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TRANSFORMER LIFE MANAGEMENT,

CONDITION ASSESSMENT
&
DISSOLVED GAS ANALYSIS

By : VK LAKHIANI
CROMPTON GREAVES LTD
MUMBAI
19/09/2006 Prepared by : VKL 1
OUTLOOK

• MECHANISMS OF LIFE DEGRADATION


PHENOMENA

• KEY DETERIORATION PROCESSES

• LIFE ASSESSMENT AND CONDITION


MONITORING TECHNIQUES &
RECOMMENDATIONS

• DISSOLVED GAS ANALYSIS

19/09/2006 Prepared by : VKL 2


TRANSFORMER LIFE INVOLVES
SEVERAL MECHANISMS OF
DEGRADATION

19/09/2006 Prepared by : VKL 3


COMPONENTS OF TECHNICAL LIFE OF A
TRANSFORMER

1) THERMAL LIFE

2) DIELECTRIC LIFE

3) MECHANICAL LIFE

4) LIFE OF ACCESSORIES

19/09/2006 Prepared by : VKL 4


Thermal Life
Time to critical decomposition DP<200

AGED

Is the Life of Transformer


mechanical life of Aged paper?

19/09/2006 Prepared by : VKL 5


Dielectric Life
Time span to critical reduction of dielectric margin

19/09/2006 Prepared by : VKL 6


Mechanical weakness and
Deformation under cumulative stresses
of through faults

19/09/2006 Prepared by : VKL 7


Impairment of electromagnetic circuit

19/09/2006 Prepared by : VKL 8


Life of OLTC

19/09/2006 Prepared by : VKL 9


Limited life of bushings

19/09/2006 Prepared by : VKL 10


TRANSFORMER LIFE IS TRANSFORMER
INSULATION LIFE

TRANSFORMER INSULATION LIFE IS DEFINED AS PER


IEC 60076-7 AS :

“TOTAL TIME BETWEEN THE INITIAL STATE


FOR WHICH THE INSULATION IS CONSIDERED NEW
AND THE FINAL STATE WHEN DUE TO THERMAL
AGEING, DIELECTRIC STRESS, SHORT CIRCUIT
STRESS, OR MECHANICAL MOVEMENT, WHICH COULD
OCCUR IN NORMAL SERVICE AND RESULT IN A HIGH
RISK OF ELECTRICAL FAILURE”

19/09/2006 Prepared by : VKL 11


RELATIVE THERMAL AGEING RATE

AS DEFINED IN IEC 60076-7

“FOR A GIVEN HOT SPOT TEMPERATURE, RATE AT


WHICH TRANSFORMER INSULATION AGEING IS
REDUCED OR ACCELERATED COMPARED WITH THE
AGEING RATE AT A REFERENCE HOT SPOT
TEMPERATURE”

THE RELATIVE AGEING RATE v=1.0 CORRESPONDS TO


TEMPERATURE OF 98°C FOR NON-THERMNALLY
UPGRADED PAPER AND TO 110°C FOR THERMALLY
UPGRADED PAPER.

19/09/2006 Prepared by : VKL 12


LIFE OF PAPER UNDER VARIOUS CONDITIONS

PAPER TYPE / LIFE YEARS


AGEING TEMP DRY AND FREE WITH AIR AND
FROM AIR 2% MOISTURE

NON- 80°C 118 5.7


UPGRADED
PAPER 90°C 38 1.9
98°C 15 0.8
UPGRADED 80°C 72 76
PAPER
90°C 34 27
98°C 18 12

19/09/2006 Prepared by : VKL 13


RELATIVE AGEING RATE

(θh – 98/6)
V=2 ………….. FOR NON-THERMALLY
UPGRADED PAPER

{ 15000 15000 }
{ ------------ - --------- }
{ 110 + 273 θh + 273 }

V= e

…………….FOR THERMALLY
UPGRADED PAPER

WHERE θh = HOTSPOT TEMPERATURE °C

19/09/2006 Prepared by : VKL 14


RELATIVE AGEING RATES DUE TO
HOT--SPOT TEMPERATURE
θh °C NON-UPGRADED PAPER UPGRADED PAPER
–V -V
80 0.125 0.036
86 0.25 0.073
92 0.5 0.145
98 1.0 0.282
104 2.0 0.536
110 4.0 1.0
116 8.0 1.83
122 16.0 3.29
128 32.0 5.8
134 64.0 10.1
140 128.0 17.2

19/09/2006 Prepared by : VKL 15


NORMAL INSULATION LIFE OF A WELL DRIED, OXYGEN
FREE THERMALLY UPGRADED PAPER AT REFERENCE
TEMPERATURE OF 110 °C

BASIS NORMAL INSULATION LIFE


HOURS YEARS
50% RETAINED TENSILE 65000 7.42
STRENGTH OF INSULATION
25% RETAINED TENSILE 135000 15.41
STRENGTH OF INSULATION
200 RETAINED DEGREE OF 150000 17.12
POLYMERISATION
INTERPRETATION OF 180000 20.55
DISTRIBUTED TRANSFORMER
FUNCTIONAL LIFE

19/09/2006 Prepared by : VKL 16


DIELECTRIC LIFE

• ‘PD’ GOVERNS THE DIELECTRIC LIFE!


• PD IS A RESULT OF VOLTAGE STRESSES
• VOLTAGE STRESSES ARE ON ACCOUNT OF
SWITCHING IN/OFF, LIGHTNING, SYSTEM
OVERVOLTAGES
• DESIGN IS MADE FOR PD FREE CONDITION AT
TEST VOLTAGE
• TEST LEVELS ARE MUCH HIGHER THAN DAY
IN/DAY OUT SWITCHING CONDITIONS
• FOR NEW INSULATION THESE SWITCHING
IN/OFF OPERATIONS DO NOT AFFECT THE LIFE
• IN AGED INSULATION PD THRESHOLD VALUE MAY
REDUCE AND PD MAY OCCUR DURING
SWITCHING IN/OUT CONDITIONS AFFECTING LIFE
• NO DATA AVAILABLE AS TO HOW MANY TIMES
SWITCHING IN/OFF MAY BE PERMITTED
• INRUSH CURRENTS MAY HAVE MECHANICAL
STRESSING
19/09/2006 Prepared by : VKL 17
MECHANICAL LIFE
(DUE TO SYSTEM SHORT CIRCUIT FAULTS)
• THERE IS NO CONSENSUS ABOUT HOW MANY
TIMES THE TRANSFORMER CAN WITHSTAND
SHORT CIRCUITS AT FULL LEVEL.

