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MBA (Day)
Representing: Asian Development Bank (ADB)
Organizational Behavior (BP6903); Sec 56
Faculty: Dr. Ioan Voicu
Home Assignment-3
Date: October 5, 2015

Why Students Should Study/Know Individual and Universal

Values are desirable goals as they are perceived primarily in a positive manner. This
means people perceive their values positively and use them when justifying their
behavior as legitimate (Hitlin and Piliavin, 2004) to provide inner congruence with
explaining the reasons of their behavior both to themselves and others. It is very
important for students to understand the study on values, in order to develop their
actions that has both the effects on internal and external factors of their fundamental
activities likewise.
In addition, a value is considered as relatively enduring because a value can
be developed over a long period of time under the effects of family (Knafo and
Schwartz, 2001), which includes genetics (Knafo and Spinath, 2010) and
relationships, culture (Schwartz and Rubel, 2005) and all other social factors. Each
of us has several values with different levels of combinations and with different levels
of importance. Students are the future of a country. The future of a country depends
upon the moral values imparted to them during their student life (Important India,
2013). Moral lessons should be properly implemented among students in school and
colleges. Children have an immense power of observation and their feelings are
deep rooted. They always observe their parents at home and their teachers in
school. So the lessons on moral values both on individual and international level,
should be learned from the root.
In this study, I shall be focusing on the importance of values for students at
an individual and universal level, by critically analyzing based on parameters such as
big five personality model, cross cultural studies, personality traits, 5 different work
related behaviors, i.e. engagement, organizational citizenship behavior, counterproductive work behavior, task performance and turnover intentions.
The Big Five represents a taxonomy (classification system) of traits that
some personality psychologists suggest capture the essence of individual
differences in personality (Pervin & John, 1999). If we look quickly at each trait. for
example, extraversion as opposed to introversion. Since these traits are on a
continuum someone at the opposite extreme would show very different types of
motivation than those at the extreme I will be talking about. If we patch these model
with individual values, then there is a connection. For instance, any employee
working in an organization, faces dilemma at work and with the supervisors, tend to

MBA (Day)
Representing: Asian Development Bank (ADB)
Organizational Behavior (BP6903); Sec 56
Faculty: Dr. Ioan Voicu
Home Assignment-3
Date: October 5, 2015

express their behavior based on their inner values, which will be triggered by their
personality. Such as, if someone is an extrovert, he/she may express their words and
feelings on the ongoing actions at work, rather that the introverts. Though multiple
employees have similar values, but due to differences in personality and
conscientiousness, the expression of values tend to vary. Conscientiousness plays
an important role on values as well. For example, if any particular employee has
higher conscientiousness, tend to contribute more towards the firm with higher level
of job performance.
Students should focus more on individual values at the very first end as
because previous researches show that people with high core self-evaluations may
find their work more satisfying because they choose personally meaningful goals.
Self-concordance theory predicts that when goals are pursued because they fulfill
personal values, they will increase happiness, whereas goals that are pursued for
extrinsic reasons (e.g., because others value them) lead to dissatisfaction and
unhappiness (Ryan & Deci, 2000; Sheldon & Elliot, 1998). Because individuals with
high core self-evaluations have more confidence in themselves and their opinions,
they might be less prone to follow goals simply because they are valued by others.
To test this proposition, two longitudinal studies involving were conducted that
tracked student goals and the self-concordance of goals two months later (Judge et
al., 2005). In these studies, goals which fulfilled personal values mediated the
relationship between core self-evaluations measures and goal attainment. In other
words, individuals with core self-evaluations were seeking goals that they truly
valued, which made it more likely that they would meet with success. Few studies
have explored the conceptualization of self-monitoring as an aggregate construct by
considering its relationships with values. Self-monitoring is an aggregate construct
that represents a combination of skill and motivation to adjust behavior, and that
these different components of self-monitoring have different relationships with other
individual difference constructs (Maas et al., 2009).
There are also relationships between value and behavioral actions that
students should need to learn in their studies in order to imply efficiently in their
working environment. Few important work related behavior such as active
engagement, organizational citizenship behavior, counter productive behavior, task
performance and turnover intentions are of main concerns. Previous studies found
that achievement, power, stimulation and self-direction are predicted engagement
very well. Self-enhancement values were expected to positively correlate with
engagement as they have a strong motive to attainment. Besides, the openness to

