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General Information

! In PHY501/PHY431 we study Mathematical Physics.


! You will find the course useful in laying down the
mathematical foundation for most of the physics
graduate courses.

Instructor Information
Name: Ia Iashvili
Office: 339a Fronczak
Telephone: 645-6611
e-mail: iashvili@buffalo.edu
Office Hours: Monday 2:00-3:00 pm

Required Textbook
!Mary Boas, Mathematical Methods in the Physical Sciences ,
3rd edition, John Wiley.
!You need to purchase the book as soon as possible if you havent
already done so.
! You will be able to refer back to the book when taking courses in
mechanics, ED, optics, QM, or when doing research. So it should be a
valuable and lasting acquisition.

Other resources
! See Supplemental resources in Course Information folder at
UBLearns. It lists online books, sites, etc.
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Homework
!Homeworks are typically assigned once per week and must

be handed to me on due dates. Late homeworks won t be


accepted without documented valid excuse.
!Homeworks should be written neatly and clearly. Messy

work will be returned and counted as not submitted.


!Number of problems per homework varies between 6 to 12

depending on the chapter/section covered. Only selected


problems will be graded.
!Homework problems will be announced at UBLearns.
!Your first homework is due next Friday, September 11th,

10:00 am
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Exams
! There will be two midterm and a final exam.
! Dates of the exams will be announced close to the due
dates.
! Makeup exam can be requested in case of a valid
documented excuse.

Credit Map for PHY 431/501


Midterm I score:

25%

Midterm II score:

25%

Final exam score:

25%

Homework score:

25%

Topics
Chapter 3: Linear Algebra
Chapter 5: Multiple Integrals
Chapter 7: Fourier Series and Transforms
Chapter 8: Ordinary Differential Equations
Chapter 9: Calculus of Variations
Chapter 11: Special Functions
Chapter 12: Legendre, Bessel, Hermite , and Laguerre Functions
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Chapter 3: Linear Algebra

" Section 2: Matrices; Row reduction


" Section 3: Cramer s rule

Linear Algebra
" Linear algebra is extensively used to solve physics problems
" Matrices are extensively used in linear algebra, in particular to solve
systems of linear equations.

Matrices
" A matrix is a rectangular array of quantities:
#1 2 3 &
((
A = %%
4
5
6
$
'

! We call a matrix with m rows and n columns m by n matrix (mn matrix).

! An element or member
of a matrix A is indicated by Aij, where i is the row
number and j is the column number.

" Let s exchange rows and columns in the matrix A. We will get a new
matrix:
# 1
4&
%
(
A = % 2 5 (
%
(
$ 3 6 '
T

The new matrix is called transpose of the matrix A and is denoted by AT .


Thus (AT)ij = Aji .

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Matrix Determinant
" A determinant of a square matrix B is denoted by detB.
" In case of 2nd order (that is 2 2) matrix:
" a b%
B =$
'
c
d
#
&

a b
det B =
= ad bc
c d

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Matrix Determinant
" Let s now discuss how to evaluate determinant of higher order matrix.
" In general nth order determinant can be written as:
a11 a12
a21 a22
aij = a31 a32

an1 an 2

a13 a1n
a23 a2n
a33 a3n

an 3 ann

" Let s now remove the row and column containing element aij. We ll get a
order of (n-1)th with a new determinant M .
new matrix of the
ij
This determinant Mij is called the minor of aij.
" The signed minor (-1)i+jMij is called cofactor of aij: Cij=(-1)i+jMij

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Matrix Determinant
" Now that we have introduced a cofactor, we can give a recipe for finding
determinant of high order matrix:
Multiply each element of one row (or one column) by its cofactor and add the
results.
Finding a matrix determinant using the above recipe is called Laplace
development.

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Determinant Properties
" If each element of one row (or one column) of a matrix is multiplied by a
number k, the value of the determinant is multiplied by k.
" The value of a determinant is zero if
! all elements of one row (or column) are zero; or
! two rows (or two columns) are identical; or
! two rows (or two columns) are proportional.
" If two rows (or two columns) of a matrix are interchanged,
the determinant changes sign.
" The value of a matrix is unchanged if
! rows are written as columns and columns are written as rows; or
! we add to each element of one row (or one column), k times the
corresponding element of another row (column), where k is any number.
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Set of linear equations


" Lets consider set of linear equations written in standard form:
" M11 x1 + M12 x 2 + M1n x n = k1
$
$ M 21 x1 + M 22 x 2 + M 2n x n = k 2
#
$
$% M n1 x1 + M n 2 x 2 + M nn x n = kn

This set of linear equations can also be written in more compact form:

ij

x j = k i , i = 1,2,n

j =1

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Set of linear equations


" M11 x1 + M12 x 2 + M1n x n = k1
$
$ M 21 x1 + M 22 x 2 + M 2n x n = k 2
#
$
$% M n1 x1 + M n 2 x 2 + M nn x n = kn

There are four matrices of interest associated to the above set of equations:
nn matrix

of the coefficients
" M11
$
$ M 21
$
$
# M n1

M12
M 22

Mn 2

n1 matrix
of the variables

M1n %
'
M 2n '
'
'
M nn &

n1 matrix
of the right-side coefficients

" x1 %
$ '
$ x2 '
$ '
$ '
# xn &

n(n+1) augmented matrix

" M11
$
$ M 21
$
$
# M n1

M12
M 22

Mn 2

" k1 %
$ '
$ k2 '
$'
$ '
# kn &
M1n k1 %
'
M 2n k 2 '
'

'
M nn k n &

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Set of linear equations: Row reduction


" We will now discuss two different ways to solve set of linear equations.
" First way is via process called row reduction.
" Allowed operations (called elementary row operation) in row reduction are:
! Interchange two rows
! Multiply a row by a non-zero constant
! Add a multiple of one row to another
" Row reduction applied to the augmented matrix is one way to solve set of
linear equations.
" In practice, routine of row reduction is as follows:
! Use the first row to clear the rest of the first column
! Use the new second row to clear the rest of the second column, etc.
! Use the new second, third, etc. rows to clear the first raw.
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Rank of a matrix
" The number of nonzero rows remaining when a matrix has been row
reduced is called the rank of the matrix.
" Another way to find the rank of the matrix is to calculate determinants of
all square submatrices inside the matrix. The order of the largest nonzero
determinant is the rank of the matrix.
" Let s say we have set of m equations with n unknowns with M being the
coefficient matrix and A being the augmented matrix. Then:
! If (rank M) = (rank A) = n, there is one solution.
! If (rank M) < (rank A), the equations are inconsistent and there is no solutions.
! If (rank M) = (rank A) = R < n, then R unknowns can be found in terms of the
remaining n - R unknowns. Infinite number of solutions.
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Cramer s Rule
" Cramers rule is a method to solve set of n linear equations with n
unknowns. It may be used when determinant D of the coefficient matrix M
" M11 x1 + M12 x 2 + M1n x n = k1
is non-zero, D0.
$
$ M 21 x1 + M 22 x 2 + M 2n x n = k 2
#
$
$% M n1 x1 + M n 2 x 2 + M nn x n = kn

According to Cramer s rule, the solution to the above equations is:


xi =

Di
, i = 1, 2, ... n
D

here D is determinant of the coefficients matrix, and Di is the determinant of


the matrix obtained by replacing the ith column in D by the terms from the
the equations. E.g. for solving x :
right-hand sides of
2
M11
M 21
D=

M n1

M12
M 22

Mn 2

M1n
M 2n

M nn

M11 k1 M1n
M 21 k 2 M 2n
D2 =

M n1 k n M nn

x2 =

D2
D
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