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- The Power of Discipline: 7 Ways it Can Change Your Life
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2-44

44

Solution

The velocity profile of a fluid flowing though a circular pipe is given. The friction drag force exerted on the

pipe by the fluid in the flow direction per unit length of the pipe is to be determined.

Assumptions

Analysis

n

n

nu max

=

d

r

=

nr

1

max

max

du

1

=

n

n

dr

r=R

dr

R

R

r=

r=R

Note that the quantity du /dr is negative in pipe flow, and the negative sign

is added to the w relation for pipes to make shear stress in the positive

(flow) direction a positive quantity. (Or, du /dr = - du /dy since y = R r).

Then the friction drag force exerted by the fluid on the inner surface of the

pipe becomes

F = A = nu max (2R) L =

w w

2nu

R

u(r) = umax(1-r /R )

R

r

0

umax

max L

F / L = 2nu max .

Discussion

Note that the drag force acting on the pipe in this case is independent of the pipe diameter.

2-18

PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Limited distribution permitted only to

teachers and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

Solution

A thin flat plate is pulled horizontally through an oil layer sandwiched between two plates, one stationary

and the other moving at a constant velocity. The location in oil where the velocity is zero and the force that needs to be

applied on the plate are to be determined.

Assumptions

1 The thickness of the plate is negligible. 2 The velocity profile in each oil layer is linear.

Properties

Analysis

(a) The velocity profile in each oil layer relative to the fixed wall is as shown in the figure below. The point

of zero velocity is indicated by point A, and its distance from the lower plate is determined from geometric considerations

(the similarity of the two triangles in the lower oil layer) to be

yA = 0.60 mm

2.6 y A

1

=

yA

0.3

Fixed wall

h1=1 mm

V = 1 m/s

h2=2.6 mm

y

yA

Moving wall

(b) The magnitudes of shear forces acting on the upper and lower surfaces of the plate are

V0

1 m/s

du =

2

2

=

= (0.027 N s/m )(0.2 0.2 m )

= 1.08 N

Fshear, upper A w, upper = As

A

s

s

-3

dy

h1

1.0 10 m

du

= w, lower = As

=

V Vw

2

2 [1 ( 0.3)] m/s

As

Fshear, lower As

= (0.027 N s/m )(0.2 0.2 m )

= 0.54 N

-3

dy

h2

2.6 10 m

Noting that both shear forces are in the opposite direction of motion of the plate, the force F is determined from a force

balance on the plate to be

F = Fshear, upper + Fshear, lower = 1.08 + 0.54 = 1.62 N

Discussion

motion.

Note that wall shear is a friction force between a solid and a liquid, and it acts in the opposite direction of

2-19

PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Limited distribution permitted only to

teachers and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

Solution

A frustum shaped body is rotating at a constant

angular speed in an oil container. The power required to

maintain this motion and the reduction in the required power

input when the oil temperature rises are to be determined.

Assumptions The thickness of the oil layer remains constant.

Properties

The absolute viscosity of oil is given to be =

2

0.1 Pas = 0.1 Ns/m at 20C and 0.0078 Pas at

80C.

Analysis

The velocity gradient anywhere in the oil of

film thickness h is V/h where V = r is the tangential

velocity. Then the wall shear stress anywhere on the surface of

the frustum at a distance r from the axis of rotation is

Case

D = 12 cm

L = 12 cm

d = 4 cm

du

V

= =

r =

w

dr

h

h

The shear force acting on differential area dA on the surface,

the torque it generates, and the shaft power associated with it

are expressed as

r 2

dF = dA = r

dT = rdF =

dA

h

w dA

2

h

2

W

r 2 dA

r dA

T=

= T =

A

sh

h A

h

film thickness h

Top surface: For the top surface, dA = 2rdr . Substituting and integrating,

D/2

W

= 2 D/2

22 D / 2 3

22 r 4

r dr2 =4

2

=

r (2r )dr =

sh, top

D

r =0

h

4 r =0

h r =0

h

32h

sh,

bottom

2d 4

32h

Side surface: The differential area for the side surface can be expressed as dA = 2rdz . From geometric considerations, the

variation of radius with axial distance is expressed as r =

Dd

Differentiating gives dr =

dz

Wsh, top =

h

r

4L

D/2

r =0

Dd

rdr =

r

4 L

D/2

44

D/2

h( D d )

4L

dr . Therefore, dA = 2dz =

D

d

2L

2L

or dz =

d

Dd

z.