• FAILURE RATE AT KEMA AND OTHER SHORT


CIRCUIT LAB IS 30% OR MORE

• THERE IS NO CONSENSUS ON AGEING DUE TO


SHORT CIRCUIT

• WINDING DISPLACEMENT DO TAKE PLACE


WITH EVERY SHORT CIRCUIT AND NEED BE
MONITORED BY FRA

19/09/2006 Prepared by : VKL 18


The life cycle
SAFETY
MARGIN

CRITICAL
LEVEL

NORMAL DEFECTIVE FAULTY

FAILED

19/09/2006 Prepared by : VKL 19


Review of key deterioration
processes

19/09/2006 Prepared by : VKL 20


Deterioration processes

Moisture contamination
Particles in oil
Oil oxidation
Paper aging
Surface contamination
Impact of oil by-products

19/09/2006 Prepared by : VKL 21


Moisture contamination

19/09/2006 Prepared by : VKL 22


Why Moisture management is so important
for transformer life?

Moisture affects transformers both in the short and long term.


Short-term risks
electrical failures due to the influence of the moisture in both the
paper and the oil in the transformer, e.g.
• Partial discharge
• Surface creapage
• Flashovers

Long-term risk
The presence of moisture in the transformer, to whatever degree,
does actually harm the insulation which is, in fact permanent
damage.

19/09/2006 Prepared by : VKL 23


What is the effect of moisture on the
dielectric breakdown voltage in the
insulation?

The dielectric properties of the solid and liquid insulation are


partly influenced by the water content and temperature.

The dielectric breakdown voltage of the solid insulation


decreases with increasing water content.

This occurs most noticeably after 2 to 3 percent, but usually the


lower levels are considered best for complete electrical
integrity.

19/09/2006 Prepared by : VKL 24


What is bubble evolution?
Bubble evolution occurs when the transformer insulation
is heated rapidly to the extent that the moisture within the
paper is transformed into vapours, which move out of the
paper in a bubble form.
This phenomenon can cause streaming of gas bubbles in an
electrical stress field, thus creating a flashover,Under overload
conditions.
Dry transformers (<0,5% water in paper) are much less
susceptible to bubble evolution. Emergency loading of dry
insulation at hot-spot temperatures below 180°C may be
possible with little risk of bubble generation.
However, a wetter unit, with 2.0% moisture in paper,
should not be operated above hot-spot temperatures of
139°C under the same conditions.

19/09/2006 Prepared by : VKL 25


Structure of Transformer Insulation

Processes of insulation deterioration involve


slow diffusion of water, gases, and aging products and
therefore affect basically only the so-called thin structure

19/09/2006 Prepared by : VKL 26


The main insulation components of a
core-type transformer

Clamping
plate

Spacer block
Angle ring

Paper wrap around


Cylinder copper wire

19/09/2006 Prepared by : VKL 27


Insulation components. Thin structure

: Turn coil, conductors (paper)


: Barriers (pressboard)
: Angle ring

Diffusion time constant – a few days-month


19/09/2006 Prepared by : VKL 28
Insulation components. Thick structure
40-55% of the mass and 4-8% of the surface

: Support blocks
: Strips , Spacers
: Clamping rings and plates

Diffusion time constant – some years

19/09/2006 Prepared by : VKL 29


Thick components absorb miserable
amount of moisture

Thin

50 days
φ= 55%
Thick

19/09/2006 Prepared by : VKL 30


Thin structure retain a large portion of the
water

Thin cold structures” that operate at bulk oil temperatures is


the main storage area for water which is readily available for
migration between oil and cellulosic materials
About 10% (by mass) which is at the coldest temperature,
forms “ wet” zones, where water contents can be 1 – 1.5%
higher than the average value

Components of this group are the main source of high water


in oil during temperature cycling

19/09/2006 Prepared by : VKL 31


Moisture profile

19/09/2006 Prepared by : VKL 32


What are sources of Moisture in
transformers ?
Source of Moisture
Once in service a transformer is subjected to the
following sources of moisture:

external - from the atmosphere

internal - from manufacture

internal - from cellulose (paper) ageing

19/09/2006 Prepared by : VKL 33


Free water through poor sealing
is repeatable worldwide case

19/09/2006 Prepared by : VKL 34


19/09/2006 Prepared by : VKL 35
Accumulation of free water on the bottom
core yoke

19/09/2006 Prepared by : VKL 36


Merits & Limitations of Moisture-
measurement methods
Methods used
Karl-Fisher method Simple conventional method, difficult to
estimate moisture in solid insulation.
Requires proprietary algorithms to relate
On-line moisture probe moisture content reading indicated by
probe to moisture in solid insulation

Estimates the level of water contamination


using the build-up of water content in oil
Water Heat Run test with time and temperature
Dielectric Spectroscopy
Return Voltage measurement RVM The measured moisture content is much
higher than the other method. The
interpretation is too simplistic. Does not
take into account dependencies on
geometry of design and oil properties.
Frequency Domain Spectroscopy] These methods take into account geometry
-- FDS ] and oil properties into account. Better
method for estimating moisture in solid
Polarization /Depolarization ]
insulation.
Current -- PDC ]

19/09/2006 Prepared by : VKL 37


Particles in oil

19/09/2006 Prepared by : VKL 38


Particles origin

Manufacturing Foreign
Debris Debris

Oil

Component Oil delivered


delivered particles particles

19/09/2006 Prepared by : VKL 39


Particles mode
Manufacturing Cellulose fibers,
iron,aluminum,copper
Foreign Cellulose fibers,
Manufacturing iron,aluminum,copper
Installation, Repair

Component wear Cellulose fibers,


out:Pumps, coolers, OLTC, iron,aluminum,copper
contacts, cellulose

Oil : oxidation pyrolysis by- Polymers, carbon


products/
19/09/2006 Prepared by : VKL 40
Type of particles

Floating in oil
In solution in oil
On surface deposition
Migration through paper layers

19/09/2006 Prepared by : VKL 41


Particles microscopic analysis
Quartz

Coke

Insect
Paper fiber
Fragment

19/09/2006 Copper
Prepared by : VKL 42
Insulation contamination

19/09/2006 Prepared by : VKL 43


Surface contamination

19/09/2006 Prepared by : VKL 44


Attraction by field and Deposit
conductive sediments
Oil sludge deposit

Carbon deposit
Conductive particles deposit
19/09/2006 Prepared by : VKL 45
Impact of corrosive oil
Originally formally non-corrosive oil becomes
corrosive under effect of temperature and time
The presence of Cu2S coating (copper sulfite)
On conductor
On paper facing the conductor
On free cellulose surfaces
Deposition can occur at low temperatures
Time required for test 12 weeks at 100oC, 3 weeks 120oC

19/09/2006 Prepared by : VKL 46


Corrosive Deposits on Coils

19/09/2006 Prepared by : VKL 47


Failures of 28 MVA ,500 kV shunt reactors due to
affect of corrosive sulfur

Bad cooling due to


obstruction to the oil entrance

short circuits between turns


of the disks in the upper
part of the winding
copper conductors were covered
19/09/2006 by aby heavy
Prepared : VKL black film 48
Alternative Corrosion Tests

ASTM D 1275 IEC ( DIN 51353) ГОСТ 2917-76


Copper strip 19 silver strip.
hours @ 140oC Copper strip
in air at 100°C
for 18 hours 3 hours @ 100oC

