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HTML can be edited by using professional HTML editors like:

Microsoft WebMatrix

Sublime Text

HTML headings are defined with the <h1> to <h6> tags


HTML links are defined with the <a> tag:
HTML images are defined with the <img> tag.
HTML elements are written with a start tag, with an end tag, with
the content in between:

<tagname>content</tagname>
The HTML element is everything from the start tag to the end tag:

<p>My first HTML paragraph.</p>


HTML tags are not case sensitive: <P> means the same as <p>.
The image size is specified in pixels: width="104" means 104 screen pixels
wide.

The alt Attribute


The alt attribute specifies an alternative text to be used, when an HTML
element cannot be displayed.
The value of the attribute can be read by "screen readers". This way,
someone "listening" to the webpage, i.e. a blind person, can "hear" the
element.

<img src="w3schools.jpg" alt="W3Schools.com" width="104" height="142">

We Suggest: Always Quote Attribute


Values
The HTML5 standard does not require quotes around attribute values.

The href attribute, demonstrated above, can be written as:

<a href=http://www.w3schools.com>

Single or Double Quotes?


Double style quotes are the most common in HTML, but single style can also
be used.
In some situations, when the attribute value itself contains double quotes, it
is necessary to use single quotes:

<p title='John "ShotGun" Nelson'>


<p title="John 'ShotGun' Nelson">

HTML Headings
Note: Browsers automatically add some empty space (a margin) before and
after each heading.
Use HTML headings for headings only. Don't use headings to make
text BIG or bold.
Search engines use your headings to index the structure and content of your
web pages.

The <hr> tag creates a horizontal line in an HTML page.

The HTML <head> Element


The HTML <head> element has nothing to do with HTML headings.
The HTML <head> element contains meta data. Meta data are not
displayed.

The HTML <head> element is placed between the <html> tag and the
<body> tag:

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<head>
<title>My First HTML</title>
<meta charset="UTF-8">
</head>
<body>
.

Meta data means data about data. HTML meta data is data about the HTML
document.

The HTML <title> Element


The HTML <title> element is meta data. It defines the HTML document's
title.
The title will not be displayed in the document, but might be displayed in the
browser tab

The HTML <meta> Element


The HTML <meta> element is also meta data.
It can be used to define the character set, and other information about the
HTML document.

The HTML <style> element is used to define internal CSS style sheets.
The HTML <link> element is used to define external CSS style sheets.
Browsers automatically add an empty line before and after a paragraph.

HTML Display

You cannot be sure how HTML will be displayed.


Large or small screens, and resized windows will create different results.
With HTML, you cannot change the output by adding extra spaces or extra
lines in your HTML code.
The browser will remove extra spaces and extra lines when the page is
displayed.
Any number of spaces, and any number of new lines, count as only one
space.

<p>
This paragraph
contains a lot of lines
in the source code,
but the browser
ignores it.
</p>
<p>
This paragraph
contains
a lot of spaces
in the source
code,
but the
browser
ignores it.
</p>

Don't Forget the End Tag


Most browsers will display HTML correctly even if you forget the end tag:
The HTML <br> element defines a line break.
Use <br> if you want a line break (a new line) without starting a new
paragraph:

Example
<p>This is<br>a para<br>graph with line breaks</p>

The HTML <pre> Element

The HTML <pre> element defines preformatted text.


The text inside a <pre> element is displayed in a fixed-width font (usually
Courier), and it preserves both spaces and line breaks:

Example
<pre>
My Bonnie lies over the ocean.
My Bonnie lies over the sea.
My Bonnie lies over the ocean.
Oh, bring back my Bonnie to me.
</pre>

HTML Styling
Every HTML element has a default style (background color is white and text
color is black).
Changing the default style of an HTML element, can be done with the style
attribute.
This example changes the default background color from white to lightgrey:

Example
<body style="background-color:lightgrey">
<h1>This is a heading</h1>
<p>This is a paragraph.</p>
</body>

The HTML Style Attribute


The HTML style attribute has the following syntax:

style="property:value"
The <center> tag, supported in older versions of HTML, is not valid in
HTML5.

The HTML <strong> element defines strong text, with added semantic
"strong" importance.

Example
<p>This text is normal.</p>
<p><strong>This text is strong</strong>.</p>

The HTML <em> element defines emphasized text, with added semantic
importance.

Example
<p>This text is normal.</p>
<p><em>This text is emphasized</em>.</p>

Browsers display <strong> as <b>, and <em> as <i>.