+

2

2L

dr =

r =d /

Dd

L r

h( D d 4

)

2 L(D 2 d 2 )

16h(D d )

=

r =d / 2

Wsh, total = Wsh, top + Wsh, bottom

=

4

2 D 4

2 L[1 (d / D ) )]

4

+ Wsh, side 32h 1 + (d / D)

,

Dd

+

W

=

sh, total

4

2

2

4

(0.1 N s/m )(200 /s) (0.12 m)

1 + (1 / 3)

+

32(0.0012 m)

2(0.12 m)[1 (1 / 3) )] 1 W

= 270 W

2-20

(0.12 0.04) m

PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Limited distribution permitted only to

teachers and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

1 Nm/s

Noting that power is proportional to viscosity, the power required at 80C is

W

sh, total,

80C

80C

0.0078 N s/m2

(270 W) = 21.1 W

0.1 N s/m 2

20C

Therefore, the reduction in the requires power input at 80C is Reduction = Wsh, total, 20C Wsh, total, 80C = 270 21.1 = 249

W , which is about 92%.

Discussion

Note that the power required to overcome shear forces in a viscous fluid greatly depends on temperature.

2-20

teachers and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

2-47

Solution

A clutch system is used to transmit torque through an oil film between two identical disks. For specified

rotational speeds, the transmitted torque is to be determined.

Assumptions

1 The thickness of the oil film is uniform. 2 The rotational speeds of the disks remain constant.

Properties

Driving

shaft

Driven

shaft

30 cm

3 mm

Analysis

The disks are rotting in the same direction at different angular speeds of 1 and of 2 . Therefore, we can

assume one of the disks to be stationary and the other to be rotating at an angular speed of 1 2 . The velocity

gradient anywhere in the oil of film thickness h is V /h where V = (1 2 )r is the tangential velocity. Then the wall

shear stress

anywhere on the surface of the faster disk at a distance r from the axis of rotation can be expressed as

( 1 2 ) r

du

V

w =

= =

dr

h

h

Then the shear force acting on a differential area dA on the surface and the

h

torque generation associated with it can be expressed as

2r

(1 2 ) r

dF = w dA =

(2r )

r

1

dr hr

( 1 2 )

dT = rdF =

h

Integrating,

2 (

)

2

Noting that

2 (1 2 ) 3

r dr

h

D/2

2 ( ) 4r

D/2

T=

(2r )dr =

r 3 dr =

r =0

( ) D4

32h

r =0

= 2 is

1 2 = 2 ( n 1 n

1398 ) rev/min

1 min

2

) = ( 2

rad/rev ) (1450

= 5.445 rad/s ,

60 s

T=

4

(0.38 N s/m

= 0.55 N m

32(0.003 m)

Discussion Note that the torque transmitted is proportional to the fourth power of disk diameter, and is inversely

proportional to the thickness of the oil film.

2-21

teachers and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

2-48

Solution

We are to investigate the effect of oil film thickness on the transmitted torque.

Analysis

The previous problem is reconsidered. Using EES software, the effect of oil film thickness on the

torque transmitted is investigated. Film thickness varied from 0.1 mm to 10 mm, and the results are tabulated and

(

1 2 )

4

D

plotted. The relation used is T =

. The EES Equations window is printed below, followed by the

32h

tabulated and plotted results.

mu=0.38 n1=1450

"rpm" w1=2*pi*n1/60

"rad/s" n2=1398 "rpm"

w2=2*pi*n2/60 "rad/s"

D=0.3 "m"

Tq=pi*mu*(w1-w2)*(D^4)/(32*h)

18

Torque transmitted

T, Nm

16.46

8.23

4.11

2.74

2.06

1.65

0.82

0.41

0.27

0.21

0.16

16

14

Tq [Nm]

Film thickness

h, mm

0.1

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1

2

4

6

8

10

12

10

8

6

4

2

0

0

0.002

0.004

0.006

h [m]

0.008

0.01

Conclusion Torque transmitted is inversely proportional to oil film thickness, and the film thickness should be as small as

possible to maximize the transmitted torque.

Discussion

value of h.

To obtain the solution in EES, we set up a parametric table, specify h, and let EES calculate T for each

2-49

49

Solution

A multi-disk Electro-rheological ER clutch is considered. The ER fluid has a shear stress that is expressed

as = y + (du dy) . A relationship for the torque transmitted by the clutch is to be obtained, and the numerical value

of

the torque is to be calculated.

Assumptions 1 The thickness of the oil layer between the disks is constant. 2 The Bingham plastic model for shear stress

expressed as = y + (du dy) is valid.

The constants in shear stress relation are given to be = 0.1 Pas and y = 2.5 kPa.