Modified
ABB proposal:
ASTM D1275
Covered Conductor Corrosion & Deposition
48 hours wrapped copper conductor bar,
@ 150oC 100°C Prepared
9-12 weeks.
19/09/2006 by : VKL 49
Oil oxidation

19/09/2006 Prepared by : VKL 50


Mechanism of oxidation: attack of
Dissolved oxygen
Peroxide Alcohols
Free radicals Phenols

Product of Non-acid polar


Carboxyl Carbonides
condensation and (acids)
polymerization Aldehydes
Ketones

Sludge:
Soluble
Non-soluble
19/09/2006 Prepared by : VKL 51
Paper aging

19/09/2006 Prepared by : VKL 52


Thermal Life is a function of
temperature, water and by-products

1 1
− 13350
DPEnd DPStart T + 273
Expected _ Life = ⋅e [ years ]
A • 24 ∗ 365

Water & acids


Hot spot
temperature

19/09/2006 Prepared by : VKL 53


Aging profile

19/09/2006 Prepared by : VKL 54


End of life can come under 20
Aging profile of 700 MVA, 420 kV, 14 years

Hot spot area

19/09/2006 Prepared by : VKL 55


Impact of oil by-product on
degradation of insulation
properties

19/09/2006 Prepared by : VKL 56


Predominant deterioration of
surface layers from oil side
Destruction of surface
layers

Oil side

19/09/2006 Copper side Prepared by : VKL 57


Residue results in dielectric
degradation

Insulation Stability to Surface


condition PD Resistivity
actions.Time
Ohm
to flashover
Pressboard Flashover 3·1013
with residue immediately
on the after rise the
surface voltage
Without 12 min 2·1014
residue
19/09/2006 Prepared by : VKL 58
Adsorption of oil by products results in
deterioration of dielectric properties of
paper
Hydrophilic Sludge
acids tgδ20 ε20
Oil initial 0.01 ND 0.14
final 0.21 0.01 0.71
Kraft initial 0.6 3.3
paper final 14.5 4.9
Creep initial 0.43 2.3
paper final 10.1 3.9
19/09/2006 Prepared by : VKL 59
Condition Assessment
and Maintenance

19/09/2006 Prepared by : VKL 60


Main maintenance modes

Reactive – reacting to problems as they


arise due to emergencies
Proactive – work programme based
on monitored data

19/09/2006 Prepared by : VKL 61


Reactive maintenance varies from:

“If it is not broken don’t fix it”, to

Time based activities that are carried out


too often, and may not be required

19/09/2006 Prepared by : VKL 62


PROACTIVE MAINTENANCE is based on
surveillance and monitoring activities:

SURVEILLANCE involves batch analysis of oil


samples and planned diagnostic measurements

MONITORING involves regular measurement


of data, perhaps on a continuous basis

19/09/2006 Prepared by : VKL 63


Aims of transformer surveillance

• Predictive maintenance
• Life extension
• Refurbishment
• Replacement strategy

19/09/2006 Prepared by : VKL 64


Drivers to install surveillance equipment

• Need to reduce maintenance costs


• Increased use of power electronics
• Maintenance equipment inefficient for
modern electronics-based schemes

19/09/2006 Prepared by : VKL 65


Transformer surveillance – on-line
• Oil analysis (resistivity, particles, water)
• Dissolved gas analysis
• Liquid chromatography
• Partial discharge (electrical Lemke probe)
• Partial discharge (acoustic)
• Temperature (infra-red camera)
• Vibration

19/09/2006 Prepared by : VKL 66


Transformer surveillance – off-line measurements

• Recovery voltage method (RVM)


• Leakage inductance
• Low frequency impulse
• Fourier analysis
• Frequency response analysis (FRA)
• Dielectric loss angle

19/09/2006 Prepared by : VKL 67


Transformer surveillance – intrusive measurements

• Degree of polymerisation (DP index)


• Winding clamping pressure
• OLTC contact wear
• Gel permeation chromatography
• X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

19/09/2006 Prepared by : VKL 68


Transformer condition monitoring :
External sensors

• Temperature (tank and OLTC)


• Partial discharge (electrical and acoustic)
• Current (loading , fault levels and life history)
• Voltage (system transients)
• On-line DGA
19/09/2006 Prepared by : VKL 69
Transformer condition monitoring :
Internal sensors
• Partial discharge (waveguide and acoustic)
• Water content of oil
• Hydrogen and CH gases
• Winding temperature (point and distributed)
• Movement and vibration
• Magnetic field

19/09/2006 Prepared by : VKL 70


Maintenance strategies

• CM - corrective maintenance
• TBM - time based maintenance
• CBM - condition based maintenance
• RCM - reliability centred maintenance

19/09/2006 Prepared by : VKL 71


RECOMMENDATION FOR CONDITION MONITORING

1. THERMAL LIFE

1) DGA
2) FURFURAL C ONTENTS
3) DP
4) FIBRE OPTIC HOT SPOT MEASUREMENT(NEW)
5) THERMAL IMAGING

2. DIELECTRIC LIFE

1) PD
2) OIL QUANTITY
3) FDS

3. MECHANICAL

1) FRA
19/09/2006 Prepared by : VKL 72
DISSOLVED GAS ANALYSIS (DGA)
OF MINERAL OIL INSULATING
FLUIDS IN TRANSFORMERS -
INTERPRETATIONS

19/09/2006 Prepared by : VKL 73


WHY DGA ?

1. INSULATING MATERIALS AT HIGHER


TEMPERATURES AND AT ELECTRICAL
FAULTS BREAKDOWN LIBERATE GASES.

2. DISTRIBUTION OF THESE GASES CAN BE RELATED


TO TYPE OF FAULTS AND RATE OF GAS
GENERATION CAN INDICATE THE SEVERITY OF
FAULT :

3. OBVIOUS ADVANTAGES THAT DGA CAN PROVIDE


ARE :
i) ADVANCE WARNING OF DEVELOPING FAULTS
ii) DETERMINING THE IMPROPER USE OF UNITS
iii) STATUS CHECKS ON NEW & REPAIRED UNITS
iv) CONVENIENT SCHEDULING OF REPAIRS
v) MONITORING OF UNITS UNDER OVERLOAD

19/09/2006 Prepared by : VKL 74


BASICS OF DGA ?

ORIGIN OF FAULT GASES :

1) CORONA OR PARTIAL DISCHARGE


2) PYROLYSIS OR THERMAL HEATING
3) ARCING

- THESE THREE CAUSES DIFFER MAINLY IN THE


INTENSITY OF ENERGY DISSIPATION PER UNIT
TIME PER UNIT VOLUME BY FAULT.

