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X. 2

Sibiu / Hermannstadt, 2015

EDITOR IN CHIEF: Prof. univ. dr. Sabin Adrian LUCA


Dr. Anca NIOI

Dr. Iulia MESEA
Iulia-Maria PASCU


Dr. Raluca-Maria TEODORESCU
Dr. Alexandru SONOC
Dr. Constantin ITTU
Dr. Rodica CIOBANU
Ana Maria MESARO
Dr. Dorin BARBU
Dr. Dana HRIB
Prof. Dr. Docent Theodor Anton NEAGU (Member of the Romanian Academy)
Prof. Univ. Dr. Ioan-Aurel POP (Member of the Romanian Academy)
Prof. Univ. Dr. Paul NIEDERMAIER (Member of the Romanian Academy)
Prof. Univ. Dr. Conrad GNDISCH (Universitt Oldenburg - Germania)
Prof. Univ. Dr. Erika SCHNEIDER-BINDER (Universitt Karlsruhe, Bereich
WWF Auen Institut, Germany)
Prof. Univ. Dr. Zeno-Karl PINTER (Lucian Blaga University Sibiu)
Prof. Univ. Dr. Rudolf GRF (Babe-Bolyai University Cluj Napoca)
Prof. Univ. Dr. Nicolae SABU ( Babe-Bolyai University Cluj Napoca)
Prof. Univ. Dr. Alexandru AVRAM (Lucian Blaga University Sibiu)
ISSN: 1842-2691

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Daniela DMBOIU

Sebastian CORNEANU
Anda-Lucia SPNU
Emese PL
Alexandru Gh. SONOC
Tereza POP
Valentina IANCU
Irina CRBA

Irina Georgievna
Alexandru-Ilie MUNTEANU
Dana Roxana HRIB

Pictorial Embroideries Inspired by Works of Piero Della

Francesca on a Liturgical Garment of the Evangelical Church
in Sibiu
From the Cudgel to the Spear. An Iconographic Interpretation
of Several Bas-reliefs of the Cathedral St. Michael, Alba Iulia.
Historical Images of Present Day Romanian Cities: Timioara
and the Crescent
Rubens in Gherla?
ICONES BIBLICAE. Gravuri de Jan Luyken (1649-1712)
Some Remarks Concerning Two Portraits from the Collection
of the Brukenthal National Museum
Modeling, Photography and Collage as Alternative Study in
Octavian Smigelschis Creation
Picasso Baby Art and Entertainment
The Manifestations and Reception of the Artistic Avant-Garde
in Interwar Romania
Jules Perahim Surrealism and Politics
A Precarious Collection of Portraits: The Socialist Realist
Artist In The Visual Culture and the Literature of 1950s
Visual Communication Through a Painting: Romanian Family
Going to the Fair. A Cultural Approach
Traditional Form in Untraditional Context, or the Instrument
of Rent and Leasing in the Area of Culture and Art
Statistics on Samuel von Brukenthals Collection of British
Recent Additions to the Art Collections of the Brukenthal
National Museum (October 2014 September 2015)
Brukenthal National Museum in 2014: A Chronicle of Art
Exhibitions and Events







Sebastian CORNEANU*

Abstract: The present study is an iconographic analysis of several bas-reliefs inside the Roman-Catholic
Cathedral St. Michael in Alba Iulia. Two of them illustrate scenes of punishment, characterised by their
moralising dimension, which are accompanied by two variants of the motif of St. Michael fighting the
dragon. Within these themes, we focus on the attributes of the characters (the cudgel, the noose, the spear),
our research aiming to interpret them in a symbolic order. At the border between wilderness and evolution,
the cudgel is a symbol of Alterity; it is both a tool and a weapon, marked by sheer ambiguity, since it can
become a staff, when made longer, or a spear, with minor improvements and adjustments.
Keywords: Romanesque, sculpture, bas-relief, iconography, Alba Iulia, cudgel, spear

