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MAGNETIS

M

TABLE OF CONTENTS

I.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

II.

OBJECTIVES OF THE RESEARCH

III.

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

IV.

MATERIALS AND METHOD OF PROCEDURES

V.

RESULTS

VI.

CONCLUSION

VII.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

Our group would like to express our deepest gratitude to our teacher; for providing us the knowledge and understanding regarding the subject matter, fellow classmates and friends; for the moral support, and especially our love and gratitude to our beloved families; for their understanding and endless love, through the duration of this research. This research project would not have been possible without the support of these people.

OBJECTIVES OF THE RESEARCH

The research had a number of specific objectives:

1. To determine and illustrate the direction of the magnetic field surrounding a long straight wire using a compass.

2.

To determine the relationship of electric current and

magnetic field

  • 3. To demonstrate the Oersted’s experiment

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

INTRODUCTION

Electromagnetism is a branch of physics which involves the study of the electromagnetic force, a type of physical interaction that occurs between electrically charged particles. The electromagnetic force usually shows electromagnetic fields, such as electric fields, magnetic fields, and light. The electromagnetic force is one of the four fundamental interactions in nature. The other three fundamental interactions are the strong interaction, the weak interaction, and gravitation. [1] The word electromagnetism is a compound form of two Greek terms, ἢλεκτρον, ēlektron, "amber", and μαγντις λίθος magnētis lithos, which means "magnesian stone", a type of iron ore. The science of electromagnetic phenomena is defined in terms of the electromagnetic force, sometimes called the Lorentz force, which includes both electricity and magnetism as elements of one phenomenon. The electromagnetic force plays a major role in determining the internal properties of most objects encountered in daily life. Ordinary matter takes its form as a result of intermolecular forces between individual molecules in matter. Electrons are bound by electromagnetic wave mechanics into orbitals around atomic nuclei to form atoms, which are the building blocks of molecules. This governs the processes involved in chemistry, which arise

from interactions between the electrons of neighbouring atoms, which are in turn determined by the interaction between electromagnetic force and the momentum of the electrons. There are numerous mathematical descriptions of the electromagnetic field. In classical electrodynamics, electric fields are described as electric potential and electric current in Ohm's law, magnetic fields are associated with electromagnetic induction and magnetism, and Maxwell's equations describe how electric and magnetic fields are generated and altered by each other and by charges and currents. The theoretical implications of electromagnetism, in particular the

establishment of the speed of light based on properties of the "medium" of propagation (permeability and permittivity), led to the development of special relativity by Albert Einstein in 1905.

Although

electromagnetism

is

considered

one

of

the

four

fundamental forces, at high energy the weak force and electromagnetism are unified. In the history of the universe, during the quark epoch, the electroweak force split into the electromagnetic and weak forces.

Oersted's law

law,

or

Oersted's Law as it is often rendered in English, is the law that a steady electric current creates a magnetic field around it. This

was discovered on April 21, 1820 by Danish physicist Hans Christian Ørsted (1777-1851), when he noticed that the needle of

a compass next to a wire carrying current turned so that the needle was perpendicular to the wire. Ørsted investigated and found the mathematical law which governs how strong the field was, which is now called Ørsted's Law. Ørsted's discovery was the first connection found between electricity and magnetism, and the first of two laws that link the two; the other is Faraday's law of induction. These two laws became part of the equations that govern electromagnetism, Maxwell's equations.

Øersted's rules

Øersted found that, for a straight wire carrying a steady (DC) current

The magnetic field lines encircle the current-carrying wire

The magnetic field lines lie in a plane perpendicular to the wire

If the direction of the current is reversed, the direction of the magnetic force reverses.

The strength of the field is directly proportional to the magnitude of the current.

The strength of the field at any point is inversely proportional to the distance of the point from the wire.

MATERIALS AND METHOD OF PROCEDURES

Materials:

1 pc (15cm x 20 cm) Cardboard Insulated wires

  • 4 Dry cells

  • 1 Switch Magnetic Compass

1. Insert a connecting wire through a cardboard about 15 cm x 20 cm. Position the materials as shown in the figure below. Hold the insulated connecting wires 10 cm below and 10 cm above the cardboard.

1. Insert a connecting wire through a cardboard about 15 cm x 20 cm. Position the

2. Attach the wire to a switch and to four dry cells arranged in series. Determine the direction of the current when you close the switch. Open the switch.

3. Place a small compass (around 1 cm in diameter) at a point very near the wire. Turn ON the switch and note the direction of the compass needle.

4. Position

the

compass

at

various

points

around

equidistant from the vertical wire.

and

5. Reversed the direction of the current by changing the wire's connection to the dry cells. Repeat step 3.

RESULTS

In the experiment, as the compass needle was moved around a vertical wire, its N-pole traced

In the experiment, as the compass needle was moved around a vertical wire, its N-pole traced a circle. This indicated that magnetic lines of induction around a current-carrying wire formed a circular-loop. The compass needle was everywhere tangent to the lines of induction. Also, when the electric current flows through the wires the compass moved indicates that magnetic field was produced.

CONCLUSION

We therefore conclude that when an electric current is passed through a conducting wire, a magnetic field is produced around it. The presence of magnetic field at a point around a current carrying wire can be detected with the help of a compass needle. If a compass needle is placed in the vicinity of the current carrying wire, the needle of the compass is found to deflect in a definite direction. Also, the direction of the deflection of needle is reversed if the direction of current in the wire is reversed.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Textbook

Josefina Ll. Pabellon (1992), Physics Textbook IV, Book Media Press, Inc., Mandaluyong City

Online Reference