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Protection and restoration of the environment XI

Solid waste management

SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT ALTERNATIVE SCENARIOS IN


WESTERN MACEDONIA (KOZANI), GREECE
K. Kechagia1, A. Tselepi, E. Darakas, A. Zafirakou, S. Bayouk
Division of Hydraulics and Environmental Engineering,
Dept. of Civil Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki,
GR- 54124 Thessaloniki, Macedonia, Greece
1
E-mail: kykechag@civil.auth.gr

ABSTRACT
In the present study the Integrated Waste Management System (IWMS) in the Region of Western
Macedonia, and particularly in the Municipality of Kozani, is being examined. The current situation
is herein portrayed with regards to the solid waste collection, transfer, transhipment and disposal to
the landfill of Western Macedonia in the period 2006-2010. In addition to this, the Regional
Recycling System, whose implementation methodology is based on a sorting system in source, has
been evaluated. It has been revealed that, from the total quantity of mixed and recyclable municipal
solid waste, only 6.0% is recycled.
Given that the current legislation in Greece proposes the pre-treatment of the total solid waste load
produced before entering the landfill, in order to reduce the volume of solid waste as well as recover
materials and energy from waste, four possible options of treatment methods have been presented
and compared. The four treatment methods under investigation are: production and incineration of
RDF (Refuse Derived Fuel), production and incineration of SRF (Solid Recovered Fuel), anaerobic
digestion and biogas production, and incineration. The option of anaerobic digestion and biogas
production was finally selected and cost-estimated, in regards to lower environmental and financial
burdens for the recipients. Conclusively, the total management cost of the municipal
solid waste for the area with the implementation of the proposed scenario is quite high, but the
suggested treatment method prolongs the life of the landfill by the year 2024.

Keywords
Solid waste management; recycling; energy recovery; incineration; anaerobic digestion;

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1. INTRODUCTION
1.1 Description of the current situation in the study area
The Integrated Waste Management System (IWMS) in the Region of Western Macedonia, Greece,
serves approximately 300.000 inhabitants which are distributed at sixty one (61) municipalities in
the prefectures of Kozani, Grevena, Kastoria and Florina. The system includes the landfill site and
the network of the local waste management units, in which the Waste Transfer Station (WTS) have
already been constructed. The system is based on the operation of ten WTS, which are divided into
three main (Kozani, Kastoria and Ptolemaida) and seven sub-main stations which are characterized
as satellite WTS (Map 1).
The total amount of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) produced per year which requires management
approaches 120.000 tons. A percentage of 55% is generated in the five largest municipalities, which
are Kozani, Ptolemaida, Kastoria, Grevena and Florina and the remaining 45%, which do not
exceed 900 tons per year is paid to the other municipalities (DIADYMA SA, 2010).

MAP 1. The study area (Western Macedonia, Greece), (DIADYMA SA, 2010)
The IWMS includes the collection, transportation, transfer, recovery of useful materials through
recycling and the landfilling of the residue solid waste. It also includes the management of specific
solid waste, taking into account the mechanical treatment and the recovery and utilization of
materials included in the MSW. The operators administrators for the whole system are the
municipalities and the company DIADYMA SA, which is the Association of the sixty one local
authorities dealing with the management of MSW in the area of Western Macedonia.
Specifically, the municipality of Kozani is responsible for the collection and the transportation of
MSW to the WTS of Kozani, which is a supra WTS, while DIADYMA SA implements the
transshipment and the final disposal (landfilling) of the MSW. The operators in the city of Kozani
are collecting MSW in temporary storage bins. They have about 1000 storage bins of 1100 lt
capacity, which are used only for the mixed solid waste, not for the recyclable materials. A