Rezumat: Subiectul prezentului studiu este analiza iconografic a ctorva basoreliefuri din interiorul
catedralei romano-catolice Sf. Mihail din Alba Iulia. Dou dintre acestea se constituie n scene de pedeaps,
caracterizate prin dimensiunea lor moralizatoare, la care se adaug dou variante ale temei Sf. Mihail n
lupt cu dragonul. n cadrul acestor scene ne-au atras atenia obiectele atribut folosite de ctre personaje
(ciomagul, treangul, lancea), investigaia noastr fiind orientat ctre interpretarea lor n ordine
simbolic. Aflat la grania dintre slbticie i evoluie, ciomagul este simbol al alteritii, n acelai timp
unealt i arm, marcat de o ambiguitate extrem, deoarece el poate s ia prin extensie i form de toiag,
sau prin adugiri i prelucrri minime poate deveni lance.
Cuvinte cheie: stil romanic, sculptur, basorelief, iconografie, Alba Iulia, ciomag, lance

At the beginning of style development in postCarolingian Europe, the Romanesque art

fascinates the viewer by a mixture of grotesque
and sublime, by that odd deformed beauty and
beautiful deformity (mira quedam deformis
formositas ac formosa deformitas?), as Bernard
de Clairvaux mentions in his Apology of 1124 (de
Clairvaux 1124). Assessed in a stylistic context,
the Romanesque sculpture is monumental; this
feature was reborn more than half a millennium
after the fall of the Western Roman Empire, when
this artistic genre had the mission to decorate and
to visually valorise architectural elements.
Besides its implicit decorative nature, the

Romanesque architectonic plasticity is also

marked by a religious function, deeply related to
its illustrative and decorative functions; the
former is mainly rendered by means of themes
and characters that are predominantly biblical, and
far less secular, which decorate larger or smaller
monuments scattered throughout the Catholic
Such a building is the Roman-Catholic Cathedral
in Alba Iulia, the only Hungarian Episcopal
basilica that has almost entirely maintained its
original form. Besides its ample dimensions, it is
the only unaltered example of the monumental
architecture characteristic of the Arpadian epoch
(Entz 1958, 3). Around year 1200, when the
building of the Alba Iulia cathedral was
completed, such monuments were practically
inexistent in the Transylvanian area. This was the
result of both the precarious economic context and

* Lucian Blaga University of Sibiu,



Brukenthal. Acta Musei, X. 2, 2015

Sebastian Corneanu

covered while the body is exhibited, is an attribute

of vainglory, rendered even more overwhelming
in combination with the idea of sin, as in a
pejorative context complete nudity stands for
vices and their punishment (Garnier 1989, 269270). There is a temporal ambiguity of the scene,
resulting from the causative relation of the two
characters, the devils posture he is holding a
cudgel and his body is slightly bent around the
corner of the capital, where the woman should
show up; his right knee on the ground, as if
crouching, he seems to be prepared to strike the
sinner, in order to punish her. We believe that this
scene has a prescriptive purpose, warning
believers against sinning. This idea is also
supported by the contradictory nature of the
female character. Although aware of her
nakedness (which she conceals), she is wearing a
cap as an attribute of haughtiness, and at the same
time is walking towards the devil (unaware of his
presence). The manner in which the characters are
presented makes use of deformity and caricature
as means of expressiveness that belong to the
discourse used for prescriptive, moralising scenes.