- MOST SEVERE INTENSITY OF ENERGY


DISSIPATION OCCURS WITH ARCING LESS WITH
HEATING AND LEAST WITH CORONA

19/09/2006 Prepared by : VKL 75


FAULT GASES

CLASSIFIED IN 3 GROUPS :

1. HYDROCARBONS AND HYDROGEN


METHANE CH4 ETHANE C2H6
ETHYLENE C2H4 ACETYLENE C2H2
HYDROGEN H2
2. CARBON OXIDES
CARBON MONOXIDE Co
CARBON DIAOXIDE Co2
3. NON-FAULT GASES
NITROGEN N2 OXYGEN 02

SOME LABORATORIES ALSO MEASURE PROPYLENE,


PROPANE AND PROPYNE
19/09/2006 Prepared by : VKL 76
FAULT GASES Vs TYPE OF MATERIAL INVOLVED
AND TYPE OF FAULT

1. CORONA
A) OIL H2
B) CELLULOSE H2, Co, Co2

2. PYROLYSIS LOW TEMP. HIGH TEMP.


A) OIL CH4, C2H6 C2H4,H2(CH4,C2H2)
B) CELLULOSE Co2 (Co) Co (Co2)

3. ARCING H2, C2H2 (CH4, C2H6, C2H4)

19/09/2006 Prepared by : VKL 77


FAILURE ANALYSIS AND DGA

1. INSTANTANEOUS FAILURES THAT CANNOT BE


PREVENTED BY DGA

-FLASHOVER WITH POWER FLOW THROUGH

2. SERIOUS FAILURES, DEVELOPING WITHIN


SECONDS AND NOT DETECTED BY DGA

-BROKEN OR LOOSE CONNECTION IN A WINDING


WHICH LEADS TO SMALL ARC WHICH BURNS THE
SOLID INSULATION

19/09/2006 Prepared by : VKL 78


FAILURE ANALYSIS AND DGA (CONTD)

DETERIORATED CONDUCTOR INSULATION


PAPER LEADING TO INTERTURN FAULT

BROKEN LOOSE OR DAMAGED DRAW ROD IN A


BUSHING CAUSING SPARKING AND ARCING
WITHIN TUBE

BUSHING EXPLOSION LEADING TO FIRE

19/09/2006 Prepared by : VKL 79


FAILURE ANALYSIS AND DGA (CONTD)

3. DETECTABLE FAULTS BY DGA

3.1 WITHIN WINDING

A) SHORTING OF PARALLEL WIRES IN A BUNCH


CONDUCTOR WITHIN A COMMON PAPER COVERING

B) LOST POTENTIAL CONNECTIONS TO SHIELDING


RINGS, TORROIDS- FLOATING POTENTIALS,
SPARKING TO GROUNDS

C) CONDITIONS OF PARTIAL DISCHARGES BETWEEN


DISCS OR CONDUCTORS DUE TO CONTAMINATED
LOCAL OIL-LEADING TO FLASHOVER
19/09/2006 Prepared by : VKL 80
FAILURE ANALYSIS AND DGA (CONTD)

3.2 CLEATS AND LEADS

A) BOLTED CONNECTIONS, PARTICULARLY


BETWEEN ALUMINIUM BUSBARS, IF THE SPRING
WASHERS DO NOT SUSTAIN THE NEEDED HIGH
PRESSURE

B) ALL GLIDING MOVING CONTACTS FORMING BAD


JOINTS DUE TO AGEING

19/09/2006 Prepared by : VKL 81


FAILURE ANALYSIS AND DGA (CONTD)

3.3 IN THE TANK

A) HEATING OF TANK PART, BOLT ETC. DUE TO


MAGNETIC FIELD

B) OVERHEATING DUE TO DOUBLE GROUNDING


OF THE CORE

C) DAMAGED INSULATION BETWEEN COVER


SUPPORT POINT DUE TO CLOSED LOOP
19/09/2006 Prepared by : VKL 82
FAILURE ANALYSIS AND DGA (CONTD)

3.4 SELECTOR SWITCH

A) CARBONISATION OF SELECTOR SWITCH


CONTACTS AND HOTSPOT FORMATION

B) GAP BETWEEN SELECTOR SWITCH CONTACTS

3.5 CORE

A) SHORTING AT BURRS OF LAMINATIONS

B) FAILURE OF BOLT INSULATION


19/09/2006 Prepared by : VKL 83
STANDARDS ON DGA

1.”RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN DGA INTERPRETATION”


Cigre Brochure 296,June 2006

2. “NEW GUIDELINES FOR INTERPRETATION OF DGA IN


OIL-IMMERSED TRANSFORMERS” cigre Task force
15.01.01,Octr 1999

3. LIFE MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES FOR POWER


TRANSFORMERS-WG12-18,cigre br.227,2003

4. IEC PUB. 60599 (1999-03)-GUIDE TO


INTERPRETATION OF DGA
5. IEEE Std.C57.104-1991 IEEE GUIDE FOR
INTERPRETATION OF DGA
19/09/2006 Prepared by : VKL 84
ABBREVIATIONS USED

TGC TYPICAL GAS TYPICAL VALUES OBSERVED IN


CONCENTRATION 90% OF A POPULATION OF
TRANSFORMERS IN SERVICE

TRGI TYPICAL RATE OF GAS


INCREASE
PFS PROBABILITY OF A FAILURE GAS ANALYSIS CORRESPONDING
RELATED EVENT IN SERVICE TO A FAILURE RELATED EVENT
PFGC PRE-FAILURE RATE OF GAS
INCREASE
AGC ALARM GAS VALUES INTERMEDIATE BETWEEN
CONCENTRATION TGC AND PFGC
ARGI ALARM RATE OF GAS
INCREASE

19/09/2006 Prepared by : VKL 85


RANGES OF 90% TYPICAL(TGC) VALUES
FOR POWER TRANSFORMERS,in ppm (CORE FORM)

C2H2 H2 CH4 C2H4 C2H6 C0 C02


50- 30- 60- 20-90 400- 3800-
150 130 280 600 14000
NO OLTC 2-20

COMMUNI- 60-280
CATING OLTC

19/09/2006 Prepared by : VKL 86


RANGES OF 90% TYPICAL(TRGI)
FOR POWER TRANSFORMERS, in ppm/YEAR
(CORE TYPE)

C2H2 H2 CH4 C2H4 C2H6 C0 C02


35- 10- 32- 5-90 260- 11700-
132 120 146 1060 10,000
NO OLTC 0-4

COMMUNI- 21-37
CATING OLTC

19/09/2006 Prepared by : VKL 87


PFGC VALUES CALCULATED
ON DIFFERENT NETWORKS, in ppm

H2 CH4 C2H4 C2H6 C2H2 CO


PFGC 600 400 900 750 350 3000

HQ 1318 424 993 850 408 984

Labelec 1318 424 993 850 408 984


LCIE-hydro 550 460 700 1000 310 1500
LCIE-core 900 340 830 1050 600 1200
LCIE-shell 240 270 480 1800 500 1300

19/09/2006 Prepared by : VKL 88


AGC VALUES CALCULATED
ON DIFFERENT NETWORKS, in ppm

H2 CH4 C2H4 C2H6 C2H2 CO


AGC

HQ 250 120 350 400 170 1700

Labelec 665 194 421 805 295 956


LCIE-hydro 290 230 240 670 120 1300

LCIE-core 240 150 120 800 70 1100

LCIE-shell 110 200 340 1700 100 1000

19/09/2006 Prepared by : VKL 89


TYPICAL STRAY GASSING TEST RESULTS
AT 120°C in ppm/16h OF TEST

H2 CH4

TEST DURATION, h 16-164-16 16-164-16


NYNAS 10 X 12-7-(0) 0-0-(0)
NYNAS 10 XT 50-16-27 1-0-2

DIALA S 48-19-(147) 0-1-(0)