Properties

h = 1.2 mm

Shell

R2

R1

Output shaft

Input shaft

Plates mounted on shell

Analysis (a) The velocity gradient anywhere in the oil of film thickness h is V/h where V = r is the tangential velocity

relative to plates mounted on the shell. Then the wall shear stress anywhere on the surface of a plate mounted on the input

shaft at a distance r from the axis of rotation is expressed as

du

V

= + = +

w =+

y

y

y

h

dr

h

Then the shear force acting on a differential area dA on the surface of a disk and the torque generation associated with it are

expressed as

r

dF = w dA =

+ dr h(2

r )

y

2

3

r

dT = rdF =

(2

r

)dr

2

+

=

+

r h dr

r

r

y

h

Integrating,

4

y

3

4

4

3

r

R2

3

2

3

r R2

r=R

1

T = 2

y r +

h

dr = 2

+

4h

r

R1

= 2 (R 2 R1 ) +

4h

3

(R2 R1 )

This is the torque transmitted by one surface of a plate mounted on the input shaft. Then the torque transmitted by both

surfaces of N plates attached to input shaft in the clutch becomes

4

y

3

4

3

2-50

50

T = 4N

(R2-51

2 R1 ) +

4h

51

(R 2 R1 )

(b) Noting that = 2n = 2 (2400 rev/min) = 15,080 rad/min = 251.3 rad/s and substituting,

3

3

2500 N/m [(0.20 m) (0.05 m) ] (0.1 N s/m 2 )(251.3

4

4

[(0.20 m) (0.05 m) ] = 2060 N m

2

+

/s)

T = (4 )(11)

3

4(0.0012 m)

Discussion

Can you think of some other potential applications for this kind of fluid?

2-50

50

Solution

A multi-disk magnetorheological MR clutch is considered The MR fluid has a shear stress that is

expressed as = y + K (du dy ) m . A relationship for the torque transmitted by the clutch is to be obtained, and

the

numerical value of the torque is to be calculated.

Assumptions 1 The thickness of the oil layer between the disks is constant. 2 The Herschel-Bulkley model for shear stress

m

expressed as = y + K (du dy ) is valid.

Properties

The constants in shear stress relation are given to be y = 900 Pa, K = 58 Pas , and m = 0.82.

h = 1.2 mm

Shell

R2

R1

Output shaft

Input shaft

Plates mounted on shell

Analysis (a) The velocity gradient anywhere in the oil of film thickness h is V/h where V = r is the tangential velocity

relative to plates mounted on the shell. Then the wall shear stress anywhere on the surface of a plate mounted on the input

shaft at a distance r from the axis of rotation is expressed as

m

du

r

V

w = y + K

m

m

=y +K =y +K

dr

h

h

Then the shear force acting on a differential area dA on the surface of a disk and the torque generation associated with it are

expressed as

m

m m+ 2

r

r

and

dr

dF = dA =

(2r )dr = 2 r 2 + K

+

K

+

K

(2

r

)

dT

=

rdF

=

dr

r

w

y

h

h m

h

Integrating,

2

R

m m+

3

m m+ 3

m

R2 2

m+3

r

r K r

K

3

m+3

2

2

(R

= 2 3 (R2 R1 ) +

r +K h

dr = 2 +

R1 )

T = 2

m

y

R

3 m

3)h

3

3

(m

(m

y

m

+

)h +

1 R

This is the torque transmitted by one surface of a plate mounted on the input shaft. Then the torque transmitted by both

surfaces of N plates attached to input shaft in the clutch becomes

3

3

m

y (R 2 R1 )

K

m+3

m+3

(R

R

)

T = 4N +

2

1

m

3

(m + 3)h

(b) Noting that = 2n = 2 (2400 rev/min) = 15,080 rad/min = 251.3 rad/s and substituting,

58 N s /m

251.3 /s

(0 20 m )

( 0 05 m )3 3.82

( 0 05 m )3.82

900 N/m

(

)

( 0 20

( 4 ) (11)

m )3

2-24

teachers and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

2-51

51

T=

.+

0.82

0.82

= 103.4 N 103 kN m

Discussion

Can you think of some other potential applications for this kind of fluid?

2-24

teachers and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

Solution

determined.

The torque and the rpm of a double cylinder viscometer are given. The viscosity of the fluid is to be

viscous effects on the two ends of the inner cylinder are negligible. 3 The fluid

is Newtonian.

Analysis

Substituting the given values, the viscosity of the fluid is

determined to be

(0.8 N m)(0.0012 m)

TA

2

= 2 3 = 2

= 0.0231 N s/m

3

-1

4 R n 4 (0.075 m) (200 / 60 s )(0.75

L

m)

l = 0.12 cm

Discussion

This is the viscosity value at the temperature that existed during

the experiment. Viscosity is a strong function of temperature, and the values

can be significantly different at different temperatures.

fluid

2-52E

Solution

The torque and the rpm of a double cylinder viscometer are

given. The viscosity of the fluid is to be determined.

Assumptions 1 The inner cylinder is completely submerged in the fluid. 2

The viscous effects on the two ends of the inner cylinder are negligible. 3 The

fluid is Newtonian.

Analysis Substituting the given values, the viscosity of the fluid is determined

to be

(1.2 lbf ft)(0.05/12 ft)

TA

5

=

=

= 9.97 10 lbf

s/ft

2

4 R n

L

l = 0.05 in

fluid

-1

)(3 ft)

Discussion

This is the viscosity value at temperature that existed during

the experiment. Viscosity is a strong function of temperature, and the values can be significantly different at different

temperatures.

