SAMPLE
CHAPTER
19
Kinematics
Objectives
To model motion in a straight line and to use calculus to solve problems involving
motion in a line with constant and variable acceleration
To use graphical methods to solve problems involving motion in a straight line
Introduction
Kinematics is the study of motion without reference to the cause of the motion. In this chapter
we will consider the motion of a particle in a straight line only. Such motion is called
rectilinear motion. When referring to the motion of a particle we may in fact be referring to a
body of any size. However for the purposes of studying its motion we can consider that all
forces that act upon the body, causing it to move, act through a single point. Hence we can
consider the motion of a car or train in the same way as we would consider the motion of a
dimensionless particle.
It is important to make a distinction between vector and scalar quantities when studying
motion. Quantities such as displacement, velocity and acceleration must be speciﬁed by both
magnitude and direction. They are vector quantities. Distance, speed and time on the other
hand are speciﬁed by their magnitude only. They are scalar quantities.
Since we are considering movement in a straight line only, the direction of all vector
quantities is simply speciﬁed by the sign of the numerical value.
19.1
Position, velocity and acceleration
Position
The position coordinate of a particle moving in a straight line is determined by its distance
from a ﬁxed point O on the line, called the origin, and whether it is to the right or left of O. Conventionally the direction to the right of the origin is considered to be positive.
O
P
X
463
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Consider a particle which starts at O and begins to move. The position of a particle is determined by a number, x, called the position coordinate. If the units are metres and if
x = −3, the position is 3 m to the left of O, while if x = 3, the displacement is 3 m to the right of O.
The displacement is deﬁned as the change in position of the particle relative to O.
Sometimes there is a rule which enables the position coordinate, at any instant, to be
calculated. In this case x is redeﬁned as a function of t. Hence x(t) is the displacement at
time t. Speciﬁcation of a displacement function together with the physical idealisation of
a
real situation constitute a mathematical model of the situation.
An example of a mathematical model is the following.
A stone is dropped from the top of a vertical cliff 45 m high. Assume that the stone is a
particle travelling in a straight line. Let x(t) be the downwards position of the particle from O,
the top of the cliff, t seconds after the particle is dropped. If air resistance is neglected, an
approximate model for the displacement is
x(t) = 5t ^{2} for 0 ≤ t ≤ 3
is important to distinguish between the scalar quantity distance and the vector quantity
It
displacement.
Consider a particle that starts at O and moves ﬁrstly ﬁve units to the right to point P, and
then seven units to the left to point Q.
Q
O
P
–4
–3
–2
–1
0
123456
Its ﬁnal position is x = −2. However the distance the particle has moved is 12 units.
Example 1
A particle moves in a straight line so that its position x cm relative to O at time t seconds is
given by x = t
a
2
− 7t + 6, t ≥ 0. Find
b
its initial position
its position at t = 4.
Solution
a
b
At t = 0,
At t = 4,
x = +6
x = (4) ^{2} − 7(4) + 6 = −6
i.e. the particle is 6 cm to the right of O.
i.e. the particle is 6 cm to the left of O.
Velocity
You should already be familiar with the concept of a rate of change through your studies in Mathematical Methods. The velocity of a particle is deﬁned as the rate of change of its position with respect to time. We can consider the average rate of change , the change in position over a period of time, or
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Chapter 19 — Kinematics
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we can consider the instantaneous rate of change, which speciﬁes the rate of change at a given instant in time. If a particle moves from x _{1} at time t _{1} to x _{2} at time t _{2} , then its
average velocity =
x 2 − x 1
t _{2} − t _{1}
