Let B be a set of more than 2 n distinct points with coordinates of the form

(±1, ±1, . . . , ±1) in n-dimensional space with n ≥ 3. Show that there are three

distinct points in B which are the vertices of an equilateral triangle.

2001

1. Consider a set S and a binary operation ∗, i.e., for each a, b ∈ S, a ∗ b ∈ S. Assume

(a ∗ b) ∗ a = b for all a, b ∈ S. Prove that a ∗ (b ∗ a) = b for all a, b ∈ S.

2. You have coins C1 , C2 , . . . , Cn . For each k, Ck is biased so that, when tossed, it has

probability 1/(2k+1) of falling heads. If the n coins are tossed, what is the probability

that the number of heads is odd? Express the answer as a rational function of n.

For what values of m is Pm (x) the product of two non-constant polynomials with

integer coefficients?

4. Triangle ABC has an area 1. Points E, F, G lie, respectively, on sides BC, CA, AB

such that AE bisects BF at point R, BF bisects CG at point S, and CG bisects AE

at point T . Find the area of the triangle RST .

5. Prove that there are unique positive integers a, n such that an+1 − (a + 1)n = 2001.

6. Can an arc of a parabola inside a circle of radius 1 have a length greater than 4?

n × n grid so that the k-th row, from left to right, is

104 CHAPTER 3. WILLIAM LOWELL PUTNAM COMPETITION

Color the squares of the grid so that half of the squares in each row and in each column

are red and the other half are black (a checkerboard coloring is one possibility). Prove

that for each coloring, the sum of the numbers on the red squares is equal to the sum

of the numbers on the black squares.

8. Find all pairs of real numbers (x, y) satisfying the system of equations

1 1

x

+ 2y

= (x2 + 3y 2 )(3x2 + y 2 )

1 1

x

− 2y

= 2(y 4 − x4 ).

√

9. For any positive integer n, let hni denote the closest integer to n. Evaluate

∞

X 2hni + 2−hni

.

n=1 2n

10. Let S denote the set of rational numbers different from {−1, 0, 1}. Define f : S → S

by f (x) = x − 1/x. Prove or disprove that

∞

\

f (n) (S) = ∅,

n=1

11. Let a and b be real numbers in the interval (0, 1/2), and let g be a continuous real-

valued function such that g(g(x)) = ag(x) + bx for all real x. Prove that g(x) = cx

for some constant c.

12. Assume that (an )n≥1 is an increasing sequence of positive real numbers such that

lim an /n = 0. Must there exist infinitely many positive integers n such that an−i +

an+i < 2an for i = 1, 2, . . . , n − 1?

2002

1 Pn (x)

1. Let k be a fixed positive integer. The n-th derivative of xk −1

has the form (xk −1)n+1

where Pn (x) is a polynomial. Find Pn (1).

2. Given any five points on a sphere, show that some four of them must lie on a closed

hemisphere.

3.18. 63RD ANUAL WILLIAM LOWELL PUTNAM COMPETITION, 2002 105

with the property that the average of the elements of S is an integer. Prove that Tn −n

is always even.

0 counters with a 0 in a vacant position, and play continues in turn until the 3 × 3

matrix is completed with five 1’s and four 0’s. Player 0 wins if the determinant is 0

and player 1 wins otherwise. Assuming both players pursue optimal strategies, who

will win and how?

5. Define a sequence by a0 = 1, together with the rules a2n+1 = an and a2n+2 = an +an+1

for each integer n ≥ 0. Prove that every positive rational number appears in the set

an−1 1 1 2 1 3

:n≥1 = , , , , ,... .

an 1 2 1 3 2

6. Fix an integer b ≥ 2. Let f (1) = 1, f (2) = 2, and for each n ≥ 3, define f (n) = nf (d),

where d is the number of base-b digits of n. For which values of b does

∞

X 1

n=1 f (n)

converge?

7. Shanille O’Keal shoots free throws on a basketball court. She hits the first and misses

the second, and thereafter the probability that she hits the next shot is equal to the

proportion of shots she has hit so far. What is the probability she hits exactly 50 of

her first 100 shots?

8. Consider a polyhedron with at least five faces such that exactly three edges emerge

from each of its vertices. Two players play the following game:

face. The winner is the player who first succeeds in signing three faces

that share a common vertex.

Show that the player who signs first will always win by playing as well as possible.

n

1 1 1 1

< − 1− < .

2ne e n ne

106 CHAPTER 3. WILLIAM LOWELL PUTNAM COMPETITION

10. An integer n, unknown to you, has been randomly chosen in the interval [1, 2002]

with uniform probability. Your objective is to select n in an odd number of guesses.

After each incorrect guess, you are informed whether n is higher or lower, and you

must guess an integer on your next turn among the numbers that are still feasibly

correct. Show that you have a strategy so that the chance of winning is greater than

2/3.

11. A palindrome in base b is a positive integer whose base-b digits read the same back-

wards and forwards; for example, 2002 is a 4-digit palindrome in base 10. Note that

200 is not a palindrome in base 10, but it is the 3-digit palindrome 242 in base 9, and

404 in base 7. Prove that there is an integer which is a 3-digit palindrome in base b

for at least 2002 different values of b.

12. Let p be a prime number. Prove that the determinant of the matrix

x y z

p p

x y zp

p2 p2 p2

x y z

are integers. (We say two integer polynomials are congruent modulo p if corresponding

coefficients are congruent modulo p.)

2003

1. Let n be a fixed positive integer. How many ways are there to write n as a sum of

positive integers,

n = a1 + a2 + · · · + a k

with n = 4, there are four ways: 4, 2+2, 1+1+2, 1+1+1+1.

1 1 1

(a1 a2 · · · an ) n + (b1 b2 · · · bn ) n ≤ ((a1 + b1 ) (a2 + b2 ) · · · (an + bn )) n

3.19. 64T H ANUAL WILLIAM LOWELL PUTNAM COMPETITION, 2003 107

|ax2 + bx + c| ≤ |Ax2 + Bx + B|

5. A Dyck n-path is a lattice path of n upsteps (1,1) and n downsteps (1,-2) that starts

at the origin O and never dips below the x-axis. A return is a maximal sequence of

contigouous downsteps that terminates on the x-axis. For example, the Dyck 5-path

illustrated has two returns, of length 3 and 1 respectively.

u u u

u u u u

u u u

O

Show that there is a one-to-one correspondence between the Dyck n-paths with no

returns of even length and the Dyck (n − 1)-paths.

6. For a set S of nonnegative integers, let rS (n) denote the number of ordered pairs

(s1 , s2 ) such that s1 ∈ S, s2 ∈ S, s1 6= s2 and s1 + s2 = n. Is it possible to partition

the nonnegative integers into two sets A and B in such way that rA (n) = rB (n) for

all n?

1 + xy + x2 y 2 = a(x)c(y) + b(x)d(y)

holds identically?

108 CHAPTER 3. WILLIAM LOWELL PUTNAM COMPETITION

1 1 1

1, , ,...,

2 3 n

form a new sequence of n − 1 entries

3 5 2n − 1

, ,...,

4 12 2n(n − 1)

by taking the average of two consecutive entries in the first sequence. Repeat the

averaging of neigbors on sthe second sequence to obtain a third sequence of n − 2

entries and continue until the final sequence produced consists of a single number xn .

Show that xn < n2 .

n

Y n

n! = lcm 1, 2, . . . ,

i=1 i

(Here lcm denotes the least common multiple and bxc denote the greatest integer

≤ x.)

10. Let f (z) = az 4 +bz 3 +cz 2 +dz +e = a(z −r1 )(z −r2 )(z −r3 )(z −r4 ) where a, b, c, d, e

are integers, a 6= 0. Show that if r1 + r2 is a rational number, and if r1 + r2 6= r3 + r4 ,

then r1 r2 is a rational number.