2-25

teachers and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

2-53

Solution

The velocity profile for laminar one-dimensional flow through a circular pipe is given. A relation for

friction drag force exerted on the pipe and its numerical value for water are to be determined.

Assumptions

1 The flow through the circular pipe is one-dimensional. 2 The fluid is Newtonian.

Properties

r2

max 1

2

The velocity profile is given by u(r ) =

Analysis

u

u(r) = umax(1-r2/R2)

R

where R is the radius of the pipe, r is the radial distance from the center of

the pipe, and umax is the maximum flow velocity, which occurs at the

center, r = 0. The shear stress at the pipe surface is expressed as

du =

w

dr

=

u

r=R

max

d

r2

1

=

u

2

dr

R

r=

2r

max

R2

2 u

umax

max

r=R

Note that the quantity du/dr is negative in pipe flow, and the negative sign is added to the w relation for pipes to

make shear stress in the positive (flow) direction a positive quantity. (Or, du/dr = du/dy since y = R r). Then the friction

drag force exerted by the fluid on the inner surface of the pipe becomes

FD =

w As

max

2 u max

=

(2RL) =

4Lu

R

1N

= 0.565 N

2

1 kg m/s

Discussion

In the entrance region and during turbulent flow, the velocity gradient is greater near the wall, and thus the

drag force in such cases will be greater.

2-54

Solution

The velocity profile for laminar one-dimensional flow through a circular pipe is given. A relation for

friction drag force exerted on the pipe and its numerical value for water are to be determined.

Assumptions

Properties

1 The flow through the circular pipe is one-dimensional. 2 The fluid is Newtonian.

The viscosity of water at 20C is given to be 0.0010 kg/ms.

Analysis

du =

w

dr

=

u

r=R

d

max

dr

R2

=

u

r=

2r

max

R2

2

R

where R is the radius of the pipe, r is the radial distance from the center of

the pipe, and umax is the maximum flow velocity, which occurs at the

center, r = 0. The shear stress at the pipe surface can be expressed as

u(r) = umax(1-r /R )

=

r=R

2 u

r

0

umax

max

Note that the quantity du/dr is negative in pipe flow, and the negative sign is added to the w relation for pipes to make

shear stress in the positive (flow) direction a positive quantity. (Or, du/dr = du/dy since y = R r). Then the friction drag

force exerted by the fluid on the inner surface of the pipe becomes

2-26

teachers and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

FD =

w As

2 u max

=

(2RL) =

4Lu

R

Substituting, we get F

4

Lu

D =

max

max

1N

1 kg

m/s

0.942 N

=

Discussion

In the entrance region and during turbulent flow, the velocity gradient is greater near the wall, and thus the

drag force in such cases will be larger.

2-27

teachers and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

2-55C

Solution

Analysis

The magnitude of the pulling force at the surface of a liquid per unit length is called surface tension s.

It is caused by the attractive forces between the molecules. The surface tension is also surface energy (per unit area) since it

represents the stretching work that needs to be done to increase the surface area of the liquid by a unit amount.

Discussion

Surface tension is the cause of some very interesting phenomena such as capillary rise and insects that can

walk on water.

2-56C

Solution

We are to analyze the pressure difference between inside and outside of a soap bubble.

Analysis

The pressure inside a soap bubble is greater than the pressure outside, as evidenced by the stretch of

the soap film.

Discussion

You can make an analogy between the soap film and the skin of a balloon.

2-57C

Solution

Analysis

The capillary effect is the rise or fall of a liquid in a small-diameter tube inserted into the liquid. It is

caused by the net effect of the cohesive forces (the forces between like molecules, like water) and adhesive forces (the

forces between unlike molecules, like water and glass). The capillary effect is proportional to the cosine of the contact

angle, which is the angle that the tangent to the liquid surface makes with the solid surface at the point of contact.

Discussion

The contact angle determines whether the meniscus at the top of the column is concave or convex.

2-58C

Solution

We are to determine whether the level of liquid in a tube will rise or fall due to the capillary effect.

Analysis

The liquid level in the tube will drop since the contact angle is greater than 90, and cos(110) < 0.

Discussion

This liquid must be a non-wetting liquid when in contact with the tube material. Mercury is an example of a

o

non-wetting liquid with a contact angle (with glass) that is greater than 90 .

2-59C

Solution

We are to compare the capillary rise in small and large diameter tubes.

Analysis

The capillary rise is inversely proportional to the diameter of the tube, and thus capillary rise is greater in

the smaller-diameter tube.

Discussion

Note however, that if the tube diameter is large enough, there is no capillary rise (or fall) at all. Rather, the

upward (or downward) rise of the liquid occurs only near the tube walls; the elevation of the middle portion of the liquid in

the tube does not change for large diameter tubes.

2-60E

Solution

A slender glass tube is inserted into kerosene. The capillary rise of kerosene in the tube is to be determined.

surfaces of the glass tube. 2 The kerosene is open to the atmospheric air.