Velocity may be positive, negative or zero. If the velocity is positive the particle is moving to
the right and if it is negative the direction of motion is to the left. A velocity of zero means the
particle is instantaneously at rest.
The instantaneous rate of change of position with respect to time is the instantaneous
velocity. If the position, x, of the particle at time t is given as a function of t, then the velocity of
the particle at time t is determined by differentiating the rule for position with respect to time.
Common units of velocity (and speed) are:
1 metre per second
1
1 kilometre per hour
= 1 m/s
centimetre per second = 1 cm/s
= 1 km/h
The ﬁrst and third are connected in the following way:
1 km/h = 1000 m/h
∴
=
=
1 m/s =
1000
60 × 60
5
18
18
m/s
km/h
5
m/s
Note the distinction between velocity and speed.
Speed is the magnitude of the velocity.
Average speed for a time interval [ t
_{1} , t _{2} ] is equal to
distances travelled
t _{2} − t _{1}
Instantaneous velocity v =
dx
dt
where x is a function of time.
Example 2
A particle moves in a straight line so that its position x cm relative to O at time t seconds is
given by x = t
a
c
− 7t + 6, t ≥ 0. Find
its initial velocity
its average velocity for the ﬁrst 4 s
2
Solution
a x = t ^{2} − 7t + 6
v = ^{d}^{x}
= 2t − 7
b
d
when and where its velocity equals zero
its average speed for the ﬁrst 4 s.
_{d}_{t} at t = 0, v = −7 i.e. the particle is moving to the left at 7 cm/s.
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b
c
d
2t − 7 = 0 implies t = 3.5 When t = 3.5, x = (3.5) ^{2} − 7(3.5) + 6 = −6.25
The particle is 6.25 cm to the left of O.
∴
change in position
change in time
average velocity =
at t = 4,
average velocity =
x = −6
−6 − +6
4
= −3 cm/s
average speed =
distance travelled
change in time
t = 3.5
t = 4
O
t = 0
–6
1
4
_{–}_{6}
_{–}_{5}
–4
–3
–2
–1
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
Since the particle has stopped at t = 3.5 and begun to move in the opposite direction,
we must consider the distance travelled in the ﬁrst 3.5 s (from x = 6 to x = −6.25)
and then the distance travelled in the ﬁnal 0.5 s (from x = −6.25 to x = −6).
total distance travelled = 12.25 + 0.25 = 12.5
average speed =
12.5
4
= 3.125 cm/s
Acceleration
The acceleration of a particle is deﬁned as the rate of change of its velocity with respect to time.
Average acceleration for the time interval [ t
_{1} , t _{2} ] is deﬁned by
v 2 − v 1
t _{2} − t _{1}
where v _{2} is the
velocity at time t _{2} and v _{1} is the velocity at time t _{1} .
Instantaneous acceleration a =
dv
dt
=
dt dx
dt
d
= ^{d} ^{2} dt
x
2
d ^{2} x
dt
2
is denoted by x ^{}^{} (t) or x¨ (t).
For kinematics, the second derivative
Acceleration may be positive, negative or zero. Zero acceleration means the particle is
moving at a constant velocity. Note that the direction of motion and the acceleration need not
coincide. For example, a particle may have a positive velocity indicating it is moving to the
right, but a negative acceleration indicating it is slowing down. Also, although a particle may be instantaneously at rest its acceleration at that instant need not be zero. If acceleration has the same sign as velocity then the particle is ‘speeding up’. If the sign is opposite the particle is ‘slowing down’. The most commonly used units for acceleration include cm/s ^{2} and m/s ^{2} .
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Chapter 19 — Kinematics
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Example 3
A particle moves in a straight line so that its position x cm relative to O at time t seconds is
given by x = t ^{3} − 6t ^{2} + 5, t ≥ 0. Find
a
b
its initial position, velocity and acceleration and hence describe its motion
the times when it is instantaneously at rest and its position and acceleration at those times.
Solution
a
for x = t ^{3} − 6t ^{2} + 5, v = 3t ^{2}
t = 0
x = 5,
v = 0
− 12t and a = 6t − 12
and a = −12
Particle is instantaneously at rest 5 cm to right of O with an acceleration of
b
−12 cm/s .
v = 3t ^{2} − 12t = 0
3t(t − 4) = 0
2
t = 0 or t = 4
Particle is initially at rest and stops again after 4 s.
At t = 0, x = 5
At t = 4, x = (4) ^{3} − 6(4) ^{2} + 5 = −27
and a = −12
and a = 6(4) − 12 = 12
After 4 s the position of the particle is 27 cm to the left of O and its acceleration is