11. Let A, B and C be qeuidistant points on the circumference of a circle of unit radius

centered at O, and let P be any point in the circle’s interior. Let a, b, c be the

distances from P to A, B, C respectively. Show that there is a triangle with sides

lengths a, b, c, and that the area of this triangle depends only on the distance from

P to O.

12. Let f (x) be a continuous real-valued function defined on the interval [0, 1]. Show that

Z 1 Z 1 Z 1

|f (x) + f (y)|dx dy ≤ |f (x)|dx

0 0 0

Chapter 4

Olympiads

1. Let x1 , x2 , . . . , xn be positive real numbers, and let

S = x1 + x2 + · · · + x n .

Prove that

S2 S3 Sn

(1 + x1 )(1 + x2 ) · · · (1 + xn ) ≤ 1 + S + + +···+ .

2! 3! n!

2. Prove that the equation

6(6a2 + 3b2 + c2 ) = 5n2

has no solutions in integers except a = b = c = n = 0.

3. Let A1 , A2 , A3 be three points in the plane, and for convenience, let A4 = A1 ,

A5 = A2 . For n = 1, 2, and 3, suppose that Bn is the midpoint of An An+1 , and

suppose that Cn is the midpoint of An Bn . Suppose that An Cn+1 and Bn An+2 meet

at Dn , and that An Bn+1 and Cn An+2 meet at En . Calculate the ratio of the area of

triangle 4D1 D2 D3 to the area of triangle 4E1 E2 E3 .

4. Let S be a set consisting of m pairs (a, b) of positive integers with the property that

1 ≤ a < b ≤ n. Show that there are at least

2

(m − n4 )

4m ·

3n

109

110 CHAPTER 4. ASIATIC PACIFIC MATHEMATICAL OLYMPIADS

triples (a, b, c) such that (a, b), (a, c), and (b, c) belong to S.

5. Determine all functions f from the reals to the reals for which

(1) f (x) is strictly increasing,

(2) f (x) + g(x) = 2x for all real x,

where g(x) is the composition inverse function to f (x). (Note: f and g are said to

be composition inverses if f (g(x)) = x and g(f (x)) = x for all real x.)

1. Given triagnle ABC, let D, E, F be the midpoints of BC, AC, AB respectively and

let G be the centroid of the triangle.

For each value of ∠BAC, how many non-similar triangles are there in which AEGF

is a cyclic quadrilateral?

2. Let a1 , a2 , . . . , an be positive real numbers, and let Sk be the sum of the products of

a1 , a2 , . . . , an taken k at a time. Show that

!2

n

Sk Sn−k ≥ a1 a2 · · · an

k

for k = 1, 2, . . . , n − 1.

3. Consider all the triangles ABC which have a fixed base AB and whose altitude from

C is a constant h. For which of these triangles is the product of its altitudes a

maximum?

4. A set of 1990 persons is divided into non-intersecting subsets in such a way that:

(b) Among any three persons in a subset, there are always at least two who do not

know each other, and

(c) For any two persons in a subset who do not know each other, there is exactly

one person in the same subset knowing both of them.

a Prove that within each subset, every person has the same number of acquain-

tances.

b Determine the maximum possible number of subsets.

4.3. 3RD ASIATIC PACIFIC MATHEMATICAL OLYMPIAD, 1991 111

Note: It is understood that if a person A knows person B, then person B will know

person A; an acquaintance is someone who is known. Every person is assumed to

know one’s self.

5. Show that for every integer n ≥ 6, there exists a convex hexagon which can be

dissected into exactly n congruent triangles.

1. Let G be the centroid of triangle 4ABC and M be the midpoint of BC. Let X be

on AB and Y on AC such that the points X, Y , and G are collinear and XY and

BC are parallel. Suppose that XC and GB intersect at Q and Y B and GC intersect

at P . Show that triangle 4M P Q is similar to triangle 4ABC.

2. Suppose there are 997 points given in a plane. If every two points are joined by a

line segment with its midpoint coloured in red, show that there are at least 1991 red

points in the plane. Can you find a special case with exactly 1991 red points?

3. Let a1 , a2 , . . . , an , b1 , b2 , . . . , bn be positive real numbers such that a1 +a2 +· · ·+an =

b1 + b2 + · · · + bn . Show that

a21 a22 a2n a1 + a 2 + · · · + a n

+ +···+ ≥

a1 + b 1 a2 + b 2 an + b n 2

4. During a break, n children at school sit in a circle around their teacher to play a

game. The teacher walks clockwise close to the children and hands out candies to

some of them according to the following rule. He selects one child and gives him a

candy, then he skips the next child and gives a candy to the next one, then he skips 2

and gives a candy to the next one, then he skips 3, and so on. Determine the values

of n for which eventually, perhaps after many rounds, all children will have at least

one candy each.

5. Given are two tangent circles and a point P on their common tangent perpendicular

to the lines joining their centres. Construct with ruler and compass all the circles

that are tangent to these two circles and pass through the point P .

1. A triangle with sides a, b, and c is given. Denote by s the semiperimeter, that is

112 CHAPTER 4. ASIATIC PACIFIC MATHEMATICAL OLYMPIADS

s = a+b+c

2

. Construct a triangle with sides s − a, s − b, and s − c. This process is

repeated until a triangle can no longer be constructed with the side lengths given.

For which original triangles can this process be repeated indefinitely?

2. In a circle C with centre O and radius r, let C1 , C2 be two circles with centres O1 ,

O2 and radii r1 , r2 respectively, so that each circle Ci is internally tangent to C at

Ai and so that C1 , C2 are externally tangent to each other at A.Prove that the three

lines OA, O1 A2 , and O2 A1 are concurrent.

3. Let n be an integer such that n > 3. Suppose that we choose three numbers from the

set {1, 2, . . . , n}. Using each of these three numbers only once and using addition,

multiplication, and parenthesis, let us form all possible combinations.

(a) Show that if we choose all three numbers greater than n/2, then thealues of

these combinations are all distinct.

√

(b) Let p be a prime number such that p ≤ n. Show that the number of ways

of choosing three numbers so that the smallest one is p and the values of the

combinations are not all distinct is precisely the number of positive divisors of

p − 1.

4. Determine all pairs (h, s) of positive integers with the following property: If one draws

h horizontal lines and another s lines which satisfy:

ii no two of them are parallel,

iii no three of the h + s lines are concurrent,

5. Find a sequence of maximal length consisting of non-zero integers in which the sum

of any seven consecutive terms is positive and that of any eleven consecutive terms

is negative.

1. Let ABCD be a quadrilateral such that all sides have equal length and angle ^ABC is

60 deg. Let l be a line passing through D and not intersecting the quadrilateral (except

at D). Let E and F be the points of intersection of l with AB and BC respectively.

Let M be the point of intersection of CE and AF . Prove that CA2 = CM · CE.

4.6. 6T H ASIATIC PACIFIC MATHEMATICAL OLYMPIAD, 1994 113

5x

f (x) = [x] + [2x] + [ ] + [3x] + [4x]

3

takes for real numbers x with 0 ≤ x ≤ 100.

3. Let (

f (x) = an xn + an−1 xn−1 + · · · + a0 and

g(x) = cn+1 xn+1 + cn xn + · · · + c0

be non-zero polynomials with real coefficients such that g(x) = (x + r)f (x) for some

real number r. If a = max(|an |, . . . , |a0 |) and c = max(|cn+1 |, . . . , |c0 |), prove that

a

c

≤ n + 1.

xn + (2 + x)n + (2 − x)n = 0

properties:

ii there is no point other than Pi and Pi+1 on the line segment joining Pi with Pi+1

whose coordinates are both integers, for i = 0, 1, . . . , 1992.

Prove that for some i, 0 ≤ i ≤ 1992, there exists a point Q with coordinates (qx , qy )

on the line segment joining Pi with Pi+1 such that both 2qx and 2qy are odd integers.