of the scarce number of believers, unlike the

reality of the French and Iberian regions, where
pilgrimage routes triggered the existence of large
churches, such as those in Chartres, Vezlay, Le
Puis, Conques or Santiago de Compostela
(Watkin 2005, 134).
Stylistically, the elements of architectural
sculpture featured in the Alba Iulia cathedral stand
proof of the participation of three stone masonry
workshops that worked concomitantly, the first on
the exterior decorations of the lateral apse and on
the southern portal, while the other two on the
inside architectural decorations and the exterior
sculptures of the northern lateral apse (Vtianu
1959, 45). The stonemasons of two workshops
who worked on the inside sculptures carved the
capitals and the decorative consoles which are
not analysed in the present study and a few
scenes of a figurative nature, some of which
illustrating a very clear subject. Although there
are few scenes of an obvious moralising nature,
the intention of those that decorated them was to
illustrate as suggestively as possible examples and
parables that praise Christian virtues, which
oppose vice, which is here expressed in an explicit

We should offer an explanation that refers not so

much to the composition and to the motif of the
scene, but to the characteristics of the objects
included, on the one hand the cap, as a piece of
garment, and on the other, more importantly, the
cudgel as an instrument of punishment.
Functionally speaking, to a certain extent they are
also in a causative relation, the cap symbolising
sin and the cudgel being the instrument of
punishment. Still, their connotations are quite
different, as the cudgel and the club are impure,
blunt weapons by excellence, designed to smash,
totally opposed to the spear or the sword. These
have a pointed head and a blade, which, although
representing some sort of technological
contrivance, enable the hero to triumph over his
enemy (Diel 1952, 176-178). Although both
categories of weapons are based on percussion, in
their evolution blunt weapons precede those that
perforate or cut, the latter being the result of
technological progress, the fire in which they are
forged purifying them (Durand 1998, 157-159).
The club and its related weapons are thus the
attribute of the impure beings; they are
rudimentary, imperfect weapons designed to
smash, situated halfway between the object found
in nature and the object that was worked on. We
find it normal that in the symbolic order such a
weapon should be associated with the devil, as an
attribute that aims to enhance its animality and its
hybrid condition, reminding at the same of its

Such a scene, where we can identify the mark of

the second workshop, which was active in the first
decades of the 13th century (Sarkadi 2010, 74-75),
is found on the capital of the second pillar
between the northern lateral naves (Vtianu
1965, 637; Fleer 2009, 110; Sarkadi 2010, 7475). As far as the composition is concerned, the
scene is divided by the corner of the capital into
two sides which show two human figures, each of
them accompanied by a stylised acanthus leaf; the
nervures are decorated with dew drops and end in
a crochet at the top (Fig. 1). The two characters
are placed on each of the two sides; at the left
there is a devil with tousled hair, walking towards
the edge of the capital, while on the other side
there is a naked female figure, also advancing
towards the former character.
The general theme seems to be a punishment
scene, where the action is unfolding, as revealed
by the posture of the two walking characters,
which are separated by the corner of the capital. In
our opinion, the female character represented on
the right illustrates the sin of haughtiness; her
declarative nudity emphasised by the way in
which she is covering her pubis with the right
hand and the breasts with the left hand being
contradicted by the pointed cap. This paradox of
the incomplete nakedness, where only the head is


Brukenthal. Acta Musei, X. 2, 2015

From the Cudgel to the Spear. An Iconographic Interpretation
of Several Bas-Reliefs of in the Cathedral St. Michael, Alba Iulia.

status of an unfinished being. Placed at the border

between savagery and evolution, the club is a
symbol of Alterity, being at the same time a tool
and a weapon, utterly ambiguous, as by extension
it may turn into a staff, or into a bishops crosier,
when its shape is altered.

Such scenes are quite common for the

Romanesque monuments in Western Europe,
being used especially in the portals illustrating the
theme of The Last Judgment. We find that the
tympanum of the portal of the St. Foy abbey
church in Conques, France, dated back to the
beginning of the 12th century, has a detail that
seems thematically close. The inferior band shows
a scene from hell (Fig. 3). Having a naked and
tousled-hair Satan as a central figure, the scene
presents a series of characters drawn in activities
that apparently have no chronological order and
seem to suggest simultaneity of the narrated
events. The scenes that have an obvious
moralizing touch, emphasized by the numerous
inscriptions, are highly descriptive, showing
writhed characters in grotesque sizes and postures.
What seems extremely important to us is the
presence of the two characteristic objects, the
cudgel, represented here as a pitch fork, and the
noose, used as gallows, both shown in a context
similar to the one in Alba Iulia.