Examples _{1}_{,} _{2}
Example _{3}
12 cm/s.
Exercise
19A
1
2
A particle moves in a straight line so that its position x cm relative to O at time t seconds
(t ≥ 0) is given by x = t ^{2} − 7t + 12. Find
a
c
e
its initial position
its initial velocity
its average velocity in the ﬁrst 5 s
b
d
f
its position at t = 5
when and where its velocity equals zero
its average speed in the ﬁrst 5 s.
The position x metres at time t seconds (t
given by x = t ^{2} − 7t + 10. Find
a
c
when its velocity equals zero
the distance travelled in the ﬁrst 5 s
≥ 0) of a particle moving in a straight line is
b
d
its acceleration at this time
when and where its velocity is −2 m/s.
3 A particle moving in a straight line is x cm from the point O at time t seconds (t x = t ^{3} − 11t ^{2} + 24t − 3. Find
≥ 0) where
a 
its initial position and velocity 
b 
its velocity at any time 
c 
at what times the particle is stationary 
d 
where the particle is stationary 
e 
for how long the particle’s velocity is negative 
f 
its acceleration at any time 
g 
when the particle’s acceleration is zero and its velocity and position at that time. 
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4 A particle moves in a straight line so that its position x cm relative to O at time t seconds
19.2
5
6
(t ≥ 0) is given by x
a when its velocity is zero and its acceleration at that time
b
= 2t ^{3} − 5t ^{2} + 4t − 5. Find
when its acceleration is zero and its velocity at that time.
A particle moving in a straight line is x cm from the point O at time t seconds (t ≥ 0) where
x = t ^{3} − 13t ^{2} + 46t − 48.
Find when it passes through O and its velocity and acceleration at those times.
Two particles are moving along a straight path so that their displacements, x cm from a
ﬁxed point P at any time, are given by x = t + 2 and x = t
a
b
2
− 2t − 2. Find
the time when the particles are at the same position
the time when they are moving with the same velocity.
Using antiderivatives for kinematics problems
So far we have considered examples where the equation of motion has deﬁned the position of
the particle in terms of time and from it we have derived equations for the velocity and the
acceleration by differentiation.
We may be given a rule for acceleration at time t , and by the use of antidifferentiation with
respect to t and some additional information we can deduce rules for both velocity and
position.
Example 4
A
is
a
c
e
body starts from O and moves in a straight line. After t seconds (t
given by v = 2t − 4. Find
≥ 0) its velocity (v cm/s)
its position x in terms of t
its average velocity in the ﬁrst 3 s
its average speed in the ﬁrst 3 s.
b
d
its position after 3 s
the distance travelled in the ﬁrst 3 s
Solution
a
Antidifferentiate with respect to t to ﬁnd the expression for position x m at time
t seconds
x = t ^{2} − 4t + c
When t = 0, x = 0 and therefore c = 0
x
= t ^{2} − 4t
b When t = 3, x = −3. The body is 3 units to the left of O
c Average velocity = ^{−}^{3} ^{−} ^{0} = −1 m/s
3
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Chapter 19 — Kinematics
_{d} v = 0 when 2t
− 4 = 0, i.e., when t = 2
e
When t = 2, x = −4
Therefore the body goes from x = 0 to x = −4 in the ﬁrst 2 s, then back to −3 in the next second. It has travelled 5 m in the ﬁrst 3 s.
Its average speed is
5
3
m/s.
469
Example 5
A
acceleration of a = 6t + 8. Find its position and velocity at any time t seconds.
particle starts from rest3m from a ﬁxed point and moves in a straight line with an
Solution
a =
dv
dt
= 6t + 8
by antidifferentiating v = 3t
at t = 0,
∴
2
+ 8t + c
v = 0 and so c = 0
v = 3t ^{2} + 8t
by antidifferentiating again x = t
^{3} + 4t ^{2} + d
at t = 0,
∴
x = 3 and so d = 3
x = t ^{3} + 4t ^{2} + 3
Example 6
stone is projected vertically upward from the top of a building 20 m high with an initial
A
velocity of 15 m/s.
Find
a
b
the time taken for the stone to reach its maximum height
the maximum height reached by the stone
the time taken for the stone to reach the ground
the velocity of the stone as it hits the ground.
c
d
In
rectilinear motion. Also we will assume that the acceleration due to gravity is approximately
−10 m/s
this case we only consider the stone’s motion in a vertical direction so we can consider it as
2