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preliminary separation of the MSW is taking place depending on their properties. In the surrounding
districts of the city, about 850 storage bins with different capacities, i.e. 360, 660 and 1100 lt, are
used. Regarding the recyclable materials such as paper, glass and aluminum, the municipality of
Kozani disposes 53 bins for paper, 53 bins for glass and 48 bins for aluminum, while the
surrounding districts of the city disposes 29 bins for paper, 3 bins for glass and 6 bins for aluminum
(Municipality of Kozani, 2009). The recycling is done by sorting at source. The transportation of
the mixed MSW is done by garbage-type mill and press trucks, while the transportation of the
recyclable materials is done by open trucks which are specialy modified i.e. equipped with different
body compartments. From the WTS the MSW of Kozani are transported to the
Central Installation of Integrated Management. This central installation is located in the area of the
Western Macedonia landfill site, very close to the Regional Recycling Center (RRC) (Map 1).
The landfill site covers an area of 327.000 m2. Its capacity is ca 120.000 tons/year. Landfilling is
done in two rectangular basins with a capacity of 600.000 m3. The infrastructure includes the sealed
cells with a capacity of about 1.300.000 m3 (cell A and cell B in total), facilities for the biological
treatment of the leachates, a system for the controlled combustion of the landfill-gas, the stormwater
management works, the fire zone, building infrastructure at the entrance of the complex and the
internal road network. At the Regional Recycling Center the final sorting, the baling and the
collection of the recyclables from the relevant companies dealing with this issue, are taking place.
1.2 A scientific approach to MSW management scenarios
The Joint Ministerial Decision (JMD) 114218/1997 establishes a framework of technical
specifications and of general plans of Solid Waste Management (SWM). It determines the technical
specifications regarding the appropriate systems, means and procedures for each of the available
waste treatment methods, like temporary storage, collection and disposal, collection at source,
recycling e.t.c. It also specifies the criteria for the selection of landfills, as well as for the planning,
design and function of sanitary legal waste disposal sites, mechanical sorting plants and composting
facilities. Specifications on compost products are also included.
Through the JMD 29407/3508/2002, which deals with measures and terms for landfilling of waste,
the Directive 99/31/EC on the landfill of waste, was applied to the Greek legislative framework.
The legislation requires the recovery of waste materials and the restoration of the productive cycle.
The legislation imposes the minimization of the impact of the landfilling and provides guidelines
for reducing the wastes to be landfilled. It requires that the landfills will gradually be turned into
residue landfills. The main elements introduced with the JMD are:
Waste must be treated before landfilling (mass and volume reduce)
Stricter operational rules must be taken for sanitary landfills
Changes regarding gate fee for landfilling were introduced
Requirements for the landfill operating authorities where established
Planning and permitting procedure were changed.
Those requirements aim to promote the construction of high standard landfills which will gradually
be turned into residue landfills. Regarding gate fee, costs of financial security, final closure and
after-care have to be included. Moreover, article 12 of JMD 29407 requires that the costs for
operation and extension works of landfills will be covered by the price charged by the waste
management authorities (via Municipalities) for the disposal of waste.

