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© ABB Switzerland Ltd. - 1

EFP_basics / 2003-04-01 / RW

Technology and Solutions

Protection and Substation Automation

and Solutions Protection and Substation Automation Topic: END FAULT PROTECTION APPLICATION B B A A S
and Solutions Protection and Substation Automation Topic: END FAULT PROTECTION APPLICATION B B A A S
and Solutions Protection and Substation Automation Topic: END FAULT PROTECTION APPLICATION B B A A S

Topic:

END FAULT PROTECTION

APPLICATION

BBAASSIICCSS

Solutions Protection and Substation Automation Topic: END FAULT PROTECTION APPLICATION B B A A S S



 

Topic Objectives

 
 

Objectives

 
 

r

Definition Protection Zone - Physical Zone

r

Definition End- Fault Condition

r

Fault clearance without EFP

r

Fault evaluation

r

EFP application

r

Fault clearance with EFP

r

End- Fault Condition in a bus- coupler

© ABB Switzerland Ltd. - 2

 

r

CB auxiliary circuits

EFP_basics / 2003-04-01 / RW

r

Modern protection systems

r

BBP - additional CB functionality on feeders

r

Future standards

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Definition Protection Zone - Physical Zone protection zone 2 CTs (overlapped protection zones) protection zone
Definition Protection Zone - Physical Zone
protection
zone
2
CTs
(overlapped
protection zones)
protection
zone
1
CT
protection
protection
zone
zone
line zone
busbar zone
(physical)
(physical)

© ABB Switzerland Ltd. - 3
EFP_basics / 2003-04-01 / RW
Definition End- Fault Condition End - Zone 2 CTs (overlapped protection zones) End - Fault
Definition End- Fault Condition
End - Zone
2
CTs
(overlapped
protection zones)
End - Fault
1
CT
End - Zone

© ABB Switzerland Ltd. - 4
EFP_basics / 2003-04-01 / RW

Busbar Configurations

Busbar Configurations How will an End- Fault condition be cleared in different busbar configurations (without any

How will an End- Fault condition be cleared in different busbar configurations (without any End- Fault Protection) ???

© ABB Switzerland Ltd. - 5

EFP_basics / 2003-04-01 / RW

CT

line side

CT

bus side

CT

overlapped

single or multiple busbar

Selectivity

Speed

1 1/2 breaker busbar

Selectivity

Speed



CT overlapped single or multiple busbar Selectivity Speed 1 1/2 breaker busbar Selectivity Speed 
Fault clearance (without EFP) I. Multiple BB, CT line side G  © ABB Switzerland
Fault clearance (without EFP)
I. Multiple BB, CT line side
G

© ABB Switzerland Ltd. - 6
EFP_basics / 2003-04-01 / RW
Busbar
Fault clearance (without EFP) I. Multiple BB, CT line side G  © ABB Switzerland
Fault clearance (without EFP)
I. Multiple BB, CT line side
G

© ABB Switzerland Ltd. - 7
EFP_basics / 2003-04-01 / RW
Line
Fault clearance (without EFP) II. Multiple BB, CT bus side G  © ABB Switzerland
Fault clearance (without EFP)
II. Multiple BB, CT bus side
G

© ABB Switzerland Ltd. - 8
EFP_basics / 2003-04-01 / RW
Busbar
Line
Fault clearance (without EFP) II. Multiple BB, CT bus side OC Back- up G 
Fault clearance (without EFP)
II. Multiple BB, CT bus side
OC Back- up
G

© ABB Switzerland Ltd. - 9
EFP_basics / 2003-04-01 / RW
Line Distance
Fault clearance (without EFP) III. Multiple BB, CT overlapped G  © ABB Switzerland Ltd.
Fault clearance (without EFP)
III. Multiple BB, CT overlapped
G

© ABB Switzerland Ltd. - 10
EFP_basics / 2003-04-01 / RW
Busbar
Line
Fault clearance (without EFP) III. Multiple BB, CT overlapped G  © ABB Switzerland Ltd.
Fault clearance (without EFP)
III. Multiple BB, CT overlapped
G

© ABB Switzerland Ltd. - 11
EFP_basics / 2003-04-01 / RW
Fault clearance (without EFP) IV. 1 1/2 CB BB, CT line side OC Back- up
Fault clearance (without EFP)
IV. 1 1/2 CB BB, CT line side
OC Back- up
Line Distance
OC Back- up