UNIVOLT 52 60-7-(25) 4-1-(9)
NYTRO 11EN 54-8-(60) 41-5-(107)
DIALA G 76-16-14 1-2-5
NYNAS 10GBN 138-27(0) 3-14-(0)
OLD VOLTESSO 35 127-9-85 161-15-88
NEW VOLTESSO 35 1088-240-61 172-10-219

19/09/2006 Prepared by : VKL 90


TYPICAL STRAY GASSING TEST RESULTS
AT 200°C in ppm/16h OF TEST

OIL H2 CH4 C2H6

DIALA S 49-6-(0) 89-16-(0) 91-16

UNIVOLT 52 26-2-(6) 147-20(0) 97-15-(0)

NYTRO 11EN 45-5-(0) 232-32-(0) 260-32-(0)

19/09/2006 Prepared by : VKL 91


CALCULATED CONTRIBUTION OF STRAY GASSING TO
GAS LEVELS IN TRANSFORMERS AFTER HEAT RUN
TESTS, IN ppm OF H2

HOTTEST SPOT 140 120 110 98 85 OBSERVED


DURING HEAT RUN
TEMP °C TESTS
NEW VOLTESSO 4.0 2.2 1.3 0.7 0.1
35
NYTRO 10GBN 0.8 0.4 0.2 0.1 -
OLD VOLTESSO 35 0.5 0.3 0.2 0.1 - 20
TECHNOL 4000 0.5 0.2 0.1 - - 50
DIALA D 0.4 0.2 0.1 - - 10-50
UNIVOLT 52 0.2 0.1 - - - 10-50

19/09/2006 Prepared by : VKL 92


STRAY GASSING VS. CATALYTIC REACTIONS AND
CORONA PARTIAL DISCHARGES

GASES CH4/H2
FORMED
CATALYTIC REACTIONS H2 <0.02

CORONA PARTIAL H2,CH4 0.02-0.14


DISCHARGES
STRAY GASSING OF OIL :

- AT 120 °C H2,CH4,C2H6 0.15-1

- AT 200 °C C2H6,CH4,H2 >0.4

19/09/2006 Prepared by : VKL 93


RATES OF GAS FORMATION FROM PAPER, IN ppm /
YEAR / kg OF PAPER / 50,000 L OF OIL

PAPER C2H2 H2 CH4 C2H4 C2H6 CO CO2 CO2/ OIL USED


TEMP. CO

125°C 0 0.4 0.3 - - 4 220 50 NYNAS


10CX

135°C 0 0.3 0.4 - - 5 230 42 NYNAS


10CX

160°C 0 40 12 3 3 122 1830 15 NYNAS


11CX

250/ 0 123 200 85 38 2340 78000 3.5 TECHNO


300°C 0 L4000

19/09/2006 Prepared by : VKL 94


RECOMMENDATIONS

1. DISSOLVED GAS CONCENTRATIONS IN SERVICE

INDIVIDUAL NETWORKS ARE RECOMMENDED TO


CALCULATE THEIR OWN TYPICAL VALUES OF TGC &
TRGI WHENEVER POSSIBLE.

2. THERMAL STRAY GASSING OF OIL

• STRAY GASSING IN GENERAL, WILL NOT INTERFERE


WITH DGA DIAGNOSES UNLESS A AVERY STRONGLY
STRAY GASSING OIL IS USED OR OPERATION IS
LARGELY ABOVE NOMINAL LOAD.
• HEAT RUN TESTS IN GENERAL WILL NOT BE
AFFECTED BY THE STRAY GASSING OF OIL.

19/09/2006 Prepared by : VKL 95


RECOMMENDATIONS (CONTD.)

3. GAS FORMATION FROM PAPER

• AMOUNT OF PAPER INVOLVED IN A FAULT CAN


BE CALCULATED FROM GAS FORMATION
RATES.

4. PARTIAL DISCHARGES

• DGA IS PARTICULARLY USEFUL TO DETERMINE


WHEN PARTIAL DISCHARGES START BECOMING
HARMFUL TO THE INSULATION AND
DETECTABLE BY VISUAL INSPECTION.

19/09/2006 Prepared by : VKL 96


RECOMMENDATIONS (CONTD.)

5. GAS TRAPPED IN PAPER INSULATION

• TRAPPED GASES ARE DIFFICULT TO REMOVE


PARTIAL DISCHARGES

• THE ONLY WAY TO DO THAT IS BY INCREASING


THE TEMPERATURE TO 60 °C DURING 1 TO 6
MONTH PERIOD FOR H2 AND HYDROCARBONS
AND TO 70-90 °C DURING 3 TO 6 MONTHS FOR
CO, CO2.

• ALTERNATIVE PROCEDFURE WOULD BE TO


SUBJECT THE TRANSFORMER TO VAPOUR-
PHASE DRYING TO REMOVE THE
CONTAMINATED OIL FROM PAPER.

19/09/2006 Prepared by : VKL 97


DGA INTERPRETATION - STATUS

• ATTEMPTS TO DIAGNOSE THE TYPE OF A


FAULT FROM THE GASES EVOLVED
FROM THE OIL STARTED BY BUCHHOLZ
AS EARLY AS 1928.

• SEVERAL METHODS ARE IN USE FOR THE


INTERPRETATION OF RESULTS

• NO SINGLE METHOD IS CAPABLE OF


UNIVERSAL USE.

19/09/2006 Prepared by : VKL 98


DGA INTERPRETATION - STATUS (CONTD.)

• TWO POINTS TO CONSIDER BEFORE


PROCEEDING WITH ANY METHOD OF
DIAGNOSIS.

1) RESULTS OBTAINED FROM DGA MUST


BE ABOVE THE DETECTION LIMIT OF
THE INSTRUMENT.

2) THE MEASURED GAS


CONCENTRATIONS ARE SIGNIFICANT

19/09/2006 Prepared by : VKL 99


DGA INTERPRETATION METHODS

I) RATIO TECHNIQUE

• IEC 60599 RECOMMENDS USE OF 5


GASES AND 3 RATIOS.

• IEEE STD C57.104 AND ROGERS AND


DORNENBURG ALSO RECOMMEND
THE SAME 5 GASES. THE GASES
ARE LISTED IN ORDER OF
INCREASING DECOMPOSITION
TEMPERATURE.

19/09/2006 Prepared by : VKL 100


DGA INTERPRETATION METHODS (CONTD.)

II) GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION

• CONVENIENT TO VISUALLY FOLLOW


THE EVOLUTION OF FAULTS
• BASED ON CALCULATING THE
RELATIVE PERCENTAGE OF 3 GASES.
EACH CORNER OF A TRIANGLE
REPRESENTS 100% OF ONE GAS AND
0% OF THE OTHER GAS.