(note that downward is considered the negative direction).
Solution
Given that a = −10
∴
at t
v = −10t + c
v
= 0,
= 15
= −10t + 15
∴ v
∴ = = 20
∴
at t = 0,
x
x
−5t ^{2} + 15t + d
x = −5t ^{2} + 15t + 20
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a The stone will reach its maximum height when v = 0
Example _{4}
Example _{6}
Example _{5}
_{b}
c
∴
which implies
−10t + 15 = 0 t = 1.5
At t = 1.5,
x = −5(1.5) ^{2} + 15(1.5) + 20
= 31.25
The maximum height reached by the stone is 31.25 m.
The stone reaches the ground when x = 0
∴
−5t ^{2} + 15t + 20 = 0
−5(t ^{2} − 3t − 4) = 0
−5(t − 4)(t + 1) = 0
t = 4 (solution of t = −1 is rejected since t ≥ 0)
i.e. the stone takes 4 s to reach the ground.
d
At t = 4,
v = −10(4) + 15
= −25
i.e. velocity on impact is −25 m/s.
Exercise
19B
1
2
3
4
A body starts from O and moves in a straight line. After t seconds (t ≥ 0) its velocity
(v cm/s) is given by v = 4t − 6. Find
a
c
e
its position x in terms of t
the distance travelled in the ﬁrst 3 s
its average speed in the ﬁrst 3 s.
b
d
its position after 3 s
its average velocity in the ﬁrst 3 s
The velocity (v m/s) at time t seconds (t ≥ 0) of a particle is given by v = 3t ^{2} − 8t + 5. It
is initially 4 m to the right of a point O. Find
a
b
its displacement and acceleration at any time
its displacement when the velocity is zero
its acceleration when the velocity is zero.
c
A body moves in a straight line with an acceleration of 10 m/s
through O and after 3 s it is 25 m from O, ﬁnd its initial displacement relative to O.
2
. If after 2 s it passes
A body moves in a straight line so that its acceleration ^{} a m/s ^{2} ^{} after time t seconds (t ≥ 0)
is given by a = 2t − 3. If the initial position of the body is 2 m to the right of a point O and
its velocity is 3 m/s, ﬁnd the particle’s position and velocity after 10 s.
5 A body is projected vertically upwards with a velocity of 25 m/s. (Its acceleration due to gravity is −10 m/s ^{2} .) Find
a the particle’s velocity at any time
b its height above the point of projection at any time
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19.3
c the time it takes to reach its maximum height
d the maximum height reached
Chapter 19 — Kinematics
471
e the time taken to return to the point of projection.
6
In a tall building the lift passes the 50th ﬂoor with a velocity of −8 m/s and an acceleration
of
will stop.
1
9
(t − 5) m/s ^{2}
. If each ﬂoor spans a distance of 6 m, ﬁnd at which ﬂoor the lift
Constant acceleration
When considering motion of a particle due to a constant force, e.g. gravity, the acceleration is
constant. There are a number of rules that we may establish by considering the case where
acceleration remains constant or uniform.
Given that
dv
dt
= a
by antidifferentiating we have
v
= at + c where c is the initial velocity.
Using the symbol u for initial velocity we have
v = u + at
1
dx
dt
= v
Now given that
by antidifferentiating a second time we have
x = ut +
1
2
at
2
+ d, where d is the initial position.
If we consider s = x − d as the change in position of the particle from its starting point,
i.e. the particle’s displacement from its initial position, we have
v = ut +
1
2
at ^{2}
2
If we transform the formula v = u + at so that t is the subject we have
t =
v − u
a
By substitution in
s = ut +
1
2
at
s =
u(v − u)
a
2
+
a(v − u) ^{2}
2a ^{2}
2as = 2u(v − u) + (v − u)
2
= 2uv − 2u ^{2} + v ^{2} − 2uv + u ^{2}
= v ^{2} − u ^{2}
i.e.
v ^{2} = u ^{2} + 2as
3
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Also we know that distance travelled = average velocity × time.
i.e.
s =
1
_{2} (u + v)t
4
These four formulas are very useful but it must be remembered that they only apply when
dealing with constant acceleration.
When approaching problems involving constant acceleration it is a good idea to list the
quantities you are given, establish which quantity or quantities you require and then use the
appropriate formula. Ensure that all quantities are converted to compatible units.
Constant acceleration summary
If acceleration is constant, the following formulas may be applied, where u is the initial
velocity, v is the ﬁnal velocity, a is the acceleration, t is the time and s is the displacement.
1
2
1
2
(u + v)t
v = u + at
s = ut +
at ^{2}
v ^{2} = u ^{2} + 2as
s =
Example 7