MBA (Day)
Representing: Asian Development Bank (ADB)
Organizational Behavior (BP6903); Sec 56
Faculty: Dr. Ioan Voicu
Home Assignment-3
Date: October 5, 2015

change values are also predicted engagement, this can be explained by that the
more the people have autonomy in the work place the more they can find opportunity
to apply their novel ideas and they can do more what they wanted. However, there
wasnt found any significant effect of other values on engagement.Organizational
citizenship behavior among other values bears a strong emphasis on the welfare of
others. Considering the above mentioned analysis on extroverts, with its higher
level shows positive OCB as if they care for the organization. OCB is a very
important practice and this should be embedded into the core values, as these
actions carry an enormous change in the workplace. For example, if an employee
discovers any unethical practice undertaken by the supervisor, then with the practice
of OCB with embedded personality traits, will trigger the actions of that particular
employee. These practices will lead to positive and aggressive action to expose the
culprit or it may result in low profile.
The value studies are based on the fact that actions according to any value
have results, which conflict with some values but are parallel with others. For
instance, pursuing benevolence values may conflict with pursuing achievement
values. Looking after the welfare of other people who need help may become an
obstruct to the struggle to gain success for ones self. However, pursuing values
such as benevolence and universalism is usually compatible. Caring for the welfares
of close others tends to be a base for taking care of distant others. Another
example is, pursuing stimulation values which emphasize on novelty and change
that is likely to undermine traditional values which preserve time-honored customs.
Acting upon a specific value has also social and psychological results. For example,
benevolence and universalism both emphasize concern about others needs,
whereas hedonism and achievement both focus on self-satisfaction.
It is quiet important for the students to adopt different values in community
projects. Community projects involve organizations that are support groups or
community based service organizations. Students should learn to participate in and
observe the work of the organization and group. They should display passion and
zest for and strive to make a difference even in small ways. In addition, utilizing self
determination and expressing care and compassion to others will help anyone
dealing with delicate issues concerning other human being. Universal values can
help students absorb ethics, which will help them commencing respect for diversity
and increased participation and collaboration as well.

MBA (Day)
Representing: Asian Development Bank (ADB)
Organizational Behavior (BP6903); Sec 56
Faculty: Dr. Ioan Voicu
Home Assignment-3
Date: October 5, 2015

Hitlin, S., & Piliavin, J. A., (2004). Values: Reviving a dormant concept. Annual
Review of Sociology, 20, 359-393.
Important India, (2013). Importance of Moral Values in Student Life. Accessed from: [Accessed on: October 3, 2015].
Judge, T. A., Bono, J. E., Erez, A., & Locke, E. A. (2005). Core self-evaluations and
job and life satisfaction: The role of self-concordance and goal attainment.
Journal of Applied Psychology, 90, 257268.
Knafo, A., & Spinach, F.M. (2010). Genetic and environmental influences on girls
and boys gender-typed and gender-neutral values, Developmental
Psychology, 47(3), 726-731.
Knafo, A., & Schwartz, S. H. (2001). Value socialization in families of Israeli-born and
soviet- born adolescents in Israel. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 32,
Maas, H., Spinath, F. M., Riemann, R., & Angleitner, A. (2009). Self monitoring and
Personality: A behavioral-genetic study. Personality & Individual Differences,
Pervin, L. & John, O. (Eds.) (1999). Handbook of Personality: Theory & Research.
New York: Gilford.
Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2000). Self-determination theory and the facilitation of
intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being. American
Psychologist, 55, 6878.
Schwartz, S. H., & Rubel, T., (2005). Sex differences in value priorities: Crosscultural and multi-method studies. Journal of Personality and Social
Psychology, 89, 1010-1028.
Sheldon, K. M., & Elliot, A. J. (1998). Not all personal goals are personal: Comparing

MBA (Day)
Representing: Asian Development Bank (ADB)
Organizational Behavior (BP6903); Sec 56
Faculty: Dr. Ioan Voicu
Home Assignment-3
Date: October 5, 2015

autonomous and controlled reasons for goals as predictors of effort and

attainment. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 24, 546557.