© ABB Switzerland Ltd. - 12
EFP_basics / 2003-04-01 / RW
Fault clearance (without EFP) V. 1 1/2 CB BB, CT bus side OC Back- up
Fault clearance (without EFP)
V. 1 1/2 CB BB, CT bus side
OC Back- up
OC Back- up

© ABB Switzerland Ltd. - 13
EFP_basics / 2003-04-01 / RW
Fault clearance (without EFP) VI. 1 1/2 CB BB, CT overlapped  © ABB Switzerland
Fault clearance (without EFP)
VI.
1 1/2 CB BB, CT overlapped

© ABB Switzerland Ltd. - 14
EFP_basics / 2003-04-01 / RW

Fault Evaluation

CT

line side

single or multiple busbar

CT

bus side

CT

overlapped

Selectivity

Speed
Speed

© ABB Switzerland Ltd. - 15

EFP_basics / 2003-04-01 / RW

1 1/2 breaker busbar

+

-

-

++

very good

+

acceptable

-

critical

-

++

-

++

-

++

Selectivity

Speed



good + acceptable - critical - ++ - ++ - ++ Selectivity Speed 

++

-

++

Fault Evaluation Conclusion: An additional protection function is required in CT bus side and 1
Fault Evaluation
Conclusion:
An additional protection function is
required in CT bus side and 1 1/2 circuit
breaker configuration without
overlapped CTs
!!!
ð End- Fault Protection Function

© ABB Switzerland Ltd. - 16
EFP_basics / 2003-04-01 / RW

© ABB Switzerland Ltd. - 17

EFP_basics / 2003-04-01 / RW

End- Fault Protection Function

logic depending on the switchgear configuration (CT bus side, Line side; 1 1/2 CB)

logic depending on the switchgear configuration (CT bus side, Line side; 1 1/2 CB)
EFP CB open t ~120 ms & I > feeder current remote intertripping tripping
EFP
CB open
t
~120 ms
&
I >
feeder
current
remote
intertripping
tripping
I > feeder current remote intertripping tripping t = EFP pick up time (higher than the
I > feeder current remote intertripping tripping t = EFP pick up time (higher than the

t = EFP pick up time (higher than the highest possible arc extinguish time + safety time



© ABB Switzerland Ltd. - 18

EFP_basics / 2003-04-01 / RW

Fault clearance (with EFP)

How will an End- Fault condition be cleared in different busbar configurations (with End- Fault Protection) ???



Fault clearance (with EFP) II. Multiple BB, CT bus side G  © ABB Switzerland
Fault clearance (with EFP)
II. Multiple BB, CT bus side
G

© ABB Switzerland Ltd. - 19
EFP_basics / 2003-04-01 / RW
Busbar
Line

© ABB Switzerland Ltd. - 20

EFP_basics / 2003-04-01 / RW

Fault clearance (with EFP)

II. Multiple BB, CT bus side ð Fault cleared selectively !!!(~250ms) Intertripping EFP G 
II. Multiple BB, CT bus side
ð Fault cleared selectively
!!!(~250ms)
Intertripping
EFP
G

Fault clearance (with EFP) IV. 1 1/2 CB BB, CT line side Remote trip Intertripping
Fault clearance (with EFP)
IV. 1 1/2 CB BB, CT line side
Remote trip
Intertripping
EFP
ð Fault cleared selectively
!!!(~250ms)

© ABB Switzerland Ltd. - 21
EFP_basics / 2003-04-01 / RW
Fault clearance (with EFP) V. 1 1/2 CB BB, CT bus side Intertripping EFP ð
Fault clearance (with EFP)
V. 1 1/2 CB BB, CT bus side
Intertripping
EFP
ð Fault cleared selectively
!!!(~250ms)

© ABB Switzerland Ltd. - 22
EFP_basics / 2003-04-01 / RW

© ABB Switzerland Ltd. - 23

EFP_basics / 2003-04-01 / RW

End- Fault Condition in a Bus- Coupler

How will an End- Fault condition be cleared in a bus- coupler (without any EFP)

???