1. Let f : R → R be a function such that:

i For all x, y ∈ R,

iii −f (−1) = f (1) = 1.

114 CHAPTER 4. ASIATIC PACIFIC MATHEMATICAL OLYMPIADS

circumradius R, prove that |OH| < 3R.

3. Let n be an integer of the form a2√+ b2 , where a and b are relatively prime integers

and such that if p is a prime, p ≤ n, then p divides ab. Determine all such n.

4. Is there an infinite set of points in the plane such that no three points are collinear,

and the distance between any two points is rational?

5. You are given three lists A, B, and C. List A contains the numbers of the form 10k

in base 10, with k any integer greater than or equal to 1. Lists B and C contain the

same numbers translated into base 2 and 5 respectively:

A B C

10 1010 20

100 1100100 400

1000 1111101000 13000

.. .. ..

. . .

Prove that for every integer n > 1, there is exactly one number in exactly one of the

lists B or C that has exactly n digits.

1. Determine all sequences of real numbers a1 , a2 , . . . , a1995 which satisfy:

q

2 an − (n − 1) ≥ an+1 − (n − 1), for n = 1, 2, . . . 1994,

and √

2 a1995 − 1994 ≥ a1 + 1.

that:

i Any two of the ai ’s are realtively prime,

ii Each ai is either a prime or a product of primes.

Determine the smallest possible values of n to make sure that the sequence will contain

a prime number.

4.8. 8T H ASIATIC PACIFIC MATHEMATICAL OLYMPIAD, 1996 115

3. Let P QRS be a cyclic quadrilateral such that the segments P Q and RS are not

parallel. Consider the set of circles through P and Q, and the set of circles through

R and S. Determine the set A of points of tangency of circles in these two sets.

4. Let C be a circle with radius R and centre O, and S a fixed point in the interior of

C. Let AA0 and BB 0 be perpendicular chords through S. Consider the rectangles

SAM B, SBN 0 A0 , SA0 M 0 B 0 , and SB 0 N A. Find the set of all points M , N 0 , M 0 , and

N when A moves around the whole circle.

5. Find the minimum positive integer k such that there exists a function f from the

set Z of all integers to {1, 2, . . . k} with the property that f (x) 6= f (y) whenever

|x − y| ∈ {5, 7, 12}.

1. Let ABCD be a quadrilateral AB = BC = CD = DA. Let M N and P Q be

two segments perpendicular to the diagonal BD and such that the distance between

them is d > BD/2, with M ∈ AD, N ∈ DC, P ∈ AB, and Q ∈ BC. Show that the

perimeter of hexagon AM N CQP does not depend on the position of M N and P Q

so long as the distance between them remains constant.

(m + n)!

2n n! ≤ ≤ (m2 + m)n

(m − n)!

3. Let P1 , P2 , P3 , P4 be four points on a circle, and let I1 be the incentre of the triangle

P2 P3 P4 ; I2 be the incentre of the triangle P1 P3 P4 ; I3 be the incentre of the triangle

P1 P2 P4 ; I4 be the incentre of the triangle P1 P2 P3 . Prove that I1 , I2 , I3 , I4 are the

vertices of a rectangle.

4. The National Marriage Council wishes to invite n couples to form 17 discussion groups

under the following conditions:

(a) All members of a group must be of the same sex; i.e. they are either all male or

all female.

(b) The difference in the size of any two groups is 0 or 1.

(c) All groups have at least 1 member.

(d) Each person must belong to one and only one group.

116 CHAPTER 4. ASIATIC PACIFIC MATHEMATICAL OLYMPIADS

Find all values of n, n ≤ 1996, for which this is possible. Justify your answer.

√ √ √ √ √ √

a+b−c+ b+c−a+ c+a−b≤ a+ b+ c ,

1. Given

1 1 1

S =1+ 1 + 1 1 +···+ 1 1 1

1+ 3

1+ 3

+ 6

1+ 3

+ +···+

6 1993006

where the denominators contain partial sums of the sequence of reciprocals of trian-

gular numbers (i.e. k = n(n + 1)/2 for n = 1, 2, . . . , 1996). Prove that S > 1001.

2n + 2

n

is also an integer.

ma mb mc

la = , lb = , lc = ,

Ma Mb Mc

where ma , mb , mc are the lengths of the angle bisectors (internal to the triangle) and

Ma , Mb , Mc are the lengths of the angle bisectors extended until they meet the circle.

Prove that

la lb lc

+ + ≥ 3,

sin A sin B sin2 C

2 2

the following iterative process, where n is a positive integer. From An (n ≥ 3), a

perpendicular line is drawn to meet An−2 An−1 at An+1 .

(a) Prove that if this process is continued indefinitely, then one and only one point

P is interior to every triangle An−2 An−1 An , n ≥ 3.

4.10. 10T H ASIATIC PACIFIC MATHEMATICAL OLYMPIAD, 1998 117

the plane, find the locus of P .

ai objects such that

a1 + a2 + · · · + an = nN,

where N is a positive integer. In order that each person has the same number of

objects, each person Ai is to give or to receive a certain number of objects to or from

its two neighbours Ai−1 and Ai+1 . (Here An+1 means A1 and An means A0 .) How

should this redistribution be performed so that the total number of objects transferred

is minimum?

1. Let F be the set of all n−tuples (A1 , . . . , An ) such that each Ai is a subset of

{1, 2, . . . , 1998}. Let |A| denote the number of elements of the set A. Find:

X

|A1 ∪ · · · ∪ An |

(A1 ,...,An )∈F

2. Show that for any positive integers a and b, (36a + b)(a + 36b) can not be a power of

2.

! !

a b c a+b+c

1+ 1+ 1+ ≥2 1+ √

b c a 3

abc

4. Let 4ABC be a triangle and D the foot of the altitude from A. Let E and F lie on

a line through D such that AE is perpendicular to BC, AF is perpendicular to CF ,

and E and F are different from D. Let M and N be the midpoint of the segments

BC and EF , respectively. Prove that AN is perpendicular to N M .

5. √

Find the largest integer n such that n is divisible by all positive integers less than

3

n.

118 CHAPTER 4. ASIATIC PACIFIC MATHEMATICAL OLYMPIADS

1. Find the smallest positive integer n with the following property: there does not exist

an arithmetic progression of 1999 real numbers containing exactly n integers.

1, 2, . . .. Prove that

a2 a3 an

a1 + + +···+ ≥ an

2 3 n

for each positive integer n.

3. Let Γ1 and Γ2 be two circles intersecting at P and Q. The common tangent, closer

to P , of Γ1 and Γ2 touches Γ1 at A and Γ2 at B. The tangent of Γ1 at P meets Γ2 at

C, which is different from P , and the extension of AP meets BC at R. Prove that

the circumcircle of triangle P QR is tangent to BP and BR.

4. Determine all pairs (a, b) of integers with the property that the numbers a2 + 4b and

b2 + 4a are both perfect squares.

5. Let S be a set of 2n + 1 points in the plane such that no three are collinear and no

four concyclic. A circle will be called good if it has 3 points of S on its circumference,

n − 1 points in its interior and n − 1 points in its exterior. Prove that the number of

good circles has the same parity as n.

101

X x3i

S= 2

i=0 1 − 3xi + 3xi

for

i

xi =

101

4.13. 13T H ASIATIC PACIFIC MATHEMATICAL OLYMPIAD, 2001 119

Each of the numbers 1, . . . , 9 is to be written into one of these circles, so that each

circle contain exactly one of these numbers and:

i the sum of the four numbers on each side of the triangle are equal;

ii the sum of the squares of the four numbers on each side of the triangle are equal.

Find all ways in which this can be done.

3. Let 4ABC be a triangle. Let M and N be the points in which the median and the

angle bisector, respectively, at A meet the side BC. Let Q and P be the point in

which the perpendicular at N to N A meets M A and BA, respectively, and O the

point in which the perpendicular at P to BA meets AN produced. Prove that QO

is perpendicular to BC.