Properties

The surface tension of kerosene-glass at 68F (20C) is s =

3

0.0280.06852 = 0.00192 lbf/ft. The density of kerosene at 68F is = 51.2 lbm/ft .

The contact angle of kerosene with the glass surface is given to be 26.

Analysis

32.2 lbm ft/s 2

2 ( 0.00192 lbf/ft )

2 cos

( cos26 )

s

h=

=

3

2

gR

1 lbf

51.2 lbm/ft

32.2 ft/s ( 0.015 / 12 ft

)

= 0.0539 ft = 0.650 in

Discussion

)(

The capillary rise in this case more than half of an inch, and thus it is clearly noticeable.

2-61

Solution

A glass tube is inserted into a liquid, and the capillary rise is measured.

The surface tension of the liquid is to be determined.

Assumptions 1 There are no impurities in the liquid, and no contamination on the

surfaces of the glass tube. 2 The liquid is open to the atmospheric air.

Air

Liquid

Properties

The density of the liquid is given to be 960 kg/m . The contact angle is

given to be 15.

Analysis

Substituting the numerical values, the surface tension is determined from

the capillary rise relation to be

3

2

gRh

1 kg1 N = 0.0232

N/m

=

2(cos

2 cos

15)

m/s

Discussion

2-62

Solution

Assumptions

Properties

Since surface tension depends on temperature, the value determined is valid at the liquids temperature.

The diameter of a soap bubble is given. The gage pressure inside the bubble is to be determined.

The soap bubble is in atmospheric air.

The surface tension of soap water at 20C is s = 0.025 N/m.

Analysis

The pressure difference between the inside and the outside of a

bubble is given by

4 s

P

=P =

P bubble

i

0

R

In the open atmosphere P0 = Patm, and thus Pbubble is equivalent to the gage

pressure. Substituting,

4(0.025 N/m) = 100 N/m = 100 Pa

Pi, gage = Pbubble 0.002/2 m 2

=

P0

Soap

bubble

P

= 4 N/m = 4 Pa

Pi, gage = Pbubble 4(0.025 N/m) 2

0.05/2 m

=

Discussion

Note that the gage pressure in a soap bubble is inversely proportional to the radius. Therefore, the excess

pressure is larger in smaller bubbles.

2-63

Solution

Nutrients dissolved in water are carried to upper parts of plants. The

height to which the water solution rises in a tree as a result of the capillary effect is to

be determined.

Assumptions 1 The solution can be treated as water with a contact angle of 15. 2

The diameter of the tube is constant. 3 The temperature of the water solution is 20C.

Properties

The surface tension of water at 20C is s = 0.073 N/m. The density of

3

water solution can be taken to be 1000 kg/m . The contact angle is given to be 15.

Analysis

1 kg m/s 2

2(0.073 N/m)(cos

2 cos

15)

s

=

5.75 m

h=

=

)(9.81 m/s )(2.5 10

1

gR

m)

(1000

kg/m

2

6

3

N

Discussion

Other effects such as the chemical potential difference also cause the

fluid to rise in trees.

2-64

Solution

The force acting on the movable wire of a liquid film suspended on a U-shaped wire frame is measured. The

surface tension of the liquid in the air is to be determined.

Assumptions 1 There are no impurities in the liquid, and no contamination on the surfaces of the wire frame. 2 The liquid

is open to the atmospheric air.

Analysis

to be

Substituting the numerical values, the surface tension is determined from the surface tension force relation

s =

F

0.012 N

=

= 0.075 N/m

2b 2(0.08 m)

Discussion

The surface tension depends on temperature. Therefore, the value

determined is valid at the temperature of the liquid.

Liquid

film

2-65

Solution

A steel ball floats on water due to the surface tension effect. The maximum diameter of the ball is to be

determined, and the calculations are to be repeated for aluminum.

temperature is constant. 2 The ball is dropped on

water slowly so that the inertial effects are negligible.

3 The contact angle is taken to be 0 for maximum

diameter.

Properties

The surface tension of water at 20C

is s = 0.073 N/m. The contact angle is taken to be

0. The densities of steel and aluminum are given to

3

3

be steel = 7800 kg/m and Al = 2700 kg/m .

W = mg

Analysis

The surface tension force and the

weight of the ball can be expressed as

Fs = D

and W = mg = gV = gD / 6

When the ball floats, the net force acting on the ball in the vertical direction is zero. Therefore, setting Fs =

W

for diameter D gives D =

and solving

6 s

. Substititing the known quantities, the maximum diameters for the steel and aluminum

g

balls become

D steel

6

N/m)

s =

=

g

6(0.073

1 kg m/s 2

=

2.4

3

2

10

1N

6

N/m)

s

D Al =

6(0.073

=

m 3

= 2.4 mm

1 kg m/s 2

3

2

(2700 kg/m )(9.81 m/s )

4.110

m 3

= 4.1mm

1N

Discussion

Note that the ball diameter is inversely proportional to the square root of density, and thus for a given

material, the smaller balls are more likely to float.