However, there is a difference in the meaning of these tags: <b> and <i>
defines bold and italic text,
but <strong> and <em> means that the text is "important".

HTML Marked Formatting


The HTML <mark> element defines marked or highlighted text:

Example
<h2>HTML <mark>Marked</mark> Formatting</h2>

The HTML <del> element defines deleted (removed) text.

Example
<p>My favorite color is <del>blue</del> red.</p>

The HTML <ins> element defines inserted (added) text.

Example
<p>My favorite <ins>color</ins> is red.</p>

HTML Inserted Formatting


The HTML <ins> element defines inserted (added) text.

Example
<p>My favorite <ins>color</ins> is red.</p>

The HTML <sub> element defines subscripted text.

Example
<p>This is <sub>subscripted</sub> text.</p>

The HTML <sup> element defines superscripted text.

Example
<p>This is <sup>superscripted</sup> text.</p>

HTML <blockquote> for Long


Quotations
The HTML <blockquote> element defines a quoted section.
Browsers usually indent <blockquote> elements.

HTML <abbr> for Abbreviations


The HTML <abbr> element defines an abbreviation or an acronym.
Marking abbreviations can give useful information to browsers, translation
systems and search-engines.

Example
<p>The <abbr title="World Health Organization">WHO</abbr> was founded in
1948.</p>

HTML <address> for Contact


Information
The HTML <address> element defines contact information (author/owner)
of a document or article.
The <address> element is usually displayed in italic. Most browsers will add
a line break before and after the element.

Example
<address>
Written by Jon Doe.<br>
Visit us at:<br>
Example.com<br>
Box 564, Disneyland<br>
USA
</address>

HTML <cite> for Work Title


The HTML <cite> element defines the title of a work.
Browsers usually display <cite> elements in italic.

Example
<p><cite>The Scream</cite> by Edward Munch. Painted in 1893.</p>

HTML <bdo> for Bi-Directional Override


The HTML <bdo> element defines bi-directional override.
The <bdo> element is used to override the current text direction:

Example
<bdo dir="rtl">This text will be written from right to left</bdo>

The HTML <code> element defines a piece of programming code:

Example
<code>
var x = 5;
var y = 6;
document.getElementById("demo").innerHTML = x + y;
</code>

Result:
var x = 5; var y = 6; document.getElementById("demo").innerHTML = x + y;

Try it Yourself

Notice that the <code> element does not preserve extra whitespace and
line-breaks.
To fix this, you can put the <code> element inside a <pre> element:

<pre>
<code>
var x = 5;
var y = 6;
document.getElementById("demo").innerHTML = x + y;
</code>
</pre>
Result:
var x = 5;
var y = 6;
document.getElementById("demo").innerHTML = x + y;

HTML <var> For Variables


The HTML <var> element defines a variable.
The variable could be a variable in a mathematical expression or a variable in
programming context:

Example
Einstein wrote: <var>E</var> = <var>m</var><var>c</var><sup>2</sup>.

Result:
Einstein wrote: E = mc2.

Comments are not displayed by the browser, but they can help document
your HTML.
With comments you can place notifications and reminders in your HTML:

Example
<!-- This is a comment -->
<p>This is a paragraph.</p>
<!-- Remember to add more information here -->

<!-- Write your comments here -->

There is an exclamation point (!) in the opening tag, but not in the closing ta

omments are also great for debugging HTML, because you can comment out
HTML lines of code, one at a time, to search for errors:

Example
<!-- Do not display this at the moment
<img border="0" src="pic_mountain.jpg" alt="Mountain">
-->

Conditional Comments
You might stumble upon conditional comments in HTML:

<!--[if IE 8]>
.... some HTML here ....
<![endif]-->
Conditional comments defines HTML tags to be executed by Internet Explorer
only.

Internal Styling (Internal CSS)


An internal style sheet can be used to define a common style for all HTML
elements on a page.
Internal styling is defined in the <head> section of an HTML page, using
a <style> element:

Example
<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<head>
<style>
body {background-color:lightgrey}
h1 {color:blue}
p {color:green}
</style>
</head>
<body>

<h1>This is a heading</h1>
<p>This is a paragraph.</p>
</body>
</html>

External Styling (External CSS)


External style sheet are ideal when the style is applied to many pages.
With external style sheets, you can change the look of an entire web site by
changing one file.
External styles are defined in an external CSS file, and then linked to in
the <head> section of an HTML page:

Example
<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<head>
<link rel="stylesheet" href="styles.css">
</head>
<body>
<h1>This is a heading</h1>
<p>This is a paragraph.</p>
</body>
</html>

CSS Fonts
The CSS color property defines the text color to be used for the HTML
element.
The CSS font-family property defines the font to be used for the HTML
element.
The CSS font-size property defines the text size to be used for the HTML
element.