4. Let n, k be given positive integers with n > k. Prove that

1 nn n! nn

· < <

n + 1 k k (n − k)n−k k! (n − k)! k k (n − k)n−k

5. Given a permutation (a0 , a1 , . . . , an ) of the sequence 0, 1, . . . , n. A transposition of

ai with aj is called legal if ai = 0 for i > 0, and ai−1 + 1 = aj . The permu-

tation (a0 , . . . , an ) is called regular if after a number of transpositions it becomes

(1, 2, . . . , n, 0). For which numbers n is the permutation (1, n, n − 1, . . . , 3, 2, 0) reg-

ular?

1. For a positive integer n let S(n) be the sum of digits in the decimal representation of

n. Any positive integer obtained by removing several (at least one) digits from the

120 CHAPTER 4. ASIATIC PACIFIC MATHEMATICAL OLYMPIADS

be the sum of all stumps of n. Prove that n = S(n) + 9T (n).

2. Find the largest positive integer N so that the number of integers in the set {1, 2, . . . , N }

which are divisible by 3 is equal to the number of integers which are divisible by 5 or

7 (or both).

3. Let two equal regular n-gons S and T be located in the plane such that their inter-

section is a 2n-gon (n ≥ 3). The sides of the polygon S are coloured in red and the

sides of T in blue. Prove that the sum of the lengths of the blue sides of the polygon

S ∩ T is equal to the sum of the lengths of its red sides.

4. A point in the plane with a cartesian coordinate system is called a mixed point if one

of its coordinates is rational and the other one is irrational. Find all polynomials

with real coefficients such that their graphs do not contain any mixed point.

5. Find the greatest integer n, such that there are n+4 points A, B, C, D, X1 , . . . , Xn in

the plane with AB 6= CD that satisfy the following condition: for each i = 1, 2, . . . , n

triangles ABXi and CDXi are equal.

1. Let a1 , a2 , a3 , . . . , an be a sequence of non-negative integers, where n is a positive

integer. Let

a1 + a 2 + · · · + a n

An = .

n

Prove that

a1 !a2 ! . . . an ! ≥ (bAn c!)n ,

where bAn c is the greatest integer less than or equal to An , and a! = 1 × 2 × · · · × a

for a ≥ 1 (and 0! = 1). When does equality hold?

a2 + b b2 + a

and

b2 − a a2 − b

are both integers.

point on the side AB so that both triangles 4ABP and 4ACQ are acute. Let R be

4.15. 15T H ASIATIC PACIFIC MATHEMATICAL OLYMPIAD, 2003 121

the orthocentre of triangle ABP and S be the orthocentre of triangle ACQ. Let T be

the point common to the segments BP and CQ. Find all possible values of ^CBP

and ^BCQ such that triangle 4T RS is equilateral.

4. Let x, y, z be positive numbers such that

1 1 1

+ + = 1.

x y z

Show that

√ √ √ √ √ √ √

x + yz + y + zx + z + xy ≥ xyz + x + y + z.

5. Let R denote the set of all real numbers. Find all functions f from R to R satisfying:

(i) there are only finitely many s in R such that f (s) = 0, and

(ii) f (x4 + y) = x3 f (x) + f (f (y)) for all x, y in R.

1. Let a, b, c, d, e, f be real numbers such that the polynomial

p(x) = x8 − 4x7 + 7x6 + ax5 + bx4 + cx3 + dx2 + ex + f

factorises into eight linear factors x − xi , with xi > 0 for i = 1, 2, . . . , 8. Determine

all possible values of f .

2. Suppose ABCD is a square piece of cardboard with side length a. On a plane are

two parallel lines `1 and `2 , which are also a units apart. The square ABCD is placed

on the plane so that sides AB and AD intersect `1 at E and F respectively. Also,

sides CB and CD intersect `2 at G and H respectively. Let the perimeters of 4AEF

and 4CGH be m1 and m2 respectively. Prove that no matter how the square was

placed, m1 + m2 remains constant.

3. Let k ≥ 14 be an integer, and let pk be the largest prime number which is strictly

less than k. You may assume that pk ≥ 3k/4. Let n be a composite integer. Prove:

(a) if n = 2pk , then n does not divide (n − k)! ;

(b) if n > 2pk , then n divides (n − k)!

4. Let a, b, c be the sides of a triangle, with a + b + c = 1, and let n ≥ 2 be an integer.

Show that √

√

n

√

n

√ n

2

a n + b n + bn + c n + cn + a n < 1 +

n

.

2

122 CHAPTER 4. ASIATIC PACIFIC MATHEMATICAL OLYMPIADS

5. Given two positive integers m and n, find the smallest positive integer k such that

among any k people, either there are 2m of them who form m pairs of mutually

acquainted people or there are 2n of them forming n pairs of mutually unacquainted

people.

1. Determine all finite nonempty sets S of positive integers satisfying

i+j

is an element of S for all i, j in S

(i, j)

2. Let O be the circumcentre and H the orthocentre of an acute triangle 4ABC. Prove

that the area of one of the triangles 4AOH, 4BOH and 4COH is equal to the sum

of the areas of the other two.

3. Let a set S of 2004 points in the plane be given, no three of which are collinear. Let

L denote the set of all lines (extended indefinitely in both directions) determined by

pairs of points from the set. Show that it is possible to colour the points of S with at

most two colours, such that for any points p, q of S, the number of lines in L which

separate p from q is odd if and only if p and q have the same colour.

Note: A line ` separates two points p and q if p and q lie on opposite sides of ` with

neither point on `.

4. For a real number x, let bxc stand for the largest integer that is less than or equal to

x. Prove that $ %

(n − 1)!

n(n + 1)

is even for every positive integer n.

5. Prove that

(a2 + 2)(b2 + 2)(c2 + 2) ≥ 9(ab + bc + ca)

for all real numbers a, b, c > 0.

Chapter 5

1. For each positive integer n, let

1 1 1

Sn = 1 + + +···+ ,

2 3 n

Tn = S1 + S2 + S3 + · · · + S n ,

T1 T2 T3 Tn

Un = + + +···+ .

2 3 4 n+1

Find, with proof, integers 0 < a, b, c, d < 1000000 such that T1988 = aS1989 − b and

U1988 = cS1989 − d.

2. The 20 members of a local tennis club have scheduled exactly 14 two-person games

among themselves, with each member playing in at least one game. Prove that within

this schedule there must be a set of 6 games with 12 distinct players.

with real coefficients ck . Suppose that |P (i)| < 1. Prove that there exist real numbers

a and b such that P (a + bi) = 0 and (a2 + b2 + 1)2 < 4b2 + 1.

4. Let ABC be an acute-angled triangle whose side lengths satisfy the inequalities AB <

AC < BC. If point I is the center of the inscribed circle of triangle ABC and point

O is the center of the circumscribed circle, prove that line IO intersects segments AB

and BC.

123

124 CHAPTER 5. USA MATHEMATICAL OLYMPIAD

(u + u2 + u3 + · · · + u8 ) + 10u9 = (v + v 2 + v 3 + · · · + v 10 ) + 10v 11 = 8.

1. A certain state issues license plates consisting of six digits (from 0 through 9). The

state requires that any two plates differ in at least two places. (Thus the plates

027592 and 020592 cannot both be used.) Determine, with proof, the maximum

number of distinct license plates that the state can use.

√

f1 (x) = x2 + 48, and

q

fn+1 (x) = x2 + 6fn (x) for n ≥ 1.

√

(Recall that is understood to represent the positive square root.) For each

positive integer n, find all real solutions of the equation fn (x) = 2x .