© ABB Switzerland Ltd. - 24

EFP_basics / 2003-04-01 / RW

End- Fault Condition in a Bus- Coupler

© ABB Switzerland Ltd. - 24 EFP_basics / 2003-04-01 / RW End- Fault Condition in a

BB1

© ABB Switzerland Ltd. - 24 EFP_basics / 2003-04-01 / RW End- Fault Condition in a

~

~
~

BB2



End- Fault Condition in a Bus- Coupler

End- Fault Condition in a Bus- Coupler © ABB Switzerland Ltd. - 25 EFP_basics / 2003-04-01

© ABB Switzerland Ltd. - 25

EFP_basics / 2003-04-01 / RW

© ABB Switzerland Ltd. - 25 EFP_basics / 2003-04-01 / RW 



End- Fault Condition in a Bus- Coupler © ABB Switzerland Ltd. - 25 EFP_basics / 2003-04-01

© ABB Switzerland Ltd. - 26

EFP_basics / 2003-04-01 / RW

End- Fault Condition in a Bus- Coupler

Þ by the coupler function of the BUSBAR protection



© ABB Switzerland Ltd. - 27

EFP_basics / 2003-04-01 / RW

End Fault Protection application

Summery:

An EFP function in strictly required in:

r

r

multiple BB configuration with CT bus side

1 1/2 circuit breaker configuration without overlapped CTs

1 1/2 circuit breaker configuration without overlapped CTs It is not required in: r r It

It is not required in:

r

r

It will reduce the tripping time in:

r multiple BB configuration with CT line side

configuration with overlapped CTs

a bus- coupler



© ABB Switzerland Ltd. - 28

EFP_basics / 2003-04-01 / RW

CB auxiliary circuits

What “problem” will occur in case on a “switch onto fault” situation ???



© ABB Switzerland Ltd. - 29

EFP_basics / 2003-04-01 / RW

CB auxiliary circuits

CT bus side

Þ EFP will trip the BB wrongly

CB closing command CB open !!! I>
CB closing
command
CB open !!!
I>

EFP enabled

flash over before CB indicates closed



CB auxiliary circuits CT line side flash over before CB indicates closed CB closing command
CB auxiliary circuits
CT line side
flash over before CB
indicates closed
CB closing
command
CB open !!!
I>
EFP enabled
Þ
EFP will trip the line remote end wrongly

© ABB Switzerland Ltd. - 30
EFP_basics / 2003-04-01 / RW

© ABB Switzerland Ltd. - 31

EFP_basics / 2003-04-01 / RW

CB auxiliary circuits

Þ in case on a “switch onto fault situation” the EFP will generate a tripping signal before the closed indication appears

(flash- over in the circuit breaker)



© ABB Switzerland Ltd. - 32

EFP_basics / 2003-04-01 / RW

CB auxiliary circuits

How can this be avoided ???



© ABB Switzerland Ltd. - 33

EFP_basics / 2003-04-01 / RW

CB auxiliary circuits

Þ the protection system must be

informed in advance that the CB is going to be closed

Þ by the (manual) close command of the CB

system must be informed in advance that the CB is going to be closed Þ by



© ABB Switzerland Ltd. - 34

EFP_basics / 2003-04-01 / RW

End- Fault Protection Function

logic depending on the switchgear configuration (CT bus side, Line side; 1 1/2 CB)

switchgear configuration (CT bus side, Line side; 1 1/2 CB) EFP CB open t ~120 ms
EFP CB open t ~120 ms feeder & I > current remote intertripping tripping
EFP
CB open
t
~120 ms
feeder
&
I >
current
remote
intertripping
tripping

CB (manual)

> current remote intertripping tripping CB (manual) close command t = EFP pick up time (higher
> current remote intertripping tripping CB (manual) close command t = EFP pick up time (higher

close command

t = EFP pick up time (higher than the highest possible arc extinguish time + safety time



CB / isolator auxiliary circuits Phase Phase + + NC aux. CB closing R contacts
CB / isolator auxiliary circuits
Phase
Phase
+
+
NC aux.
CB closing
R
contacts
coil
R
S
T
S
CB closed
T
protection
system
CB open
NC aux.
contacts
CB (manual)
close command
CB close
order
+

© ABB Switzerland Ltd. - 35
EFP_basics / 2003-04-01 / RW

© ABB Switzerland Ltd. - 36

EFP_basics / 2003-04-01 / RW

© ABB Switzerland Ltd. - 36 EFP_basics / 2003-04-01 / RW 

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