Example
<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<head>
<style>
h1 {
color:blue;
font-family:verdana;
font-size:300%;
}
p {
color:red;
font-family:courier;
font-size:160%;
}
</style>
</head>
<body>
<h1>This is a heading</h1>
<p>This is a paragraph.</p>
</body>
</html>

The CSS Box Model


Every HTML element has a box around it, even if you cannot see it.
The CSS border property defines a visible border around an HTML element:

Example
p{
border:1px solid black;
}

Try it Yourself
The CSS padding property defines a padding (space) inside the border:

Example
p{
border:1px solid black;
padding:10px;
}

Try it Yourself
The CSS margin property defines a margin (space) outside the border:

Example
p{
border:1px solid black;
padding:10px;
margin:30px;
}

Try it Yourself

The CSS examples above use px to define sizes in pixels.


In older HTML versions, several tags and attributes were used to style
documents.
These tags and attributes are not supported in HTML5!
Avoid using the <font>, <center>, and <strike> elements.
Avoid using the color and bgcolor attributes.

Local Links
The example above used an absolute URL (A full web address).
A local link (link to the same web site) is specified with a relative URL
(without http://www....).

Example
<a href="html_images.asp">HTML Images</a>

HTML Links - Colors


When you move the mouse over a link, two things will normally happen:

The mouse arrow will turn into a little hand

The color of the link element will change

By default, a link will appear like this (in all browsers):

An unvisited link is underlined and blue

A visited link is underlined and purple

An active link is underlined and red

You can change the default colors, by using styles:

Example
<style>
a:link {color:green; background-color:transparent; text-decoration:none}
a:visited {color:pink; background-color:transparent; text-decoration:none}
a:hover {color:red; background-color:transparent; text-decoration:underline}
a:active {color:yellow; background-color:transparent; text-decoration:underline}

HTML Links - The target Attribute


The target attribute specifies where to open the linked document.
This example will open the linked document in a new browser window or in a
new tab:

Example
<a href="http://www.w3schools.com/" target="_blank">Visit W3Schools!</a>

Try it yourself

Target Value

Description

_blank

Opens the linked document in a new window or tab

_self

Opens the linked document in the same frame as it was clicked (this

_parent

Opens the linked document in the parent frame

_top

Opens the linked document in the full body of the window

framename

Opens the linked document in a named frame

If your webpage is locked in a frame, you can use target="_top" to break out
of the frame:

HTML Links - Image as Link


It is common to use images as links:

Example
<a href="default.asp">
<img src="smiley.gif" alt="HTML
tutorial" style="width:42px;height:42px;border:0">
</a>

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<body>
<h2>Spectacular Mountain</h2>
<img src="pic_mountain.jpg" alt="Mountain
View" style="width:304px;height:228px;">
</body>
</html>
Try it Yourself

Always specify the width and height of an image. If width and height are not specifi
flicker while the image loads.

HTML Images Syntax


In HTML, images are defined with the <img> tag.

The <img> tag is empty, it contains attributes only, and does not have a
closing tag.
The src attribute specifies the URL (web address) of the image:

<img src="url" alt="some_text">

The alt Attribute


The alt attribute specifies an alternate text for an image, if the image cannot
be displayed.
The alt attribute provides alternative information for an image if a user for
some reason cannot view it (because of slow connection, an error in the src
attribute, or if the user uses a screen reader).
If a browser cannot find an image, it will display the alt text:

Example
<img src="wrongname.gif" alt="HTML5
Icon" style="width:128px;height:128px;">

Image Size - Width and Height


You can use the style attribute to specify the width and height of an image.
The values are specified in pixels (use px after the value):

Example
<img src="html5.gif" alt="HTML5 Icon" style="width:128px;height:128px;">

Try it Yourself
Alternatively, you can use width and height attributes. Here, the values are
specified in pixels by default:

Example
<img src="html5.gif" alt="HTML5 Icon" width="128" height="128">

Width and Height or Style?