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The design of alternative scenarios for integrated management of MSW must be based on the
following:
Preference to energy recovery; energy is a readily marketable "product" leading to profit
Configuration scripts to the lowest investment - operating costs
Consideration of commercial units dealing with the management of mixed MSW without any
serious environmental impact. For this reason, pyrolysis and gasification are not considered, as
their application to mixed MSW is not highly developed in our country
Preference to scenarios aiming at significant reduction of the total volume of MSW to be
handled.
The scenarios considered are the following:
Production and combustion of Refused Derived Fuel (RDF); a method based on mechanical
sorting of MSW, production of compost and RDF, which can be utilized in the energy unit.
RDF consists largely of organic components of MSW such as plastics and biodegradable waste.
RDF processing facilities are normally located near a source of MSW and, while an optional
combustion facility is normally close to the processing facility, it may also be located at a
remote location. RDF can be used in a variety of ways to produce electricity. It can be used in
conjunction with traditional sources of fuel in coal power plants.
Production and combustion of Solid Recovered Fuel (SRF); a method based on drying,
producing and burning a stabilized product. SRF can be distinguished from RDF by the fact that
it is produced to reach a standard. Construction and operation of waste to energy plants are
expected to enhance demand and thus selling price significantly.
Production and combustion of biogas (Anaerobic Digestion); a method based on mechanical
processing (extended hand-sorting and mechanical sorting), anaerobic treatment of the organic
fraction for biogas production and use thereof in a power plant, as well as further maturing of
the residue of the anaerobic digestion to produce a coating material.
Incineration of the total mixed MSW including the type mass-fired, leading to energy recovery.
A few years ago the waste management authorities in the region of Attica issued a market study in
order to find a way to utilize the RDF produced in the Athens treatment unit. The study included
two big cement industries and other types of industry where big amounts of energy are required but
there was no correspondence. The industries put some special requirements and specifications such
as moisture and chlorine content, low bulk density, and high calorific value, regarding the
characteristics of the RDF in order to accept it as a fuel. Some of the issues brought to the table by
the industry like low facility performance, odor emissions while handling RDF which might affect
personnel, need of storage capacity, RDF production rate, modification of the facilitys
environmental permission terms, should be examined closely and solutions should be provided.
Assuming that the RDF qualitative requirements are met, the acceptance of RDF will be highly
expected, since the interest in using alternative fuels is constantly increasing. Between a cement
industry and the waste management authorities a contract has been signed, which states that initially
35.000 tn/year will be co-incinerated in the cement industry and that amount will increase to 75.000
tn/year. According to the contract, the cement industry will receive 10 /tn of RDF co-incinerated.
A total of 750.000 /year will be required, while for less amount the price could reach 20 /tn. The
contract was signed in February 2007 and has a five-year duration. Nevertheless the total amount of
RDF is still being landfilled (Euroconsultants, EPTA, 2010).
Considering that the anaerobic digestion with biogas production is an environmentally and
economically advantageous method, we made some efforts to estimate the cost of such an
investment as a part of the IWMS, compared with the current situation.

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2. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION


2.1 Facts and data concerning the management of MSW in Kozani
Based on the existing treatment technologies for MSW and the information provided by the relevant
authorities in the municipality of Kozani and DIADYMA SA, we examined different possible
scenarios of treatment for the total MSW generated in the study area of Western Macedonia.
We collected and processed the quantitative and the qualitative data of MSW generated in the city
of Kozani in the period 2006 - 2010. The average annual and daily production of MSW per capita
was calculated. Moreover, we processed and calculated the amount of the recyclable materials and
their proportion to the total amount of MSW. The results are shown in figures 2.1.1 and 2.1.2.

FIGURE 2.1.1. Quantities (%) MSW per Waste Transfer Station

FIGURE 2.1.2. Generation of MSW in the city of Kozani

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Figure 2.1.2 shows that the annual average generation of MSW for the period 2006 2010 is 24.396
tons (DIADYMA SA, 2010). The annual output per person is 514 kg while the daily output per
capita is 1,4 Kg/person/day.
The composition of the MSW from a sample of 120.000 tn/year, i.e. the total amount of the MSW
ending to the landfill, is presented in table 2.1.1.
TABLE 2.1.1. Composition of the MSW at the landfill (DIADYMA SA, 2010)
Main categories
Organics
Paper

Plastic

Metals

Glass

%
53,90
14,20

Sub-categories

Cardboard
Newspapers, Printed paper
Books
White paper
Tetrapack
Other paper

6,07
3,35
1,00
0,36
0,71
2,71

Plastic bottles ()
Plastic bottles ()
Plastic film
Other plastic

3,16
1,91
1,91
6,32

Aluminum
Tinplate metals
Other metals

0,65
1,36
2,01

Glass packaging
Other glass

1,24
0,41

13,30

4,02

1,65

Leather, Wood, Textile material, Rubber 4,31


Inert materials
4,31
Others
4,31
TOTAL
100,00
Regarding the recyclable materials we found that the annual generation of paper is 1.384 tn, the
generation of glass is 21,5 tn and the generation of aluminum is 2,2 tn. The percentage of recyclable
materials is just 6,0%, compared to the total quantity of MSW generated.
Given the (qualitative) composition and the total amount of the MSW generated per year, we
estimated the energy recovered by applying the alternative scenarios discussed above. The high
calorific values are based on the literature (Juniper, 2005). The results are presented in table 2.1.2.
Furthermore, based on the relatively low cost, the minor environmental impact and the experience
in the construction of anaerobic digesters since 2002, we focused on the scenario of the anaerobic
digestion - production and combustion of biogas, making some efforts to estimate its cost.
According to this scenario, the residue to be driven to the landfill will be 71.445 tn/year, making the
following assumptions:
- the plant will be in operation in year 2013