• PLOTTING THE PERCENTAGE OF THE 3


GASES ON THE TRIANGLE DEPENDS
ON THE AREA ON WHICH A
DIAGNOSIS IS NAMED.
19/09/2006 Prepared by : VKL 101
DGA INTERPRETATION METHODS (CONTD.)

III) KEY GAS METHOD

• DEPENDENCE OF TEMPERATURE TO
THE TYPES OF OIL & CELLULOSE
DECOMPOSITION GASES PROVIDES
THE BASIS FOR THE QUALITATIVE
DETERMINATION OF FAULT GASES
THAT ARE TYPICAL, OR PREDOMINANT
AT VARIOUS TEMPERATURES.

• THESE SIGNIFICANT GASES AND


PROPORTIONS ARE CALLED “KEY GAS”
19/09/2006 Prepared by : VKL 102
DGA INTERPRETATION METHODS (CONTD.)

III) KEY GAS METHOD (CONTD.)

• THIS TECHNIQUE PROVIDES GRAPHS


FOR 4 GENERAL FAULT TYPES

• THERMAL (OIL DECOMPOSITION)


• THERMAL (CELLULOSE
DECOMPOSITION)
• ELECTRICAL (CORONA)
• ELECTRICAL (ARCING)

19/09/2006 Prepared by : VKL 103


DGA INTERPRETATION METHODS-CLASSICAL

1) IEC 60599

• FIRST PUBLISHED IN 1978


• METHOD OF INTERPRETATION USES RATIO
TECHNIQUE AND EMPLOY 3 RATIOS

CH4 / H2
C2H4/C2H6
C2H2/C2H4

• INTERPRETATION OF THE RESULTS SHOULD BE


CARRIED OUT IF THE GASES CONCENTRATIONS
ARE ABOVE THE SIGNIFICANT LEVELS.

19/09/2006 Prepared by : VKL 104


DGA INTERPRETATION METHODS (CONTD.)

2) IEEE METHOD

• GENERALLY 3 TYPES OF FAULTS ARE


CONSIDERED

• THERMAL
• LOW ENERGY ELECTRICAL
• HIGH ENERGY ELECTRICAL

• TOTAL COMBUSTIBLE GASES AND


CONCENTRATION LIMITS FOR FOUR
CONDITIONS ARE SUGGESTED FOR
ACTIONS

19/09/2006 Prepared by : VKL 105


DGA INTERPRETATION METHODS (CONTD.)

2) IEEE METHOD (CONTD.)

• THE RATIOS USED FOR KEY GASES ARE


SIMILAR TO IEC 60599

C2H2 CH4 C2H2


_____ , ____ , _____
C2H4 H2 C2H6

TO DIAGNOSE POSSIBLE FAULTS.

19/09/2006 Prepared by : VKL 106


DGA INTERPRETATION METHODS (CONTD.)

2) IEEE METHOD (CONTD.)

• REFERENCE IS MADE TO DORNENBURG.

• EVOLUTION OF THE GAS


CONCENTRATION IS FUNCTION OF THE
TIME AND AN IMPORTANT PART OF THIS
STANDARD.

19/09/2006 Prepared by : VKL 107


DGA INTERPRETATION METHODS (CONTD.)

3) CEGB / ROGERS RATIOS

• CENTRAL ELECTRICITY GENERATING


BOARD OF ENGLAND AND WALES
STARTED EXTENSIVE WORK ON FAULT GAS
CORELATIONS AS EARLY AS 1968.

• THE STUDY INDICATED THAT AN


INCREASE IN OIL TEMPERATURE LEADS TO
AN INCREASE IN THE RATIO OF
UNSATURATED TO SATURATED
HYDROCARBONS ESPECIALLY RATIOS
C2H2/C2H4 , C2H4/C2H6.

19/09/2006 Prepared by : VKL 108


DGA INTERPRETATION METHODS (CONTD.)

3) CEGB / ROGERS RATIOS (CONTD.)

• THERE IS ALSO A PREDICTED


INCREASE IN THE AMOUNT OF
HYDROGEN PRODUCED WITH
INCREASING TEMPERATURES

• 4 RATIOS USED :

CH4/H2 C2H6/CH4
C2H4/C2H6 C2H2/C2H4

• ROGERS REPORTED ABOVE IN 1978.


19/09/2006 Prepared by : VKL 109
DGA INTERPRETATION METHODS (CONTD.)

3) CEGB / ROGERS RATIOS (CONTD.)

• THE GASES ARE USED IN ORDER OF


INCREASING DECOMPOSITION
TEMPERATURE
• DEPENDING UPON THE RATIO, A CODE
NO. IS GIVEN.
• THE CODE NUMBER WILL LEAD TO
FAULT DIAGNOSIS.
• SEVERAL SIMULTANEOUS OCCURRING
FAULTS CAN CAUSE AMBIGUITY

19/09/2006 Prepared by : VKL 110


DGA INTERPRETATION METHODS (CONTD.)

4) SCHLIESINGER METHOD

• A RATIO TECHNIQUE, COMBINED WITH


LIMIT OF GAS CONCENTRATION.
COMBINATION OF RATIO AND LIMIT OF GAS
CONCENTRATION WILL LEAD TO A CODE
WHICH CAN BE USED FOR INTERPRETATION OF
THE RESULTS.

• 5 RATIOS USED :

C2H2/H2 C2H2/C2H6 H2/CH6

C2H2/C2H6 C02/CO

19/09/2006 Prepared by : VKL 111


DGA INTERPRETATION METHODS (CONTD.)

4) SCHLIESINGER METHOD (CONTD.)

• DEPENDING ON THE CONCENTRATION


OF THESE GASES CODES ARE
EXTRACTED FROM THE TABLE.

• COMBINATIONS OF THE CODES ARE


LISTED IN THE DIAGNOSTIC TABLE

• METHOD IS CAPABLE OF DISTINGUISING


MORE THAN ONE FAULT.

19/09/2006 Prepared by : VKL 112


DGA INTERPRETATION METHODS (CONTD.)

5) DORNENBURG’S METHOD

• ORIGINAL METHOD PLOTTED THE RATIO


CH4 / H2 AGAINST C2H2/C2H4 USING
LOG LOG PAPER.
• THE METHOD WAS FOUND TO BE
INSUFFICIENTLY DISCRIMINATIVE
ALTHOUGH HAVING THE ADVANTAGE
OF BEING APPLICABLE TO BUCHHOLZ
GASES.
• LATER ON METHOD WAS REVISED TO
USE RATIO OF MEASURED GASES

19/09/2006 Prepared by : VKL 113


DGA INTERPRETATION METHODS (CONTD.)

6)NOMOGRAPH TECHNIQUE

• COMBINATION OF FAULT GAS RATIO


CONCEPT WITH ESTABLISHED VALUES.
• INTENDED TO PROVIDE BOTH
GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION OF
FAULT GAS DATA AND TH MEANS TO
INTERPRET THEIR SIGNIFICANCE.
• CONSISTS OF A SERIES OF VERTICAL
LOGARITHMIC SCALES REPRESENTING
THE CONCENTRATIONS OF THE
INDIVIDUAL GASES.