The same workshop has authored another relief,

stylistically similar, placed on two sides of the
capital of the north-western pillar of the choir.
The motif illustrated here is the Sinners
punishment (Fig. 2). The scene has a complex
composition, implying the interaction of several
characters, placed at several levels. Sequentially,
the action begins with the sinner, represented first
on the left, with a noose around his neck, then
shows the devil holding the rope over his shoulder
while pulling him along and walking towards a
third character, which undoubtedly represents
Satan seated (Vtianu 1965, 637; Fleer 2009,
109-110). The postures of the characters betray a
tense relation, rendered obvious by the way in
which the sinner resists with all his might, his
heels dug into the ground. The movement is
amplified by the devil that pulls at the noose, bent
forward and the head turned because of the effort,
while the third character (Satan) reaches his hand
to grab the rope pulled by the former. This relief
shows a chronologically illustrated processuality,
as the characters actions, read from the left to the
right, have a temporal succession. This
chronology shows at the same time simultaneity
of actions, suggested by the figures emblematic
gestures: the sinners resistance, his enslaving by
the devil and his taking over by Satan all occur at
the same time. From the point of view of the
workmanship, the sculptor renders the characters
movements very artfully, by attributing them
several specific characteristics, such as deformity,
shown by means of the grotesque and unnatural
sizes and the ludicrous exaggeration, shown in the
traits and expressions of the faces. The
representation conventions are also retraceable in
the type of details used for each figure, the nudity
of the two devils, together with the tousled hair as
particulars of impure beings contrasting with the
sinners curly hair and attire (Garnier 1982, 137;
Garnier 1989, 264). Here, the noose is an object
that connects the characters, an instrument of
punishment that is a symbol of man as a prisoner
of his own vices, unable to free himself from
them, as well as of the devils triumph over him,
the human condition being turned into animality:
the individual becomes a savage lead on a leash
by the devil.

The pitch-fork, too, is presented here as an impure

instrument, as the devil that holds it in his hand
uses it to knock off the horse of a horseman
wearing a coat of mail; it is a clear hint to the sin
of haughtiness, since there is no doubt that the
faithless knight is defeated by the devil. The
noose is also represented close to Satan, on the
other side, where Judas is shown hanged, as a
prisoner of his own betrayal, with the 30/silver
coin purse hanging around his neck.
We do not think there is a direct link between the
scene of the Ste. Foy church portal and the two
scenes of the Roman-Catholic cathedral in Alba
Iulia. There is, however, a common significance
of the themes analyzed above, since the attributes
(the cudgel and the noose) are used by similar
characters with the same moralizing charge, in
spite of the different contexts.
The two reliefs placed in the church choir,
representing Michael the Archangel killing the
dragon, contrast with these scenes of punishment.
The two representations of St. Michael, patron of
the church, emphasize the technical and stylistic
differences between the stone masonry
workshops. The first scene, placed inside, on the
southern wall of the choir, is ascribed to the first
workshop. It is more elaborate and inspiration for
this version can be found both in the French and
in the German environments, the alleged
backgrounds of the craftsman (Vtianu 1959,
155; Fleer 2009, 103-104; Entz 1958, 9). The
other relief, placed on the northern interior side of

Brukenthal. Acta Musei, X. 2, 2015

Sebastian Corneanu

the choir, is a later replica, which shows obvious

differences in the more elaborate shapes and the
detailed draping, specific to a more developed
Romanesque art (Vtianu 1959, 157; Fleer
2009, 106-107).