3. Suppose that necklace A has 14 beads and necklace B has 19. Prove that for any

odd integer n ≥ 1, there is a way to number each of the 33 beads with an integer

from the sequence

{n, n + 1, n + 2, . . . , n + 32}

so that each integer is used once, and adjacent beads correspond to relatively prime

integers. (Here a “necklace” is viewed as a circle in which each bead is adjacent to

two other beads.)

4. Find, with proof, the number of positive integers whose base-n representation consists

of distinct digits with the property that, except for the leftmost digit, every digit

differs by ±1 from some digit further to the left. (Your answer should be an explicit

function of n in simplest form.)

5. An acute-angled triangle ABC is given in the plane. The circle with diameter AB

intersects altitude CC 0 and its extension at points M and N , and the circle with

diameter AC intersects altitude BB 0 and its extensions at P and Q . Prove that

the points M, N, P, Q lie on a common circle.

5.3. 20T H USA MATHEMATICAL OLYMPIAD, 1991 125

1. In triangle ABC, angle A is twice angle B, angle C is obtuse, and the three side

lengths a, b, c are integers. Determine, with proof, the minimum possible perimeter.

2. For any nonempty set S of numbers, let σ(S) and π(S) denote the sum and product,

respectively, of the elements of S . Prove that

X σ(S) 1 1 1

= (n2 + 2n) − 1 + + + · · · + (n + 1),

π(S) 2 3 n

{1, 2, 3, . . . , n}.

2 22

2, 22 , 22 , 22 , . . . (mod n)

is eventually constant.

[The tower of exponents is defined by a1 = 2, ai+1 = 2ai . Also ai (mod n) means the

remainder which results from dividing ai by n.]

4. Let a = (mm+1 + nn+1 )/(mm + nn ), where m and n are positive integers. Prove

that am + an ≥ mm + nn .

[You may wish to analyze the ratio (aN − N N )/(a − N ), for real a ≥ 0 and integer

N ≥ 1.]

the interior point where CD intersects the external common tangent to the incircles

of triangles CD and BCD. As D assumes all positions between A, and B , prove

that the point E traces the arc of a circle.

1. Find, as a function of n, the sum of the digits of

n

9 × 99 × 9999 × · · · × 102 − 1 ,

where each factor has twice as many digits as the previous one.

126 CHAPTER 5. USA MATHEMATICAL OLYMPIAD

2. Prove

1 1 1 cos 1◦

+ + · · · + = .

cos 0◦ cos 1◦ cos 1◦ cos 2◦ cos 88◦ cos 89◦ sin2 1◦

3. For a nonempty set S of integers, let σ(S) be the sum of the elements of S. Suppose

that A = {a1 , a2 , . . . , a11 } is a set of positive integers with a1 < a2 < · · · < a11 and

that, for each positive integer n ≤ 1500, there is a subset S of A for which σ(S) = n.

What is the smallest possible value of a10 ?

4. Chords AA0 , BB 0 , CC 0 of a sphere meet at an interior point P but are not con-

tained in a plane. The sphere through A, B, C, P is tangent to the sphere through

A0 , B 0 , C 0 , P . Prove that AA0 = BB 0 = CC 0 .

5. Let P (z) be a polynomial with complex coefficients which is of degree 1992 and has

distinct zeros. Prove that there exist complex numbers a1 , a2 , . . . , a1992 such that

P (z) divides the polynomial

2 2

2

· · · (z − a1 ) − a2 · · · − a1991 − a1992 .

1. For each integer n ≥ 2, determine, with proof, which of the two positive real numbers

a and b satisfying

an = a + 1, b2n = b + 3a

is larger.

2. Let ABCD be a convex quadrilateral such that diagonals AC and BD intersect at

right angles, and let E be their intersection. Prove that the reflections of E across

AB, BC, CD, DA are concyclic.

3. Consider functions f : [0, 1] → R which satisfy

(i) f (x) ≥ 0 for all x in [0, 1],

(ii) f (1) = 1,

(iii) f (x) + f (y) ≤ f (x + y) whenever x, y, and x + y are all in [0, 1].

Find, with proof, the smallest constant c such that

f (x) ≤ cx

for every function f satisfying (i)-(iii) and every x in [0, 1].

5.6. 23RD USA MATHEMATICAL OLYMPIAD, 1994 127

and by letting fn for n ≥ 3 be the greatest odd divisor of fn−1 + fn−2 . Show that

fn is constant for n sufficiently large and determine the eventual value as a function

of a and b.

5. Let a0 , a1 , a2 , . . . be a sequence of positive real numbers satisfying ai−1 ai+1 ≤ a2i for

i = 1, 2, 3, . . . . (Such a sequence is said to be log concave.) Show that for each n > 1,

a0 + · · · + an a1 + · · · + an−1 a0 + · · · + an−1 a1 + · · · + an

· ≥ · .

n+1 n−1 n n

1. Let k1 < k2 < k3 < · · · be positive integers, no two consecutive, and let sm =

k1 + k2 + · · · + km for m = 1, 2, 3, . . . . Prove that, for each positive integer n, the

interval [sn , sn+1 ) contains at least one perfect square.

2. The sides of a 99-gon are initially colored so that consecutive sides are red, blue, red,

blue, . . . , red, blue, yellow. We make a sequence of modifications in the coloring,

changing the color of one side at a time to one of the three given colors (red, blue,

yellow), under the constraint that no two adjacent sides may be the same color. By

making a sequence of such modifications, is it possible to arrive at the coloring in

which consecutive sides are red, blue, red, blue, red, blue, . . . , red, yellow, blue?

3. A convex hexagon ABCDEF is inscribed in a circle such that AB = CD = EF

and diagonals AD, BE, and CF are concurrent. Let P be the intersection of AD

and CE. Prove that CP/P E = (AC/CE)2 .

P √

4. Let a1 , a2 , a3 , . . . be a sequence of positive real numbers satisfying nj=1 aj ≥ n for

all n ≥ 1. Prove that, for all n ≥ 1,

n

X 1 1 1

a2j > 1+ +···+ .

j=1 4 2 n

5. Let |U |, σ(U ) and π(U ) denote the number of elements, the sum, and the product,

respectively, of a finite set U of positive integers. (If U is the empty set, |U| =

0, σ(U ) = 0, π(U ) = 1.) Let S be a finite set of positive integers. As usual, let nk

n!

denote k! (n−k)! . Prove that

!

X

|U | m − σ(U )

(−1) = π(S)

U ⊆S |S|

128 CHAPTER 5. USA MATHEMATICAL OLYMPIAD

1. Let p be an odd prime. The sequence (an )n≥0 is defined as follows: a0 = 0, a1 =

1, . . . , ap−2 = p − 2 and, for all n ≥ p − 1, an is the least positive integer that does

not form an arithmetic sequence of length p with any of the preceding terms. Prove

that, for all n, an is the number obtained by writing n in base p − 1 and reading

the result in base p.

2. A calculator is broken so that the only keys that still work are the sin, cos, tan, sin −1 , cos−1 ,

and tan−1 buttons. The display initially shows 0. Given any positive rational num-

ber q, show that pressing some finite sequence of buttons will yield q. Assume that

the calculator does real number calculations with infinite precision. All functions are

in terms of radians.

3. Given a nonisosceles, nonright triangle ABC, let O denote the center of its cir-

cumscribed circle, and let A1 , B1 , and C1 be the midpoints of sides BC, CA, and

AB, respectively. Point A2 is located on the ray OA1 so that ∆OAA1 is similar

to ∆OA2 A. Points B2 and C2 on rays OB1 and OC1 , respectively, are defined

similarly. Prove that lines AA2 , BB2 , and CC2 are concurrent, i.e. these three lines

intersect at a point.

conditions:

(ii) there is a polynomial P such that |qn | < P (n) for all n.

5. Suppose that in a certain society, each pair of persons can be classified as either

amicable or hostile. We shall say that each member of an amicable pair is a friend of

the other, and each member of a hostile pair is a foe of the other. Suppose that the

society has n persons and q amicable pairs, and that for every set of three persons,

at least one pair is hostile. Prove that there is at least one member of the society

whose foes include q(1 − 4q/n2 ) or fewer amicable pairs.