Review Problems

2-66

Solution

The pressure in an automobile tire increases during a trip while its volume remains constant. The percent

increase in the absolute temperature of the air in the tire is to be determined.

Assumptions

Analysis

the trip are

Noting that air is an ideal gas and the volume is constant, the ratio of absolute temperatures after and before

P1V1

P2V 2

T1

=

T2

T2

T1

P2

310 kPa

=

= 1.069

P1

290 kPa

Therefore, the absolute temperature of air in the tire will increase by 6.9% during this trip.

o

Discussion

This may not seem like a large temperature increase, but if the tire is originally at 20 C (293.15 K), the

o

temperature increases to 1.069(293.15 K) = 313.38 K or about 40.2 C.

2-67

Solution

A large tank contains nitrogen at a specified temperature and pressure. Now some nitrogen is allowed to

escape, and the temperature and pressure of nitrogen drop to new values. The amount of nitrogen that has escaped is to be

determined.

Assumptions

Analysis

Treating N2 as an ideal gas, the initial and the final masses in the tank are determined to be

3

P1

(800kPa)(20m ) (0.2968kPa =

m1 =

180.9kg

3

=

m /kg K)(298K) (600kPa)

RT1

3

(20m )

=

P 2V

3

m2 =

(0.2968kPa m /kg K) 138.0kg

=

(293K)

RT2

N2

800 kPa

25C

3

20 m

1

2

Discussion

refrigeration.

Gas expansion generally causes the temperature to drop. This principle is used in some types of

2-68

Solution

Suspended solid particles in water are considered. A relation is to be developed for the specific gravity of

the suspension in terms of the mass fraction Cs , mass and volume fraction Cs, vol of the particles.

Assumptions 1 The solid particles are distributed uniformly in water so that the solution is homogeneous. 2 The effect of

dissimilar molecules on each other is negligible.

Analysis

Consider solid particles of mass ms and volume Vs dissolved in a fluid of mass mf and volume Vm. The total

volume of the suspension (or mixture) is

V m = V s +V f

Dividing by Vm and using the definition Cs, vol = V s /V m give

Vf

Vf

=1C

1 = C s,vol +

V

s,vol

Vm

(1)

mm = ms + m f

Dividing by mm and using the definition C s, mass = m s / m m give

fV f

mf

= C s,mass +

1 = C s,mass +

mm

mV m

= (1

C

Vm

)V

s,mass

(2)

f 1 C s,mass

=

m

1 C s,vol

When the fluid is water, the ratio f /

SG m =

1 Cs ,vol

m

=

f 1 Cs ,mass

Discussion

2-69

Solution

The specific gravities of solid particles and carrier fluids of a slurry are given. The relation for the specific

gravity of the slurry is to be obtained in terms of the mass fraction Cs , mass and the specific gravity SGs of solid particles.

Assumptions 1 The solid particles are distributed uniformly in water so that the solution is homogeneous. 2 The effect of

dissimilar molecules on each other is negligible.

Analysis

Consider solid particles of mass ms and volume Vs dissolved in a fluid of mass mf and volume Vm. The total

volume of the suspension (or mixture) is V m = V s +V f .

Dividing by Vm gives

1V =

Vs f

+

Vf

Vm

Vm

Vm

= 1

Vs

= 1

ms / s

=1

ms m

s ,mass

SG m

(1)

= 1 C

mm / m

Vm

mm s

SG s

since ratio of densities is equal two the ratio of specific gravities, and m s / mm = Cs, mass . The total mass of the suspension

(or mixture) is m m = m s + m f . Dividing by mm and using the definition C s, mass = m s / m m give

m

1 = Cs ,mass + f

+

mm

= Cs ,mass

fV f

mVm

Vf

(1 C s,mass )

Vm

(2)

Taking the fluid to be water so that m / f = SG m and combining equations 1 and 2 give

1C

SG /

SsG,mass

m

SG m

=

s

1

Cs ,mass

Solving for SGm and rearranging gives

1

=

SG m 1 + Cs, mass ( 1 SG s

1)

which is the desired result.

Discussion

2-70E

Solution

The minimum pressure on the suction side of a water pump is given. The maximum water temperature to

avoid the danger of cavitation is to be determined.

Properties

Analysis

To avoid cavitation at a specified pressure, the fluid temperature everywhere in the flow should remain

below the saturation temperature at the given pressure, which is

Tmax = Tsat @ 0.95 psia = 100F

Therefore, T must remain below 100F to avoid the possibility of cavitation.

Discussion

Note that saturation temperature increases with pressure, and thus cavitation may occur at higher pressure at

locations with higher fluid temperatures.

2-71

Solution

determined.