differences, as well as differences of interpretation

(Vtianu 1959, 156-157; Fleer 2009, 106). If
the former representation renders tension and
dynamism by means of the diagonal composition,
emphasized by the characters gestures, the rigid
posture and the direction in which the spear is
thrust, the latter relief replaces them by a
moderate movement, characterized by a less
martial attitude, as the saint holds the spear with
both hands in front of his chest, the gesture of
pinning down the dragon being inconclusive (Fig.
5). This is completed by a contradictory attitude:
the character does not virtually sit on the dragon,
which would imply that he has defeated it; on the
contrary, the animals movements, its raised,
twisted tail still show an intense fight. The tense
posture of the dragon, however, is annulled by the
ambiguous angle of the saints head, tilted on the
shoulder, and by his apparently absent facial
expression, in total contrast with the previous
representation, where the character holds his head
high, looking ahead, his face showing
determination (Fig. 4).

Chronologically the first relief showing St.

Michael killing the dragon is placed inside the
choir on the southern wall (Fig. 4). Initially, it was
in a different location, probably on one of the
facades, since it represents the patron saint of the
church (Vtianu 1959, 156; Fleer 2009, 103).
Thematically, this representation falls into the
category of the scenes that contrast humanity with
animality, in order to illustrate the fight between
good and evil. In this context, the saint is
represented frontally, in his typical archangel
posture, the main attribute being his verticality,
emphasized by the wings parallel to the body. The
diagonal composition (top left bottom right) is
rendered by the human characters vigorous
movement: raised higher than the level of his
forehead, his right hand thrusts the spear
supported in the median plane by the left hand
into the dragons head, which is in the bottom left
corner. The active diagonal, represented by the
spear and the characters posture literally sitting
on the dragon, the raised leg pinning it to the
ground, both symbolize the idea of domination, of
triumph of the good over the evil, accentuating
verticality as an attribute. Stylistically, the bas
relief is static and crude, the characters posture is
rigid, the clothes folding is flattened but maintains
the volumetric; there are some incongruities at the
level of the characters head and neck, which are
oversized as compared to the body. As far as the
degree to which the face is individualized, the
head stands out by the attention given to the
features, the big nose, the orbits, the eyes, the
mouth and the facial wrinkles being clearly
defined. In addition to these, the tonsure with the
curls gathered as in a cap makes the face solemnly
severe (Entz 1958, 9).

Stylistically, the later relief seems more natural, as

the characters body movements are sinuous, his
position in space is more skillfully rendered, as
illustrated by the way the shoulder is pushed
forward, guiding the hand and leading to the soft
tilt of the entire body over the spear. The
naturalism of the relief is also conveyed by the
draping of the clothes, which, by its ample folds,
succeeds in emphasizing the corporality of the
character, better detached against the background.
The differences in interpretation and in style are
clearly shown by the emphasized reptilian
features of the dragon (Entz 1958, 9; Vtianu
1959, 156-157; Fleer 2009, 106). Thus, the
hybrid looses its bird features, as the craftsman
adds scales obtained by circular incisions, while
the body becomes more elongated, approximately
similar to that of a snake with an oversized waist,
the wings and the mammal paws being the only
features that remind of other species.

The animal figure is represented here in contrast

with the human character, its hybrid nature being
emphasized by an abundance of details. Thus, the
dragon has bird wings and legs, attached to the
body that has an oversized waist; the head is that
of a mammal with strong teeth and ears held
backwards. This representation is much more in
keeping with the western norms, according to
which the dragon combines bird and mammal
features, which emphasizes its hybrid nature.