5.8. 25T H USA MATHEMATICAL OLYMPIAD, 1996 129

1. Prove that the average of the numbers n sin n◦ (n = 2, 4, 6, . . . , 180) is cot 1◦ .

2. For any nonempty set S of real numbers, let σ(S) denote the sum of the elements of

S. Given a set A of n positive integers, consider the collection of all distinct sums

σ(S)s S ranges over the nonempty subsets of A. Prove that thisollection of sums can

be partitioned into n classes so that in each class, the ratio of the largest sum to the

smallest sum does not exceed 2.

3. Let ABC be a triangle. Prove that there is a line ` (in the plane of triangle ABC) such

that the intersection of the interior of triangle ABC and the interior of its reflection

A0 B 0 C 0 in ` has area more than 2/3 the area of triangle ABC.

4. An n-term sequence (x1 , x2 , . . . , xn ) in which each term is either 0 or 1 is called a

binary sequence of length n. Let an be the number of binary sequences of length n

containing no three consecutive terms equal to 0, 1, 0 in that order. Let bn be the

number of binary sequences of length n that contain no four consecutive terms equal

to 0, 0, 1, 1 or 1, 1, 0, 0 in that order. Prove that bn+1 = 2an for all positive integers

n.

5. Triangle ABC has the following property: there is an interior point P such that

∠P AB = 10◦ , ∠P BA = 20◦ , ∠P CA = 30◦ , and ∠P AC = 40◦ . Prove that triangle

ABC is isosceles.

6. Determine (with proof) whether there is a subset X of the integers with the following

property: for any integer n there is exactly one solution of a + 2b = n with a, b ∈ X.

1. Let p1 , p2 , p3 , . . . be the prime numbers listed in increasing order, and let x0 be a real

number between 0 and 1. For positive integer k, define

( 0 ) if xk−1 = 0,

xk = pk

if xk−1 6= 0,

xk−1

where {x} denotes the fractional part of x. (The fractional part of x is given by

x − bxc where bxc is the greatest integer less than or equal to x.) Find, with proof,

all x0 satisfying 0 < x0 < 1 for which the sequence x0 , x1 , x2 , . . . eventually becomes

0.

130 CHAPTER 5. USA MATHEMATICAL OLYMPIAD

2. Let ABC be a triangle, and draw isosceles triangles BCD, CAE, ABF externally

to ABC, with BC, CA, AB as their respective bases. Prove that the lines through

←→ ←→ ←→

A, B, C perpendicular to the lines EF , F D, DE, respectively, are concurrent.

3. Prove that for any integer n, there exists a unique polynomial Q with coefficients in

{0, 1, . . . , 9} such that Q(−2) = Q(−5) = n.

4. To clip a convex n-gon means to choose a pair of consecutive sides AB, BC and to

replace them by the three segments AM, M N , and N C, where M is the midpoint of

AB and N is the midpoint of BC. In other words, one cuts off the triangle M BN

to obtain a convex (n + 1)-gon. A regular hexagon P6 of area 1 is clipped to obtain

a heptagon P7 . Then P7 is clipped (in one of the seven possible ways) to obtain an

octagon P8 , and so on. Prove that no matter how the clippings are done, the area of

Pn is greater than 1/3, for all n ≥ 6.

ai + aj ≤ ai+j ≤ ai + aj + 1

for all i, j ≥ 1 with i + j ≤ 1997. Show that there exists a real number x such that

an = bnxc (the greatest integer ≤ nx) for all 1 ≤ n ≤ 1997.

1. Suppose that the set {1, 2, · · · , 1998} has been partitioned into disjoint pairs {ai , bi }

(1 ≤ i ≤ 999) so that for all i, |ai − bi | equals 1 or 6. Prove that the sum

one draws the tangent AB to C2 (B ∈ C2 ). Let C be the second point of intersection

of AB and C1 , and let D be the midpoint of AB. A line passing through A intersects

C2 at E and F in such a way that the perpendicular bisectors of DE and CF intersect

at a point M on AB. Find, with proof, the ratio AM/M C.

5.11. 28T H USA MATHEMATICAL OLYMPIAD, 1999 131

π π π

tan(a0 − ) + tan(a1 − ) + · · · + tan(an − ) ≥ n − 1.

4 4 4

Prove that

tan a0 tan a1 · · · tan an ≥ nn+1 .

4. A computer screen shows a 98 × 98 chessboard, colored in the usual way. One can

select with a mouse any rectangle with sides on the lines of the chessboard and click

the mouse button: as a result, the colors in the selected rectangle switch (black

becomes white, white becomes black). Find, with proof, the minimum number of

mouse clicks needed to make the chessboard all one color.

5. Prove that for each n ≥ 2, there is a set S of n integers such that (a − b)2 divides ab

for every distinct a, b ∈ S.

6. Let n ≥ 5 be an integer. Find the largest integer k (as a function of n) such that

there exists a convex n-gon A1 A2 . . . An for which exactly k of the quadrilaterals

Ai Ai+1 Ai+2 Ai+3 have an inscribed circle. (Here An+j = Aj .)

1. Some checkers placed on an n × n checkerboard satisfy the following conditions:

(a) every square that does not contain a checker shares a side with one that does;

(b) given any pair of squares that contain checkers, there is a sequence of squares

containing checkers, starting and ending with the given squares, such that every

two consecutive squares of the sequence share a side.

Prove that at least (n2 − 2)/3 checkers have been placed on the board.

2. Let ABCD be a cyclic quadrilateral. Prove that

|AB − CD| + |AD − BC| ≥ 2|AC − BD|.

3. Let p > 2 be a prime and let a, b, c, d be integers not divisible by p, such that

{ra/p} + {rb/p} + {rc/p} + {rd/p} = 2

for any integer r not divisible by p. Prove that at least two of the numbers a + b,

a + c, a + d, b + c, b + d, c + d are divisible by p. (Note: {x} = x − bxc denotes the

fractional part of x.)

132 CHAPTER 5. USA MATHEMATICAL OLYMPIAD

5. The Y2K Game is played on a 1×2000 grid as follows. Two players in turn write either

an S or an O in an empty square. The first player who produces three consecutive

boxes that spell SOS wins. If all boxes are filled without producing SOS then the

game is a draw. Prove that the second player has a winning strategy.

6. Let ABCD be an isosceles trapezoid with AB k CD. The inscribed circle ω of

triangle BCD meets CD at E. Let F be a point on the (internal) angle bisector of

∠DAC such that EF ⊥ CD. Let the circumscribed circle of triangle ACF meet line

CD at C and G. Prove that the triangle AF G is isosceles.

1. Call a real-valued function f very convex if

f (x) + f (y) x+y

≥ ()f + |x − y|

2 2

holds for all real numbers x and y. Prove that no very convex function exists.

2. Let S be the set of all triangles ABC for which

!

1 1 1 3 6

5 + + − = ,

AP BQ CR min{AP, BQ, CR} r

where r is the inradius and P, Q, R are the points of tangency of the incircle with

sides AB, BC, CA, respectively. Prove that all triangles in S are isosceles and similar

to one another.

3. A game of solitaire is played with R red cards, W white cards, and B blue cards. A

player plays all the cards one at a time. With each play he accumulates a penalty. If

he plays a blue card, then he is charged a penalty which is the number of white cards

still in his hand. If he plays a white card, then he is charged a penalty which is twice

the number of red cards still in his hand. If he plays a red card, then he is charged

a penalty which is three times the number of blue cards still in his hand. Find, as a

function of R, W, and B, the minimal total penalty a player can amass and all the

ways in which this minimum can be achieved.