Air in a partially filled closed water tank is evacuated. The absolute pressure in the evacuated space is to be

Properties

Analysis

When air is completely evacuated, the vacated space is filled with water vapor, and the tank contains a

saturated water-vapor mixture at the given pressure. Since we have a two-phase mixture of a pure substance at a specified

temperature, the vapor pressure must be the saturation pressure at this temperature. That is,

Pv = Psat @ 60C = 19.94 kPa 19.9 kPa

Discussion

If there is any air left in the container, the vapor pressure will be less. In that case the sum of the component

pressures of vapor and air would equal 19.94 kPa.

2-72

Solution

The variation of the dynamic viscosity of water with absolute temperature is given. Using tabular data, a

th

relation is to be obtained for viscosity as a 4 -order polynomial. The result is to be compared to Andrades equation in the

B/T

form of = D e

.

The viscosity data are given in tabular form as

T (K)

273.15

278.15

283.15

293.15

303.15

313.15

333.15

353.15

373.15

0.0018

(Pas)

0.0016

-3

1.78710

-3

1.51910

-3

1.30710

-3

1.00210

-4

7.97510

-4

6.52910

-4

4.66510

-4

3.54710

-4

2.82810

function a=mu+T in the equation window, (2)

select new parametric table from Tables, and

type the data in a two-column table, (3) select

Plot and

plot the data,

and (4)

select plot

and

0

292

314

336

358

click on curve fit to get curve fit window.

0.0014

0.0012

Properties

0.001

0.0008

0.0006

0.0004

0.0002

27

380

Then specify polynomial and enter/edit equation. The equations and plot are shown here.

2

-8 3

-11 4

-6

= 0.000001475*EXP(1926.5/T) [used initial guess of a0=1.810 and a1=1800 in mu=a0*exp(a1/T)]

At T = 323.15 K, the polynomial and exponential curve fits give

Polynomial: (323.15 K) = 0.0005529 Pas

(1.1% error, relative to 0.0005468 Pas)

Exponential: (323.15 K) = 0.0005726 Pas

(4.7% error, relative to 0.0005468 Pas)

Discussion

This problem can also be solved using an Excel worksheet, with the following results:

Polynomial:

A = 0.4893, B = -0.005689, C = 0.00002492, D = -0.000000048612, and E = 0.00000000003562

Andrades equation: = 1.807952E 6* e1864.06 T

2-73

Solution

The velocity profile for laminar one-dimensional flow between two parallel plates is given. A relation for

friction drag force exerted on the plates per unit area of the plates is to be obtained.

u( y) = 4u max y h ( y h )

fluid is Newtonian.

h)

Analysis

]

h

umax

where h is the distance between the two plates, y is the vertical distance

from the bottom plate, and umax is the maximum flow velocity that occurs at

midplane. The shear stress at the bottom surface can be expressed as

y

0

du

w =

=

4 u

max

d

2

y y

=

4 u

1

max

2y

h

h

4 u max

=

dy

y =0

dy

h

=0

y =0

Because of symmetry, the wall shear stress is identical at both bottom and top plates. Then the friction drag force exerted by

the fluid on the inner surface of the plates becomes

FD =

2

w A plate

A

h

8u max

FD / Aplate =

h

Discussion

Note that the friction drag force acting on the plates is inversely proportional to the distance between plates.

2-74

Solution

The laminar flow of a Bingham plastic fluid in a horizontal pipe

of radius R is considered. The shear stress at the pipe wall and the friction drag

force acting on a pipe section of length L are to be determined.

R

r

where

y is the yield stress. 2 The flow through the pipe is one-dimensional.

Analysis

(r R ) +

u(r)

along

4 L

the pipe per unit length, is the dynamic viscosity, r is the radial distance from the centerline. Its gradient at the pipe wall

(r = R) is

1 =P

d

2

2

(r R)

=2r

+ y

=

R y+

du

y(r R ) +

dr

R

r=

dr

4 L

r=R

4 L

r=

2L

Substituing into = y + (du dr) , the wall shear stress at the pipe surface becomes

=

= 2

P

P

w =

+

+

R+ y

+ du rR= y

y

dr

R

y

2L

2L

Then the friction drag force exerted by the fluid on the inner surface of the pipe becomes

2-73

FD =

Discussion

w As

P

=

=

2RL

2 + 2 L R

RL)

2

(2

P

RL

+ = 4R

2

L

+ R2 P

Note that the total friction drag is proportional to yield shear stress and the pressure drop.

2-75

Solution

A circular disk immersed in oil is used as a damper, as shown in the figure. It is to be shown that the

damping torque is Tdamping = C where C = 0.5 (1 a + 1 b4)R .

Assumptions 1 The thickness of the oil layer on each

side remains constant. 2 The velocity profiles are linear

on both sides of the disk. 3 The tip effects are negligible.