A body is moving in a straight line with uniform acceleration at an initial velocity of 12 m/s.
After5s its velocity is 20 m/s. Find
a
c
the acceleration
the time taken to travel a distance of 200 m.
b
the distance travelled in this time
Solution
a
_{c}
Given u = 12
v = 20
t = 5
Find a using v = u + at
20 = 12 + 5a
a = 1.6
The acceleration is 1.6 m/s
2
.
b
1
Find s using s = ut + _{2} at
2
= 12(5) +
= 80
1
2
(1.6)5
The distance travelled is 80 m.
Using the formula
s = ut +
1
2
200 = 12t +
200 = 12t +
at ^{2} gives
1
_{×} (1.6) _{×} _{t}
2
4
5
t
2
1000 = 60t + 4t
2
i.e.
250
t ^{2} + 15t − 250 (t − 10)(t + 25)
= = 0 = 0
15t + t
2
2
∴
As t ≥ 0,
t = 10 or t = −25
t = 10 is the acceptable solution.
2
The body takes 10 s to travel a distance of 200 m.
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Example _{7}
Chapter 19 — Kinematics
473
How long does it take for a body at rest to travel a distance of 30 m if it is accelerated at
1.5
m/s ^{2} ?
2
A car is travelling at 25 m/s when the brakes are applied. It is brought to rest with uniform
deceleration in 3 s. How far would it travel after the brakes were applied?
3
4
5
A motor cycle accelerates uniformly from 3 m/s to 30 m/s in 9 s. Find
a
b
the acceleration
the time it will take to increase in speed from 30 m/s to 50 m/s
the distance travelled in the ﬁrst 15 s (assuming it starts from rest)
the time taken to reach a speed of 200 km/h (assuming it starts from rest).
c
d
A car accelerating uniformly from rest reaches a speed of 45 km/h in 5 s. Find
a
b
its acceleration
the distance travelled in the 5 s.
A train starts from rest at a station and accelerates uniformly at 0.5 m/s ^{2} until it reaches a
speed of 90 km/h.
a
b
How long does the train take to reach this speed?
How far does the train travel in reaching this speed?
6
A train travelling at 54 km/h begins to climb an incline of constant gradient that produces
a deceleration of 0.25 m/s
a
b
2
.
How long will the train take to travel a distance of 250 m?
What will the train’s speed be then?
For 7 to 11 assume that the acceleration due to gravity is − 9.8 m/s
resistance. Upward motion is considered to be in the positive direction.
2
and ignore air
7
A stone is projected vertically upwards from O with a speed of 20 m/s. Find
a
b
the velocity of the stone after 4 s
the distance of the stone from O after 4 s.
8
9
Repeat 7 for the stone being projected downwards from O with the same speed.
A body is projected vertically upwards with a velocity of 49 m/s.
a
b When will the body be at a height of 102.9 m above the point of projection?
After what time will the body return to the point of projection?
10 A man dives from a springboard where his centre of gravity is initially 3 m above the water and his initial velocity is 4.9 m/s upwards. Regarding the diver as a particle at his centre of gravity, and assuming that the diver’s motion is vertical, ﬁnd
a the diver’s velocity after t seconds
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b the diver’s height above the water after t seconds
c the maximum height of the diver above the water
11
12
d the time taken for the diver to reach the water.
A stone is thrown vertically upwards from the top edge of a cliff 24.5 m high with a speed
of 19.6 m/s. Find
a
b
the time taken for the stone to reach its maximum height
the maximum height reached from the foot of the cliff
the time taken for the stone to return to the point of projection
the time taken for the stone to reach the foot of the cliff.
c
d
A body is travelling at 20 m/s when it passes point P and 40 m/s when it passes point Q.
Find its speed when it is halfway from P to Q, assuming uniform acceleration.
19.4
Velocity–time graphs
Many kinematics problems can be solved using velocity–time graphs. These are particularly
useful if acceleration is constant but with a broader knowledge of integral calculus they can
also be used when acceleration is variable.
First, we understand that if the acceleration is constant then v = u + at .
This constitutes a linear relationship between v and t where a is the gradient of the
corresponding velocity–time graph.
Since v = ^{d}^{x} dt
it follows that
t
1
t
2
v(t)dt = x _{2} − x _{1}
where x _{1} is the position at time t _{1} and x _{2} is the position at time t _{2} .