5.13. 30T H USA MATHEMATICAL OLYMPIAD, 2001 133

4. Find the smallest positive integer n such that if n squares of a 1000 × 1000 chessboard

are colored, then there will exist three colored squares whose centers form a right

triangle with sides parallel to the edges of the board.

5. Let A1 A2 A3 be a triangle and let ω1 be a circle in its plane passing through A1 and A2 .

Suppose there exist circles ω2 , ω3 , . . . , ω7 such that for k = 2, 3, . . . , 7, ωk is externally

tangent to ωk−1 and passes through Ak and Ak+1 , where An+3 = An for all n ≥ 1.

Prove that ω7 = ω1 .

n

X n

X

min{ai aj , bi bj } ≤ min{ai bj , aj bi }.

i,j=1 i,j=1

1. Each of eight boxes contains six balls. Each ball has been colored with one of n colors,

such that no two balls in the same box are the same color, and no two colors occur

together in more than one box. Determine, with justification, the smallest integer n

for which this is possible.

2. Let ABC be a triangle and let ω be its incircle. Denote by D1 and E1 the points where

ω is tangent to sides BC and AC, respectively. Denote by D2 and E2 the points on

sides BC and AC, respectively, such that CD2 = BD1 and CE2 = AE1 , and denote

by P the point of intersection of segments AD2 and BE2 . Circle ω intersects segment

AD2 at two points, the closer of which to the vertex A is denoted by Q. Prove that

AQ = D2 P .

a2 + b2 + c2 + abc = 4.

Prove that

0 ≤ ab + bc + ca − abc ≤ 2.

4. Let P be a point in the plane of triangle ABC such that the segments P A, P B, and

P C are the sides of an obtuse triangle. Assume that in this triangle the obtuse angle

opposes the side congruent to P A. Prove that ∠BAC is acute.

134 CHAPTER 5. USA MATHEMATICAL OLYMPIAD

(b) if x and y are elements of S (possibly equal), then x2 − y also belongs to S.

6. Each point in the plane is assigned a real number such that, for any triangle, the

number at the center of its inscribed circle is equal to the arithmetic mean of the

three numbers at its vertices. Prove that all points in the plane are assigned the

same number.

1. Let S be a set with 2002 elements, and let N be an integer with 0 ≤ N ≤ 22002 .

Prove that it is possible to color every subset of S either black or white so that the

following conditions hold:

(b) the union of any two black subsets is black;

(c) there are exactly N white subsets.

2 2 2 2

A B C 6s

cot + 2 cot + 3 cot = ,

2 2 2 7r

where s and r denote its semiperimeter and its inradius, respectively. Prove that

triangle ABC is similar to a triangle T whose side lengths are all positive integers

with no common divisors and determine these integers.

3. Prove that any monic polynomial (a polynomial with leading coefficient 1) of degree

n with real coefficients is the average of two monic polynomials of degree n with n

real roots.

4. Let R be the set of real numbers. Determine all functions f : R → R such that

5.15. 32N D USA MATHEMATICAL OLYMPIAD, 2003 135

5. Let a, b be integers greater than 2. Prove that there exists a positive integer k and a

finite sequence n1 , n2 , . . . , nk of positive integers such that n1 = a, nk = b, and ni ni+1

is divisible by ni + ni+1 for each i (1 ≤ i < k).

6. I have an n×n sheet of stamps, from which I’ve been asked to tear out blocks of three

adjacent stamps in a single row or column. (I can only tear along the perforations

separating adjacent stamps, and each block must come out of the sheet in one piece.)

Let b(n) be the smallest number of blocks I can tear out and make it impossible to

tear out any more blocks. Prove that there are real constants c and d such that

1 2 1

n − cn ≤ b(n) ≤ n2 + dn

7 5

for all n > 0.

1. Prove that for every positive integer n there exists an n-digit number divisible by 5n

all of whose digits are odd.

2. A convex polygon P in the plane is dissected into smaller convex polygons by drawing

all of its diagonals. The lengths of all sides and all diagonals of the polygon P are

rational numbers. Prove that the lengths of all sides of all polygons in the dissection

are also rational numbers.

A = a 0 , a1 , a2 , . . . , an

by setting t(ai ) to be the number of terms in the sequence A that precede the term

ai and are different from ai . Show that, starting from any sequence A as above, fewer

than n applications of the transformation t lead to a sequence B such that t(B) = B.

and BC at D and E, respectively. Lines AB and DE intersect at F while lines BD

and CF intersect at M . Prove that M F = M C if and only if M B · M D = M C 2 .

136 CHAPTER 5. USA MATHEMATICAL OLYMPIAD

(2a + b + c)2 (2b + c + a)2 (2c + a + b)2

+ + ≤ 8.

2a2 + (b + c)2 2b2 + (c + a)2 2c2 + (a + b)2

6. At the vertices of a regular hexagon are written six nonnegative integers whose sum

is 2003. Bert is allowed to make moves of the following form: he may pick a vertex

and replace the number written there by the absolute value of the difference between

the numbers written at the two neighboring vertices. Prove that Bert can make a

sequence of moves, after which the number 0 appears at all six vertices.

1. Let ABCD be a quadrilateral circumscribed about a circle, whose interior and exte-

rior angles are at least 60◦ . Prove that

1

|AB 3 − AD 3 | ≤ |BC 3 − CD 3 | ≤ 3|AB 3 − AD 3 |.

3

When does equality hold?

2. Suppose a1 , . . . , an are integers whose greatest common divisor is 1. Let S be a set

of integers with the following properties.

(a) For i = 1, . . . , n, ai ∈ S.

(b) For i, j = 1, . . . , n (not necessarily distinct), ai − aj ∈ S.

(c) For any integers x, y ∈ S, if x + y ∈ S, then x − y ∈ S.

Prove that S must be equal to the set of all integers.

3. For what real values of k > 0 is it possible to dissect a 1×k rectangle into two similar,

but noncongruent, polygons?

4. Alice and Bob play a game on a 6 by 6 grid. On his or her turn, a player chooses

a rational number not yet appearing in the grid and writes it in an empty square

of the grid. Alice goes first and then the players alternate. When all squares have

numbers written in them, in each row, the square with the greatest number in that

row is colored black. Alice wins if she can then draw a line from the top of the grid

to the bottom of the grid that stays in black squares, and Bob wins if she can’t. (If

two squares share a vertex, Alice can draw a line from one to the other that stays in

those two squares.) Find, with proof, a winning strategy for one of the players.

5.16. 33RD USA MATHEMATICAL OLYMPIAD, 2004 137

that

(AI + DI)2 + (BI + CI)2 = (AB + CD)2 .

Prove that ABCD is an isosceles trapezoid.

Chapter 6

1. Determine the number of real solutions a to the equation

1 1 1

a + a + a =a.

2 3 5

Here, if x is a real number, then [ x ] denotes the greatest integer that s less than or

equal to x.

1/2 1/2

1 1

x= x− + 1− .

x x

1 1 1 1 1 1 1

1+ +···+ > + +···+ .

n+1 3 2n − 1 n 2 4 2n

4. Let 4ABC be a triangle with ∠BAC = 40◦ and ∠ABC = 60◦ . Let D and E be

the points lying on the sides AC and AB, respectively,uch that ∠CBD = 40◦ and

∠BCE = 70◦ . Let F be the point of intersection of the lines BD and CE. Show

that the line AF is perpendicular to the line BC.

138

6.2. 31ST CANADIAN MATHEMATICAL OLYMPIAD, 1999 139

and an+1 = m2 an − an−1 for n = 1, 2, 3, . . . . Prove that an ordered pair (a, b) of

non-negative integers, with a ≤ b, gives a solution to the equation

a2 + b 2

= m2

ab + 1

if and only if (a, b) is of the form (an , an+1 ) for some n ≥ 0.

1. Find all real solutions to the equation 4x2 − 40[x] + 51 = 0.

Here, if x is a real number, then [x] denotes the greatest integer that is less than or

equal to x.