Another detail that contributes to the emphasis of

the reptilian features is the shape of the head: it is
a lizard head, which makes the sculpture an even
more realistic representation (Entz 1958, 9;
Sarkadi 2010, 162). When comparing the two
versions of the theme placed in the cathedral
choir, we notice that, although the animals
postures are approximately identical, they differ
mainly in the illustration of movement. In the
latter version, the position of the body and the
animals contortions are much more emphasized,

A replica of this relief, placed on the other

(northern) side of the choir, shows clear stylistic


Brukenthal. Acta Musei, X. 2, 2015

From the Cudgel to the Spear. An Iconographic Interpretation
of Several Bas-Reliefs of in the Cathedral St. Michael, Alba Iulia.

which makes the entire composition much more


object, a weapon and an undefined object at the

same time, into a weapon symbol of purity and
attribute of the hero is thus an endeavor that
shows the switch from animality to humanity, the
latter being valorized according to the principles
of Christian morality. This religious overdetermination closely related to the pointed head
as a metallic addition is enhanced by the
association with the Divinity, as Longinus spear
is the weapon that pierced Jesus Christs rib, thus
changing for ever the destiny of humanity.
Moreover, the metallic pointed head, which
completely transforms the function of the cudgel,
also appears as a functional attribute of the
Archangel Gabriel, angel of the Annunciation (fig.
6), in the shape of a lily, as a symbol of purity, in
total opposition with the pointed head of
Archangel Michaels spear.

Shown here as a warrior-hero, with his absolute

verticality, to which the wings and the spear are
added as attributes, the archangel is a synthesis of
the champion of the good, of the opposition
humanity-animality, interpreted here strictly
according to Christian morality. St Michael is no
ordinary hero, he is the quintessence of the scenes
in which the good defeats the evil, a victory of
belief over idolatry; he is the wielder of the
weapon as a symbol of his purity and a role model
for the entire medieval chivalry (Durand 1998,
156). In this choreography that opposes man to
the hybrid, his main attribute is the spear, a
weapon meant to pierce, not to crush. It shares
one characteristic with the cudgel, as both are
percussion instruments (Durand 1998, 159).
Moreover, the spear itself is a mere piece of wood
to which a metallic pointed head has been added,
which completely changes its use. This is the
difference between the spear and the cudgel the
metallic pointed head that totally changes the
situation, as it is an attribute of homo faber, a
chemical element extracted from the soil and
purified in the fire.

Considering them from a functional point of view,

we notice that the cudgel is not a generically
impure object, as it is situated at the border
between the natural and the manufactured, as
some kind of main component of a kit that
changes its function when various forged
components are added to it (pointed heads,
decorative elements) and becomes associated with
positive characters that his way emphasize its
symbolic value. We recognize here the
ambivalence that is characteristic of most
religious representations, this entire symbolic
passage from the cudgel to the spear being in fact
the way in which human imagination, by means of
additions and interpretations, highlights the
relations that man has with his tools.

The pointed head and the edge of the spear (or of

the sword) are made to pierce or to cut matter,
enabling this way the separation of the good from
the evil, the severance of ties, since they lack the
ambivalence of blunt objects such as the cudgel,
the club or the mace (Durand 1998, 157-159). As
already mentioned, there is however a common
element: the shaft of the spear, in reality a cudgel
upgraded by the added pointed head. The
transformation of the cudgel from an impure


Brukenthal. Acta Musei, X. 2, 2015

Sebastian Corneanu

de Clairvaux 1124

Apologia ad Guillelmum Abbatem Sancti Theodorici (PL. 182, coll. 915-916). In:
Wirth Jean, Limage lpoque romane, Paris (1999), p. 300.

Diel 1952

Diel Paul, Le Symbolisme dans la mythologie grecque, Paris (1952).

Durand 1998

Durand Gilbert, Structurile antropologice ale imaginarului, Bucureti (1998).

Entz 1958

Entz Gza, La Cathdrale de Gyulafehrvr (Alba Iulia). In: Acta Historiae

Artium, V, 12 Budapesta (1958), p. 140.

Fleer 2009

Fleer Gheorghe, Sculptura romanic la catedrala romano-catolic din Alba Iulia.

Repertoriul ornamental, Partea a II-a, n APVLVM, XLVI (2009), p. 99-117.