19/09/2006 Prepared by : VKL 114


DGA INTERPRETATION METHODS (CONTD.)

6)NOMOGRAPH TECHNIQUE (CONTD.)

• STRAIGHT LINES ARE DRAWN BETWEEN


ADJACENT SCALES TO CONNECT THE
POINTS REPRESENTING THE VALUES
OF KEY GAS CONCENTRATIONS.

• SLOPES OF THESE LINES ARE THE


DIAGNOSTIC CRITERIA FOR
DETERMINING THE TYPE OF FAULT.

19/09/2006 Prepared by : VKL 115


DGA INTERPRETATION METHODS (CONTD.)

7) DUVAL METHOD

• REPORTED IN 1989 BY DUVAL OF


HYDRO-QUEBEC BY USING A TRIANGLE

• BASED ON CALCULATING THE


PERCENTAGE OF 3 GASES :

CH4 C2H4 C2H2

• EACH CORNER OF THE TRIANGLE


REPRESENTS 100% OF ONE GAS AND
0% OF THE OTHER
19/09/2006 Prepared by : VKL 116
DGA INTERPRETATION METHODS (CONTD.)

7)DUVAL METHOD (CONTD.)

• CONCENTRATION OF THE GASES


INCREASE IN CLOCK-WISE DIRECTION.

• INSIDE OF THE TRIANGLE IS DIVIDED


INTO 6 DIFFERENT AREAS.

• METHOD EASY BUT SOME WHAT BULKY.

19/09/2006 Prepared by : VKL 117


IV) RATE OF EVOLUTION OF THE GASES

• CALCULATES RATES OF GAS GENERATION


BY COMPARING RESULTS OF TWO
ANALYSES AND DATES OF THE ANALYSIS.

• SINCE VOLUME OF THE OIL REMAINS


CONSTANT, RELATIVE CHANGES IN FAULT
GAS CONCENTRATIONS OVER TIME MAKES
POSSIBLE THE CALCULATION OF THE RATE
OF EVOLUTION OF THE GASES.

19/09/2006 Prepared by : VKL 118


V) KEY GASES

• TECHNIQUES RELATES EACH INDIVIDUAL


GAS TO A PROBABLE FAULT

• H2 IS PRODUCED BY TWO MECHANISMS :

• AT LOW TEMPERATURE ASSOCIATED


WITH PD
• AT ELEVATED TEMPERATURE
PRODUCED BY FRACTIONATION OF
THE OIL.

19/09/2006 Prepared by : VKL 119


V) KEY GASES (CONTD.)

• C2H2 IS ASSOCIATED WITH HIGH ENERGY


DISSIPATION.

• LOW MOLECULAR WEIGHT HYDROCARBON


WHEN PRODUCED TOGETHER WITH H2,
INDICATES PYROLYSIS.

• A FAULT DOES NOT PRODUCE A SINGLE


UNIQUE DECOMPOSITION PRODUCT

19/09/2006 Prepared by : VKL 120


V) KEY GASES (CONTD.)

• PATTERN OF COMBINATION OF GASES


PRODUCED IS UNIQUE FOR EACH OF THE 3
MAIN TYPES OF FAULT.

• ARCING PRODUCES ALL FAULT GASES.

• PYROLYSIS PRODUCES ALL EXCEPT


ACYLENE.

19/09/2006 Prepared by : VKL 121


DGA INTERPRETATION SCHEMES

• DGA INTERPRETATION SCHEME OF ABB


• ASINEL DGA INTERPRETATION SCHEME (SPAIN)
• KEMA DIAGNOSTICS OF DGA
• LABELEC DGA INTERPRETATION SCHEME (PORTUGAL)
• LABORELEC DGA INTERPRETATION SCHEME (BELGIUM)
• DGA INTERPRETATION SCHEME OF LCIE (FRANCE)
• DGA INTERPRETATION SCHEME OF SLOVENIA
• NATIONAL GRID DGA INTERPRETATION SCHEME (UK)
• RWE ENERGIE DGA INT. SCHEME (GERMANY)
• SIEMENS TRAFO UNION DGA SCHEME (GERMANY)
• CBI&P GUIDELINES

19/09/2006 Prepared by : VKL 122


DGA INTERPRETATION METHODS (CONTD.

DISADVANTAGES :

SEVERAL SIMULTANEOUSLY OCCURRING


FAULTS CAN CAUSE AMBIGUITY IN
ANALYSIS.

ADVANTAGES :

RATIOS ARE INDEPENDENT OF BOTH THE


OIL VOLUME AND THE CHOICE OF
CONCENTRATION UNITS

19/09/2006 Prepared by : VKL 123


DGA INTERPRETATION

A) NEW GUIDELINES - CIGRE TASK FORCES


15.01.01/.03

1. KEY RATIOS

KEY RATIO NO.1 C2H2 / C2H6 (ACETYLENE/ETHANE)


INDICATION : ELECTRICAL DISCHARGE
FAULT IF >1

KEY RATIO NO.2 H2 / CH4 (HYDROGEN/METHANE)

INDICATION : PARTIAL DISCHARGE


FAULT IF > 10

19/09/2006 Prepared by : VKL 124


DGA INTERPRETATION (CONTD.)

KEY RATIO NO.3 C2H4 / C2H6 (ETHYLENE / ETHANE)


INDICATION THERMAL FAULT
IF > 1

KEY RATIO NO.4 Co2 / Co

INDICATION CELLULOSE DEGRADATION


>10 OVERHEATING OF CELLULOSE
< 3 DEGRADATION OF CELLULOSE
BY ELECTRICAL FAULT
(TO CONFIRM BY FURFURAL
ANALYSIS, IEC 61198)

19/09/2006 Prepared by : VKL 125


DGA INTERPRETATION (CONTD.)

KEY RATIO NO.5 C2H2 / H2 (ACETYLENE/HYDROGEN)

INDICATION : INTANK TAPCHANGER

 2 AND CONCENTRATION OF C2H2

 30 PPM

19/09/2006 Prepared by : VKL 126


DGA INTERPRETATION (CONTD.)

2. KEY GAS CONCENTRATIONS

KEY GAS KEY GAS CONCEN- SUSPECT


TRATION (PPM) INDICATION

C2H2 > 20 POWER DISCHARGE


H2 >100 PARTIAL DISCHARGE
ΣCXHY >1000 THERMAL FAULT
UPTO ΣC1, C2, C3 HYDROCARBON
>500
UPTOΣC1, C2, HYDROCARBONS
COξ >10000 CELLULOSE
X = 1,2 DEGRADATION
19/09/2006 Prepared by : VKL 127
DGA INTERPRETATION (CONTD.)