2. Let ABC be an equilateral triangle of altitude 1. A circle with radius 1 and center

on the same side of AB as C rolls along the segment AB. Prove that the arc of the

circle that is inside the triangle always has the same length.

3. Determine all positive integers n with the property that n = (d(n))2 . Here d(n)

denotes the number of positive divisors of n.

4. Suppose a1 , a2 , . . . , a8 are eight distinct integers from {1, 2, . . . , 16, 17}. Show that

there is an integer k > 0 such that the equation ai − aj = k has at least three different

solutions. Also, find a specific set of 7 distinct integers from {1, 2, . . . , 16, 17} such

that the equation ai − aj = k does not have three distinct solutions for any k > 0.

4

x2 y + y 2 z + z 2 x ≤ ,

27

and find when equality occurs.

1. At 12:00 noon, Anne, Beth and Carmen begin running laps around a circular track

of length three hundred meters, all starting from the same point on the track. Each

140 CHAPTER 6. CANADIAN MATHEMATICAL OLYMPIAD

jogger maintains a constant speed in one of the two possible directions for an indefinite

period of time. Show that if Anne’s speed is different from the other two speeds, then

at some later time Anne will be at least one hundred meters from each of the other

runners. (Here, distance is measured along the shorter of the two arcs separating two

runners.)

which each of those integers appears exactly once. Given such a permutation, we

form the sequence of partial sums

s1 = a1 , s2 = a1 + a2 , s3 = a1 + a2 + a3 , . . . , s100 = a1 + a2 + · · · + a100 .

How many of these permutations will have no terms of the sequence s1 , . . . , s100

divisible by three?

3. Let A = (a1 , a2 , . . . , a2000 ) be a sequence of integers each lying in the interval [−1000, 1000].

Suppose that the entries in A sum to 1. Show that some nonempty subsequence of

A sums to zero.

∠CBD = 2∠ADB,

∠ABD = 2∠CDB

and AB = CB.

a1 ≥ a2 ≥ · · · ≥ a100 ≥ 0,

a1 + a2 ≤ 100

and a3 + a4 + · · · + a100 ≤ 100.

Determine the maximum possible value of a21 + a22 + · · · + a2100 , and find all possible

sequences a1 , a2 , . . . , a100 which achieve this maximum.

1. Randy: “Hi Rachel, that’s an interesting quadratic equation you have written down.

What are its roots?”

6.4. 33RD CANADIAN MATHEMATICAL OLYMPIAD, 2001 141

Rachel: “The roots are two positive integers. One of the roots is my age, and the

other root is the age of my younger brother, Jimmy.”

Randy: “That is very neat! Let me see if I can figure out how old you and Jimmy

are. That shouldn’t be too difficult since all of your coefficients are integers. By the

way, I notice that the sum of the three coefficients is a prime number.”

Rachel: “Interesting. Now figure out how old I am.”

Randy: “Instead, I will guess your age and substitute it for x in your quadratic

equation . . . darn, that gives me −55, and not 0.”

Rachel: “Oh, leave me alone!”

(a) Prove that Jimmy is two years old.

(b) Determine Rachel’s age.

2. There is a board numbered −10 to 10 as shown. Each square is coloured either red

or white, and the sum of the numbers on the red squares is n. Maureen starts with a

token on the square labeled 0. She then tosses a fair coin ten times. Every time she

flips heads, she moves the token one square to the right. Every time she flips tails,

she moves the token one square to the left. At the end of the ten flips, the probability

that the token finishes on a red square is a rational number of the form ab . Given that

a + b = 2001, determine the largest possible value for n.

−10 −9 −8 −7 −6 −5 −4 −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

3. Let ABC be a triangle with AC > AB. Let P be the intersection point of the

perpendicular bisector of BC and the internal angle bisector of ∠A. Construct points

X on AB (extended) and Y on AC such that P X is perpendicular to AB and P Y

is perpendicular to AC. Let Z be the intersection point of XY and BC. Determine

the value of BZ

ZC

.

4. Let n be a positive integer. Nancy is given a rectangular table in which each entry is

a positive integer. She is permitted to make either of the following two moves:

(a) select a row and multiply each entry in this row by n.

(b) select a column and subtract n from each entry in this column.

Find all possible values of n for which the following statement is true:

Given any rectangular table, it is possible for Nancy to perform a finite

sequence of moves to create a table in which each entry is 0.

5. Let P0 , P1 , P2 be three points on the circumference of a circle with radius 1, where

P1 P2 = t < 2. For each i ≥ 3, define Pi to be the centre of the circumcircle of

4Pi−1 Pi−2 Pi−3 .

142 CHAPTER 6. CANADIAN MATHEMATICAL OLYMPIAD

(b) Let x be the distance from P1 to P1001 , andqlet y be the distance from P1001 to

P2001 . Determine all values of t for which 500 x/y is an integer.

1. Let S be a subset of {1, 2, . . . , 9}, such that the sums formed by adding each unordered

pair of distinct numbers from S are all different. For example, the subset {1, 2, 3, 5}

has this property, but {1, 2, 3, 4, 5} does not, since the pairs {1, 4} and {2, 3} have

the same sum, namely 5.

What is the maximum number of elements that S can contain?

2. Call a positive integer n practical if every positive integer less than or equal to n

can be written as the sum of distinct divisors of n.

For example, the divisors of 6 are 1, 2, 3, and 6. Since

1=1, 2=2, 3=3, 4=1+3, 5=2+ 3, 6=6,

we see that 6 is practical.

Prove that the product of two practical numbers is also practical.

a3 b3 c3

+ + ≥ a + b + c,

bc ca ab

and determine when equality occurs.

4. Let Γ be

√ a circle with radius r. Let A and B be distinct points on Γ such that

AB < 3r. Let the circle with centre B and radius AB meet Γ again at C. Let P

be the point inside Γ such that triangle ABP is equilateral. Finally, let the line CP

meet Γ again at Q.

Prove that P Q = r.

6.6. 35T H CANADIAN MATHEMATICAL OLYMPIAD, 2003 143

1. Consider a standard twelve-hour clock whose hour and minute hands move contin-

uously. Let m be an integer, with 1 ≤ m ≤ 720. At precisely m minutes after

12:00, the angle made by the hour hand and minute hand is exactly 1◦ . Determine

all possible values of m.

2001

2. Find the last three digits of the number 20032002 .

x3 + y 3 + z 3 = x + y + z, and

x2 + y 2 + z 2 = xyz.

4. Prove that when three circles share the same chord AB, every line through A different

from AB determines the same ratio XY : Y Z, where X is an arbitrary point different

from B on the first circle while Y and Z are the points where AX intersects the other

two circles (labelled so that Y is between X and Z).

5. Let S be a set of n points in the plane such that any two points of S are at least 1

unit apart. Prove there is a subset T of S with at least n7 points such that any two

√

points of T are at least 3 units apart.

1. Find all ordered triples (x, y, z) of real numbers which satisfy the following system of

equations:

xy = z − x − y

xz = y − x − z

yz = x − y − z

2. How many ways can 8 mutually non-attacking rooks be placed on the 9×9 chessboard

(shown here) so that all 8 rooks are on squares of the same colour? [Two rooks are

said to be attacking each other if they are placed in the same row or column of the

board.]

144 CHAPTER 6. CANADIAN MATHEMATICAL OLYMPIAD

AD and BC > CD. Let the bisector of angle ^BAD meet the circle at X and the

bisector of angle ^BCD meet the circle at Y .onsider the hexagon formed by these

six points on the circle.f four of the six sides of the hexagon have equal length, prove

that BD must be a diameter of the circle.

p−1

X p(p + 1)

k 2p−1 ≡ (mod p2 ).

k=1 2

5. Let T be the set of all positive integer divisors of 2004100 . What is the largest possible

number of elements that a subset S of T can have if no element of S is an integer

multiple of any other element of S?

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