Then the total area of the region(s) between
the velocity–time graph and the t axis
corresponds to the distance travelled by
the particle between times t
_{1}
and t _{2} .
Consideration of the velocity–time graph
is particularly useful in situations where
there are several stages to the particle’s
motion.
v
area =
displacement
t
1
t
2
t
Example 8
A car starts from rest and accelerates uniformly for 25 s until it is travelling at 25 m/s. It
then maintains this velocity for 3 minutes before decelerating uniformly until it stops in
another 15 s. Construct a velocity–time graph and use it to determine the total distance travelled in kilometres.
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Solution
Chapter 19 — Kinematics
475
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Police car: _{2} × 25 × 130 + 130(T − 25)
1
= (1625 + 130T − 3250)
= (130T − 1625)
5
18
5
18
5
18
When the police car catches the motorist
100T + 350 = 130T − 1625
30T = 1975
T =
395
6
The police car catches the motorist after 65.83 s.
∴
distance = (100T + 350)
=
52 000
27
m
distance = 1.926 km
5
18
where T =
395
6
The police car has travelled 1.926 km when it catches the motorist.
Example _{8}
Exercise
19D
It is suggested that you draw a velocity–time graph for each of these questions.
1
A particle starts from rest and accelerates uniformly for5s until it reaches a speed of
10 m/s. It immediately decelerates uniformly until it comes to rest after a further 8 s. How
far did it travel?
2
3
4
A car accelerates uniformly from rest for 10 s to a speed of 15 m/s. It maintains this speed
for a further 25 s before decelerating uniformly to rest after a further 15 s. Find
a
b
the total distance travelled by the car
the distance it had travelled when it started to decelerate
the time taken for it to reach the halfway point of its journey.
c
A particle starts from rest and travels 1 km before coming to rest again. For the ﬁrst 5 s it
accelerates uniformly. It next maintains a constant speed for 500 m, and then decelerates
uniformly for the last 10 s. Find the maximum speed of the particle.
A car passes point P with a speed of 36 km/h and continues at this speed for 12 s before accelerating to a speed of 72 km/h in 6 s. How far from P is the car when it reaches a speed of 72 km/h?
Cambridge University Press • Uncorrected Sample Pages • 9780521612524 2008 © Evans, Lipson, Jones, Avery, TINspire & Casio ClassPad material prepared in collaboration with Jan Honnens & David Hibbard
SAMPLE
Chapter 19 — Kinematics
477
5 A tram decelerates uniformly from a speed of 60 km/h to rest in 60 s. Find
a the distance travelled by the tram
b how far it had travelled by the time it had reduced its speed by half
Example _{9}
6
c
the time taken for it to travel half the total distance.
A car passes a point A with a speed of 15 m/s and continues travelling at that speed. A
second car starts from rest and accelerates uniformly until it reaches a speed of 25 m/s in
10 s. Both cars continue with a constant speed on to point B which they reach at the same
7
8
time.
a
b
How long does it take for both cars to reach point B?
How far is it from A to B?
Two stations A and B are 14 km apart. A train passes through station A, heading towards B,
maintaining a constant speed of 60 km/h. At the instant it passes through A, a second train
on the same track leaves station B, heading towards A, and accelerates uniformly. After 5
minutes the alarm is raised at both stations simultaneously that a collision is imminent.
Both trains are radioed and told to brake. The ﬁrst train decelerates uniformly so that it will
stop in 2.5 minutes. The second train, which has reached a speed of 80 km/h, will take 4
minutes to stop. Will they collide?
Two tram stops are 800 m apart. A tram starts at rest from the ﬁrst stop and accelerates at a
constant acceleration of a m/s
2a m/s
stops is 1 min 40 seconds. Find
a
b
2
for a certain time and then decelerates at a constant rate of
2
, before coming to rest at the second stop. The time taken to travel between the
the maximum speed reached by the tram in km/h
the time at which the brakes are applied
the value of a.
c
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Review
SAMPLE
478 Essential Advanced General Mathematics
Chapter summary 