Garnier 1982

Garnier Franois, Le langage de limage au Moyen Age, vol. I (Signification et

symbolique), Paris (1982).

Garnier 1989

Garnier Franois, Le langage de limage au Moyen Age, vol. II (Grammaire des

gestes), Paris (1989).

Sarkadi 2010

Sarkadi Mrton, S folytatva magt a rgi mvet. Tanulmnyok a gyulafehrvri

szkesegyhz s pspki palota trtnetrl, Budapest (2010).

Vtianu 1959

Vtianu Virgil, Istoria artei feudale n rile Romne, Bucureti (1959).

Vtianu 1965

Vtianu Virgil, Noi amnunte cu privire la sculptura romanic de la catedrala

din Alba Iulia. In: Omagiu lui P. Constantinescu-Iai, Bucureti (1965), p. 631640.

Vergnolle 1994

Vergnolle Eliane, L'art roman en France, Paris (1994).

Watkin 2005

Watkin David, The History of Western Architecture, London (2005).

Wirth 1989

Wirth Jean, Limage lpoque romane, Paris (1999).


Brukenthal. Acta Musei, X. 2, 2015

From the Cudgel to the Spear. An Iconographic Interpretation
of Several Bas-Reliefs of in the Cathedral St. Michael, Alba Iulia.

1. Punishment scene 1, St. Michael's cathedral, Alba Iulia (Photo: Sebastian Corneanu)
2. Punishment scene 2, St. Michael's cathedral, Alba Iulia (Photo: Sebastian Corneanu)
3. The Devil and the Sinners, Detail, Portal, Church St. Foy of Abbey of Conques, France (After: Eliane
4. St. Michael killing the dragon, first version, St. Michael's cathedral, Alba Iulia (Photo: Sebastian
5. St. Michael killing the dragon, second version, St. Michael's cathedral, Alba Iulia (Photo: Sebastian
6. Archangel Gabriel, St. Michael's cathedral, Alba Iulia (Photo: Sebastian Corneanu)

1. Scena de pedeapsa I, catedrala Sf. Mihail din Alba Iulia. (foto: Sebastian Corneanu)
2. Scena de pedeapsa II, catedrala Sf. Mihail din Alba Iulia. (foto: Sebastian Corneanu)
3. Diavolul i pctoii, detaliu, portalul bisericii Sf. Foy a abaiei din Conques, Frana (dup Eliane
4. Sf. Mihail ucignd balaurul, prima versiune, catedrala Sf. Mihail din Alba Iulia. (foto: Sebastian
5. Sf. Mihail ucignd balaurul, a doua versiune, catedrala Sf. Mihail din Alba Iulia. (foto: Sebastian
6. Arhanghelul Gabriel, catedrala Sf. Mihail din Alba Iulia. (foto: Sebastian Corneanu)


Brukenthal. Acta Musei, X. 2, 2015

Sebastian Corneanu

1. Punishment scene 1, St. Michael's cathedral,

Alba Iulia (Photo: Sebastian Corneanu)

2. Punishment scene 2, St. Michael's cathedral,

Alba Iulia (Photo: Sebastian Corneanu)


Brukenthal. Acta Musei, X. 2, 2015

From the Cudgel to the Spear. An Iconographic Interpretation
of Several Bas-Reliefs of in the Cathedral St. Michael, Alba Iulia.

3. The Devil and the Sinners, Detail, Portal, Church St. Foy of Abbey of Conques, France

4. St. Michael killing the dragon, first version,

St. Michael's cathedral, Alba Iulia (Photo:
Sebastian Corneanu)


Brukenthal. Acta Musei, X. 2, 2015

Sebastian Corneanu

5. St. Michael killing the dragon, second

version, St. Michael's cathedral, Alba Iulia
(Photo: Sebastian Corneanu)

6. Archangel Gabriel, St. Michael's cathedral, Alba

Iulia (Photo: Sebastian Corneanu)