Both the width, height, and style attributes are valid in the latest HTML5
standard.
We suggest you use the style attribute. It prevents styles sheets from
changing the original size of images:

Example
<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<head>
<style>
img {
width:100%;
}
</style>
</head>
<body>
<img src="html5.gif" alt="HTML5 Icon" style="width:128px;height:128px;">
<img src="html5.gif" alt="HTML5 Icon" width="128" height="128">
</body>
</html>

Images in Another Folder


If not specified, the browser expects to find the image in the same folder as
the web page.
However, it is common to store images in a sub-folder. You must then include
the folder name in the src attribute:

Example
<img src="/images/html5.gif" alt="HTML5
Icon" style="width:128px;height:128px;">

Images on Another Server


Some web sites store their images on image servers.
Actually, you can access images from any web address in the world:

Example
<img src="http://www.w3schools.com/images/w3schools_green.jpg" alt="W3Sch
ools.com">

The GIF standard allows animated images:

Example
<img src="programming.gif" alt="Computer
Man" style="width:48px;height:48px;">

Note that the syntax of inserting animated images is no different from nonanimated images.

Using an Image as a Link


To use an image as a link, simply nest the <img> tag inside the <a> tag:

Example
<a href="default.asp">
<img src="smiley.gif" alt="HTML
tutorial" style="width:42px;height:42px;border:0;">
</a>

Try it Yourself

Add "border:0;" to prevent IE9 (and earlier) from displaying a border around the im

Image Floating
Use the CSS float property to let the image float.
The image can float to the right or to the left of a text:

Example
<p>
<img src="smiley.gif" alt="Smiley
face" style="float:right;width:42px;height:42px;">
The image will float to the right of the text.
</p>
<p>

<img src="smiley.gif" alt="Smiley


face" style="float:left;width:42px;height:42px;">
The image will float to the left of the text.

Image Maps
Use the <map> tag to define an image-map. An image-map is an image with
clickable areas.
The name attribute of the <map> tag is associated with the <img>'s
usemap attribute and creates a relationship between the image and the map.
The <map> tag contains a number of <area> tags, that defines the clickable
areas in the image-map:

Example
<img src="planets.gif" alt="Planets" usemap="#planetmap"style="width:145px
;height:126px;">
<map name="planetmap">
<area shape="rect" coords="0,0,82,126" alt="Sun" href="sun.htm">
<area shape="circle" coords="90,58,3" alt="Mercury" href="mercur.htm">
<area shape="circle" coords="124,58,8" alt="Venus" href="venus.htm">
</map>

Example explained:
Tables are defined with the <table> tag.
Tables are divided into table rows with the <tr> tag.
Table rows are divided into table data with the <td> tag.
A table row can also be divided into table headings with the <th> tag.

Table data <td> are the data containers of the table.


They can contain all sorts of HTML elements like text, images, lists, other tables, etc

An HTML Table with a Border Attribute

If you do not specify a border for the table, it will be displayed without
borders.
A border can be added using the border attribute:

Example
<table border="1" style="width:100%">
<tr>
<td>Jill</td>
<td>Smith</td>
<td>50</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>Eve</td>
<td>Jackson</td>
<td>94</td>
</tr>
</table>

The border attribute is on its way out of the HTML standard! It is better to use CSS.
To add borders, use the CSS border property:

Example
table, th, td {
border: 1px solid black;
}

Try it Yourself

An HTML Table with Cell Padding


Cell padding specifies the space between the cell content and its borders.
If you do not specify a padding, the table cells will be displayed without
padding.
To set the padding, use the CSS padding property:

Example
table, th, td {
border: 1px solid black;

border-collapse: collapse;
}
th, td {
padding: 15px;
}

Table headings are defined with the <th> tag.


By default, all major browsers display table headings as bold and centered:

Example
<table style="width:100%">
<tr>
<th>Firstname</th>
<th>Lastname</th>
<th>Points</th>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>Eve</td>
<td>Jackson</td>
<td>94</td>
</tr>
</table>

To left-align the table headings, use the CSS text-align property:

Example
th {
text-align: left;
}

An HTML Table with Border Spacing


Border spacing specifies the space between the cells.
To set the border spacing for a table, use the CSS border-spacing property:

Example
table {
border-spacing: 5px;
}

Table Cells that Span Many Columns

To make a cell span more than one column, use the colspan attribute:

Example
<table style="width:100%">
<tr>
<th>Name</th>
<th colspan="2">Telephone</th>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>Bill Gates</td>
<td>555 77 854</td>
<td>555 77 855</td>
</tr>
</table>

To add a caption to a table, use the <caption> tag:

Example
<table style="width:100%">
<caption>Monthly savings</caption>
<tr>
<th>Month</th>
<th>Savings</th>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>January</td>
<td>$100</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>February</td>
<td>$50</td>
</tr>
</table>

Try it Yourself

The <caption> tag must be inserted immediately after the <table> tag.