The position coordinate of a particle moving in a straight line is determined by its distance 

from a ﬁxed point O, called the origin, and whether the particle is to the right or left of O. 

Conventionally, the direction to the right of the origin is considered to be positive. 


displacement (x) is the position of the particle relative to O 

dx 


velocity (v) is the rate of change of its position with respect to time, i.e. v = 

dt 


speed is a scalar quantity and refers to the distance travelled per unit time 

change in position 


average velocity = 

change in time 

distance travelled 


average speed = 
change in time 


acceleration (a) is the rate of change of its velocity with respect to time, i.e. 

dv 
d 2 x 

a = 
= 

dt Constant acceleration 
dt 
2 

If acceleration is constant, the following formulae may be applied where u is the initial 

velocity, v is the ﬁnal velocity, a is the acceleration, t is the time and s is the displacement 


v = u + at 

s = ut + 
1 
at 2 
2 
2 
1 
(u + v) t 

Velocity–time graphs 
2 

v 
= u 
+ 2as 

s = 
2 

The area of the region(s) between the velocity–time (v against t) graph and the t axis 

between t = t 1 
and t = 
t 
2 
corresponds to the distance travelled by the particle between 

times t 1 and 
t 2 
. 

Multiplechoice questions 

1 
A particle moves in a straight line so that its position x cm from a ﬁxed point O at time t 

seconds (t ≥ 0) is given by x = −t 
3 
+ 
7t 
2 − 12t. The initial position of the particle 

relative to O is 

A 
0 cm 
B 
−6 cm 
C 
12 cm 
D 
−20 cm 
E 
5 cm 

2 
A particle moves in a straight line so that its position x cm from a ﬁxed point O at time t 

seconds (t ≥ 0) is given by x = −t 
3 
+ 
7t 
2 − 12t. The average velocity of the particle in 

the ﬁrst 2 s correct to two decimal places is 

A 
4 cm/s 
B 
−4 cm/s 
C 
2 cm/s 
D 
4.06 cm/s 
E 
−2 cm/s 

3 
A particle moves in a straight line with acceleration of 4 − 6t m/s 2 
at time t seconds. The 

particle has an initial velocity of −1 m/s and an initial position of 4 m from a ﬁxed point O. 