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the usable volume of the landfill (for the residues) will be equal to 380.000 m3 in January 2013
the compression rate will be 0,85 ton/m3
the amount of the daily covering material will be 15,0% v/v in relation to the residues.
TABLE 2.1.2. Alternative scenarios for the IWMS and energy recovery
Treatment
method

Composition
(Material)

Percentage (%) in
the mass of the
MSW
(DIADYMA SA,
2010)

Fuel
(Tn/year)
(Energy for
exploitation)

High
calorific
value
(MJ/kg)
(Juniper,
2005)
15

Energy
recovery
MW

Production
and
combustion
of RDF

Paper,
Plastic,
Leather,
Wood,
Textile
material,
Rubber

14,2% + 13,3% +
4,3% = 31,8%

31,8% x
120.000 =
38.160 tn
RDF / year

Production
and
combustion
of SRF

Organics,
Paper,
Plastic,
Wood,
Textile
material,
Rubber

60% (53,9%+
14,2% + 13,3% +
4,31%) = 51,43%

51,4% x
120.000 =
61.711 tn
SRF / year

18

35,22 MW
6,64 MW for
internal use
28,58MW to
sell

Incineration
of the MSW

Total mass of
MSW

100%

120.000
tn/year

10

38,05 MW
7,90 MW for
internal use
30,14 MW to
sell

Production
and
combustion
of biogas

Organics

53,9% x 120.000 =
64.680 tn/year

6.468.000
m3

6.468.000 m3
x 5,5 KWh/
m3=4,94 MW

4,94 MW
1,98 MW for
internal use
2,92 MW to
sell

18,15MW
3,43 MW for
internal use
14,72 MW to
sell

TABLE 2.1.3. Alternative scenarios and costs (investment and operation)


Aggregate
Financial Data
Investment
(million )
Operation
(million )*

Production and
combustion of
RDF

Production and
combustion of
SRF

Production and
combustion of
biogas

Incineration of
the MSW

59

59

36

77

37

41

23

7,5

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*The operation cost is a net cost. The profit from the sale of energy generated for each technology
has already been removed.
Furthermore, we estimated that the landfill site for the residues will extend its life for four years.
Given that an expansion to 640.000 m3 of the landfill site is planned and the total available volume
for the residues will rise to 1.063.270 m3, we estimated a sufficient extension of its life for seven
years (Table 2.1.4).
TABLE 2.1.4. Waste to be landfilled after treatment (Starting year 2013)
Year

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15

tn/year

71.445

Compression
Annual
(tn/m3)
volume of
the
residues
(m3)

0,85

84.053

Cover
material
(m3)

12.608

Total
volume
(m3)

96.661

Total
landfill
volume
(m3)
96.661
193.322
289.983
386.644
483.305
579.965
676.626
773.287
869.948
966.609
1.063.270
1.159.931
1.256.592
1.353.252
1.449.913

2.2 Calculations of the cost management based on the analyzed scenario


Table 2.2.1 shows the MSW Management cost for the municipality of Kozani based on year 2010.
During this year 26.060 tons of MSW were generated in the municipally. The amount of 703.000
refers to the integrated management of solid waste which is currently being implemented.
Accordingly, this amount should be deducted in case of the proposed scenario. So the final cost for
the collection and the transportation of the MSW to the plant will be specified to 3.111.000 /year
or 119,4 /tn.
TABLE 2.2.1. MSW Management cost for the municipality of Kozani (year 2010)
MSW Management costs

%
Payroll staff
2.758.000 72,3
Fuels / Lubricants
130.000
3,4
Services / Insurance
130.000
3,4
Overheads (Different expenses)
50.000
1,3
Leasing of equipment
43.000
1,1
Transshipment / Landfilling
703.000 18,5
TOTAL
3.814.000 100,0