4 The effect of the shaft is negligible.

Analysis

The velocity gradient anywhere in the oil

of film thickness a is V/a where V = r is the tangential

velocity. Then the wall shear stress anywhere on the

upper surface of the disk at a distance r from the axis of

rotation can be expressed as

b

Disk

dy

a

Damping oil

r

dA

a

r2

dT = rdF =

dA

a

Noting that dA = 2rdr and integrating, the torque on the top surface is determined to be

T =

r (2r )dr =

R

=

r dr =

4

2

2 r

R 4

R

3

2

r dA =

r =0

top R a A

a

4 r =0

2a

a r =0

a

2

dF =

w dA

R4

Tbottom =

2b

The total torque acting on the disk is the sum of the torques acting on the top and bottom surfaces,

4

damping, total

=T

bottom

+ Ttop

R 1 1

=

+

2 a b

where

C = R4

+

1 1

2 a b

or,

Tdamping, total = C

This completes the proof.

Discussion

Note that the damping torque (and thus damping power) is inversely proportional to the thickness of oil

th

films on either side, and it is proportional to the 4 power of the radius of the damper disk.

2-76E

Solution

A glass tube is inserted into mercury. The capillary drop of mercury in the tube is to be determined.

Assumptions 1 There are no impurities in mercury, and no contamination on the surfaces of the glass tube. 2 The mercury

is open to the atmospheric air.

Properties

The surface tension of mercury-glass in atmospheric air at 68F (20C) is s = 0.4400.06852 = 0.03015

3

lbf/ft. The density of mercury is = 847 lbm/ft at 77F, but we can also use this value at 68F. The contact angle is given

to be 140.

Analysis

32.2 lbm ft/s 2

2 cos

2 ( 0.03015 lbf/ft )

( cos140 )

s

h=

=

3

2

gR

1 lbf

847 lbm/ft

32.2 ft/s ( 0.45 / 12 ft

)

= 0.00145 ft = -0.0175 in

)(

Air

Mercury

Discussion

The negative sign indicates capillary drop instead of rise. The drop is

very small in this case because of the large diameter of the tube.

2-77

Solution

A relation is to be derived for the capillary rise of a liquid between two large parallel plates a distance t

apart inserted into a liquid vertically. The contact angle is given to be .

Assumptions

There are no impurities in the liquid, and no contamination on the surfaces of the plates.

Analysis

The magnitude of the capillary rise between two large parallel plates can be determined from a force

balance on the rectangular liquid column of height h and width w between the plates. The bottom of the liquid column is at

the same level as the free surface of the liquid reservoir, and thus the pressure there must be atmospheric pressure. This will

balance the atmospheric pressure acting from the top surface, and thus these two effects will cancel each other. The weight

of the liquid column is

t

W = mg = gV = g(w t h)

Equating the vertical component of the surface tension force to the weight gives

W = Fsurface

g (w t h) = 2w s cos

Canceling w and solving for h gives the capillary rise to be

2 s cos

Capillary rise:

h=

gt

Air

Liquid

Discussion

The relation above is also valid for non-wetting liquids (such as mercury in glass), and gives a capillary

drop instead of a capillary rise.

2-78

Solution

A journal bearing is lubricated with oil whose viscosity is

known. The torques needed to overcome the bearing friction during start-up

and steady operation are to be determined.

Assumptions 1 The gap is uniform, and is completely filled with oil. 2 The

end effects on the sides of the bearing are negligible. 3 The fluid is

Newtonian.

Properties

The viscosity of oil is given to be 0.1 kg/ms at 20C,

and

0.008 kg/ms at 80C.

Analysis

The radius of the shaft is R = 0.04 m. Substituting the given

values, the torque is determined to be

l = 0.08 cm

fluid

At start up at 20C:

2

-1

4 R n L

= (0.1 kg/m s)

= 0.79 N m

A

0.0008 m

During steady operation at 80C:

24 (0.04 3m) (500 / 60

-1 s )(0.30 m)

42 R3 n L

T=

= (0.008 kg/m s)

= 0.063 N m

A

0.0008 m

T=

Discussion

Note that the torque needed to overcome friction reduces considerably due to the decrease in the viscosity

of oil at higher temperature.

2-79 to 2-81

Solution

Students essays and designs should be unique and will differ from each other.

KJ

Fluid Mechanics: Fundamentals and Applications

by engel & Cimbala

CHAPTER 3

PRESSURE AND FLUID STATICS

This Manual is the proprietary property of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

(McGraw-Hill) and protected by copyright and other state and federal laws. By

opening and using this Manual the user agrees to the following restrictions, and if the

recipient does not agree to these restrictions, the Manual should be promptly returned

unopened to McGraw-Hill: This Manual is being provided only to authorized

professors and instructors for use in preparing for the classes using the affiliated

textbook. No other use or distribution of this Manual is permitted. This Manual

may not be sold and may not be distributed to or used by any student or other

third party. No part of this Manual may be reproduced, displayed or distributed

in any form or by any means, electronic or otherwise, without the prior written

permission of McGraw-Hill.

3-1

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