The velocity of the particle when t = 1 is 

A 
−1 m/s 
B 
6 m/s 
C 
0 m/s 
D 
4 m/s 
E 
−2 m/s 
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Review
SAMPLE
Chapter 19 — Kinematics
479
Shortanswer questions (technologyfree)
1 A particle moves in a straight line so that its position x cm relative to O at time t seconds
(t
a
c
e
≥ 0) is given by x = t
2 − 4t − 5. Find
its initial position 
b 
its position at t = 3 
its initial velocity 
d 
when and where its velocity equals zero 
its average velocity in the ﬁrst 3 s 
f 
its average speed in the ﬁrst 3 s. 
2 A particle moves in a straight line so that its position x cm relative to O at time t seconds (t ≥ 0) is given by x = t ^{3} − 2t ^{2} + 8. Find
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Review
SAMPLE
480 Essential Advanced General Mathematics
5
A particle moving in a straight line has acceleration of 6t m/s
2
at time t seconds (t
≥ 0). If
6
A particle moving in a straight line has acceleration of (3 − 2t) m/s
2
at time t seconds
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Review
SAMPLE
Chapter 19 — Kinematics
481
a Find the acceleration at time t.
b Find the acceleration at the instant when the body ﬁrst changes direction.
c Find the displacement of the body from O after 5 s, and the total distance travelled in
10
11
the ﬁrst 5 s.
A car is travelling at 20 m/s when the brakes are applied. It is brought to rest with uniform
deceleration in 4 s. How far did it travel after the brakes were applied?
A car accelerates uniformly from 0 to 30 m/s in 12 s. Find
a
b
the acceleration
the time it will take to increase in speed from 30 m/s to 50 m/s
the distance travelled in the ﬁrst 20 s
the time taken to reach a speed of 100 km/h.
c
d
speed of 60 km/h.
a
b
How long does the train take to reach this speed?
How far does the train travel in reaching this speed?
For questions 13 and 14 assume that the acceleration due to gravity is −9.8 m/s
resistance. Upward motion is considered to be in the positive direction.
13
2
and ignore air
A body is projected vertically upward with a velocity of 35 m/s.
a
b
A stone is projected vertically upward from the top of a cliff 20 m high with a speed of
After what time will the body return to the point of projection?
When will the body be at a height of 60 m above the point of projection?
14
19.6 m/s. Find
a
b
c
d
the time taken for the stone to reach its maximum height
the maximum height reached, with respect to ground level
the time taken for the stone to return to the point of projection
the time taken for the stone to reach the foot of the cliff.
It is suggested that you draw a velocity–time graph for each of the questions 15 to 18.
15
A particle starts from rest and accelerates uniformly for 15 s until it reaches a speed of
25 m/s. It immediately decelerates uniformly until it comes to rest after a further 20 s. How
far did it travel?
A car accelerates uniformly from rest for 8 s to a speed of 12 m/s. It maintains this speed
for a further 15 s before decelerating uniformly to rest after a further 10 s. Find
a
b
A vehicle starts from rest and travels 1 km before coming to rest again. For the ﬁrst 15 s it accelerates uniformly, before maintaining a constant speed for 800 m then ﬁnally decelerating uniformly to rest in 10 s. Find the maximum speed of the vehicle.
16
the total distance travelled by the car
the time taken for it to reach the halfway point of its journey.
17
18 A car travels at a constant speed of 12 m/s along a straight road. It passes a second stationary car which sets off in pursuit3s later. Find the constant acceleration required for the second car so that it catches the ﬁrst car after a further 27 s has passed.
12
A train starts from rest at a station and accelerates uniformly at 0.4 m/s
2
until it reaches a
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Review
SAMPLE
482 Essential Advanced General Mathematics
19 
A particle moves in a straight line so that t seconds after passing a ﬁxed point O in the line, 

its velocity, v metres per second, is given by v = ^{t} ^{2} _{4} 
− 3t + 5. 

Calculate: 

a 
the velocity after 10 s 
b the acceleration when t = 0 
c the minimum velocity 

d 
the distance travelled in the ﬁrst 2 s 
e 
the distance travelled in the 3rd second. 

20 
A spot of light moves along a straight line so that its acceleration t seconds after passing a 

ﬁxed point O on the line is (2 − 2t) cm/s 2 . Three seconds after passing O the spot has a 

velocity of 5 cm/s. Find, in terms of t, an expression for 

a 
the velocity of the spot of light after t seconds 

b 
the distance of the spot from O after t seconds. 

21 
A point P is moving along a straight line. It passes through a point O with a velocity 6 m/s 

and, t seconds after passing through O, its acceleration is (4 − 4t) m/s 
2 
. 

a 
Show that, t seconds after passing through O, the velocity of P is 
6 + 4t − 2t 
2 

m/s. 

b 
Calculate 

i 
the maximum velocity of P 

ii 
the value of t when the velocity of P is again 6 m/s 

iii 
the distance OP when the velocity of P is zero. 

22 
A particle travelling in a straight line passes a ﬁxed point O with a velocity 5 m/s. Its 

acceleration, a m/s 
2 , is given by a = 27 − 4t 
2 
, where t seconds is the time after passing O. 

Calculate 

a 
the acceleration of the particle as is passes O 

b 
its velocity when t = 3 

c 
the value of t when its velocity is again 5 m/s. 

23 
A particle passes a ﬁxed point O with a velocity of 2 m/s and moves in a straight line with 

acceleration of 3 (1 
− t) m/s 
2 
, where t is the time in seconds after passing O. Calculate 

a 
the velocity when t = 4 
b 
the position of the particle at this instant. 


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