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Then we estimated the cost for transshipment of the MSW. This cost, which amounts to 8,5 /tn, is
analyzed and presented in Table 2.2.2.
TABLE 2.2.2. Estimation of the transshipment cost
Net truck load
20 tn
Routs
(26.060 tn / 20) x 2 = 2.606 routs
Distance between WTS station and landfill
20 km
Total kilometers traveled by trucks per year
2.606 x 20 = 52.120 km
Fuels / Lubricants / Services
1,3 /km
Annual expenditure on fuel and services
1,3 /km x 52.120 km/year = 67.756 /year
Drivers cost
30.000 /year
Guards (4 persons)
4 x 23.000 /person/year = 92.000 /year
Other operational cost
30.000 /year
Annual cost for transshipment
219.756 /year
Expense for transshipment per ton MSW
(219.756 /year)/(26.060 tn /year) = 8,5 /tn
The treatment cost includes investment and operating costs, which accounts for 9.500.000 for
civil engineering projects, 22.000.000 for electrical engineering projects, 500.000 for other
equipment / infrastructure and 4.800.000 for general expenses / overheads. The total investment
for the treatment amounts to 36.800.000 . Assuming that the damping of the investment fund will
take 10 years, we lead to the conclusion that the final cost will be 3.680.000 /year or 31 /tn, based
on a total amount of 120.000 tons MSW/year. Concerning the operation cost we accounted for the
personnel required 297.000 /year, 907.200 /year for the maintenance and the service and
1.536.000 /year for the hand-sorting of MSW, the total operation cost amounts to 2.740.200 /year
or 22,84 /tn. Finally the total treatment cost including investment and operating amounts to 54,0
/tn. We took into account the benefits from the exploitation of the energy produced from the
biogas and the recyclables produced in both the unit and the system of sorting at source. Subtracting
the cost of transshipment from the total cost for the transshipment and disposal in the landfill raises
the final cost of disposal. This amounts to 23 /ton. Finally, adding the collection (119,4 /tn), the
transshipment (8,5 /tn), the treatment (54,0 /tn) and the final disposal (23,0 /tn) cost, we can
anticipate that the total cost for the analyzed scenario amounts to 205 /tn MSW or
112 /capita/year.
3. CONCLUSIONS
It was found that there is adequate equipment, experience and desire to achieve the objectives for an
Integrated Waste Management System in the region of Western Macedonia. All stages including the
collection, the temporary storage, the transshipment and the disposal run smoothly. The time and
the transportation cost have been reduced while the productivity of the staff is remarkable during
the last years.
After processing the data, we realized that the recyclables recovered cannot be more than 6,0 %.
This percentage is very low compared with the targets set by the legislation. However, we should
not underestimate the efforts that are made for recycling, which even they represent a very low
percentage of the total MSW they contribute to huge environmental benefits.
The total cost of the MSW current management amounts to 151 /tn or 83 /capita/year. By
applying the scenario of anaerobic digestion and biogas production, which is presented above, the
total cost of MSW management will reach 205 /tn or 112 /capita/year. This cost is too high;

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however, it is resulting in a reduction of the quantities of MSW and extends the life of the landfill,
specifically after the planned expansion, until year 2024.
A significant increase in the efficiency of the analyzed scenario can be achieved in the future,
through the implementation of a program aiming to a better sorting of MSW at source, including the
organics generated at home. Co-digestion of sewage sludge from the Wastewater Treatment Plants
in the area along with livestock waste could increase biogas production and energy recovery.

REFERENCES
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(Operation years 2009 2010), Final report, Kozani
2. Municipality of Kozani, (2009), Report on Municipal Solid Waste Management, Division for
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16.7.1999
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Management of MSW in Greece, http://www.eedsa.gr, (accessed March, 2011)
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(accessed March, 2011)
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Part 1
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Environmental
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http://www.epa.gov/epawaste/index.htm, (accessed Feb, 2011)

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