3. PROCEDURE

DENOTE R1 IF ALL RATIOS ARE BELOW THE


LIMITS
R2 IF ANY RATIO IS LARGER THAN THE LIMIT
K1 IF KEY CONCENTRATION OF ALL GASES BELOW
THE LIMITS
K2 IF KEY CONCENTRATION OF ATLEAST ONE GAS
IS HIGHER THAN THE LIMIT

19/09/2006 Prepared by : VKL 128


DGA INTERPRETATION (CONTD.)

RESULTS

K1 & R1 NO ACTION, TRANSFORMER IS NOT


PROBABLY HEALTHY
K2 & R2 TRANSFORMER MOST PROBABLY
FAULTY, ADDITIONAL ANALYSES
NEEDED
K1 &R2 POSSIBLE INCIPIENT FAULT,
ADDITIONAL ANALYSES NEEDED
K2 & R1 POSSIBILITY OF MORE THAN ONE
FAULT, FURTHER INVESTIGATION
NEEDED

19/09/2006 Prepared by : VKL 129


(B) IEC 60599 :
1. 3 BASIC GAS RATIOS

C2H2 CH4 C2H4


C2H4 H2 C2H6

1.1
CASE CHARACTERISTICS C 2H 2 CH4 C2H4
FAULT C 2H 4 H2 C2H6
PD PARTIAL DISCHARGES <0.01 BUT NS <0.1 <0.2

D1 DISCHARGES OF LOW ENERGY >1 0.1-0.5 >1


D2 DISCHARGES OF HIGH ENERGY 0.6-2.5 0.1-1.0 >2
T1 THERMAL FAULT-T<300ºC <0.01 >1 <1
T2 THERMAL FAULT <0.1 >1 1- 4
300 ºC<T<700 ºC
T3 THERMAL FAULT <0.2 >1 4
T > 700 ºC

19/09/2006 Prepared by : VKL 130


1.2 SIMPLIFIED SCHEME OF INTERPRETATION

CASE C2H2 / CH4 / C2H4 /


C2H4 H2 C2H6

PD < 0.2

D > 0.2

T < 0.2

19/09/2006 Prepared by : VKL 131


2. 90% TYPICAL CONCENTRATION VALUES

Values in microlitres per litre

Tr.sub-type H2 CO CO2 CH4 C2H6 C2H4 C2H2

NO OLTC 60-150 540-900 5 100-13 000 40-110 50-90 60-280 3-50

COMMUNI- 75-150 400-850 5 300-12 000 35-130 50-70 110-250 80-270


CATING
OLTC

19/09/2006 Prepared by : VKL 132


3. RATES OF GAS INCREASE :

HYDROGEN <5
METHANE <2
ETHANE <2
ETHYLENE <2
ACETYLENE <0.1
CARBON MONOXIDE <50
CARBONDIOXIDE <200

19/09/2006 Prepared by : VKL 133


1.3 CO2 / CO RATIO :
IF INCREMENTED RATIO <3

- PAPER DEGRADATION SUSPECTED


- ASK FOR FURANIC COMPOUND ANALYSIS OR DP

1.4 O2 / N2 RATIO :

- REFLECTS AIR IF RATIO CLOSE TO 0.5


- IF RATIO LESS THAN 0.3 EXCESSIVE
CONSUMPTION OF OXYGEN DUE TO OIL
OXIDATION AND/OR PAPER AGEING

1.5 C2H2 / H2 RATIO :

- HIGHER THAN 2 TO 3 INDICATES OLTC


CONTAMINATION Prepared by : VKL
19/09/2006 134
RECOMMENDED METHOD OF DGA INTERPRETATION :

• REJECT OR CORRECT INCONSISTENT DGA


VALUES

• CALCULATE RATE OF GAS INCREASE SINCE


LAST ANALYSIS

• IF ALL GASES ARE BELOW TYPICAL VALUES


OF GAS CONCENTRATIONS AND RATES OF
GAS INCREASE, REPORT AS “NORMAL
DGA / HEALTHY EQUIPMENT”

19/09/2006 Prepared by : VKL 135


• IF AT LEAST ONE GAS IS ABOVE TYPICAL
VALUES OF GAS CONCENTRATIONS AND
RATES OF GAS INCREASE CALCULATE GAS
RATIOS AND IDENTIFY FAULT USING TABLE.
CHECK FOR EVENTUAL ERRONEOUS
DIAGNOSIS.

• IF NECESSARY SUBTRACT LAST VALUES FROM


PRESENT ONES BEFORE CALCULATING RATIOS,
PARTICULARLY IN THE CASE OF CO, CO2.

19/09/2006 Prepared by : VKL 136


• IF DGA VALUES ARE ABOVE TYPICAL VALUES
BUT BELOW 10XS (S = DETECTION LIMIT)
CAUTION SHOULD BE EXERCISED WHEN
CALCULATING GAS RATIOS AT LOW LEVELS.
KEEPING IN MIND THE POSSIBLE VARIATIONS
RESULTING FROM THE REDUCED PRECISION

• DETERMINE IF GAS CONCENTRATIONS AND


RATES OF GAS INCREASE ARE ABOVE ALARM
VALUES. VERIFY IF FAULT IS EVOLVING
TOWARDS FINAL STAGE. DETERMINE IF PAPER
IS INVOLVED.
19/09/2006 Prepared by : VKL 137
• TAKE PROPER ACTION ACCORDING TO BEST
ENGINEERING JUDGEMENT.

• IT IS RECOMMENDED TO :

1) INCREASE SAMPLING FREQUENCY


(QUARTERLY, MONTHLY OR OTHER) WHEN
THE GAS CONCENTRATIONS AND THEIR
RATES OF INCREASE EXCEED TYPICAL
VALUES

2) CONSIDER IMMEDIATE ACTION WHEN GAS


CONCENTRATIONS AND RATES OF GAS
INCREASE EXCEED ALARM VALUES.
19/09/2006 Prepared by : VKL 138
MINIMUM DETECTION CAPABILITIES

GAS CONCENTRATION : ppm(v/v)

H2 2

CO 5

CO2 10

CH4 0.1

C2H6 0.1

C2H4 0.1

C2H2 0.1
19/09/2006 Prepared by : VKL 139
(C) IEEE STD. C57.104-1991

1. KEY GAS METHOD

1.1 THERMAL - OIL

- PRINCIPAL GAS - ETHYLENE

- DECOMPOSITION PRODUCTS INCLUDE


ETHYLENE & METHANE TOGETHER WITH
SMALL QUANTITIES OF HYDROGEN AND
ETHANE. TRACES OF ACETYLENE MAY
BE FORMED, IF THE FAULT IS SEVERE
OR INVOLVES ELECTRICAL CONTACTS
19/09/2006 Prepared by : VKL 140
1.2 THERMAL - CELLULOSE

- PRINCIPAL GAS CO

- LARGE QUANTITIES OF CO2 & CO ARE


EVOLVED FROM OVERHEATED CELLULOSE
HYDROCARBON GASES, SUCH AS METHANE
AND ETHYLENE WILL BE FORMED IF THE
FAULT INVOLVES AN OIL IMPREGNATED
STRUCTURE

19/09/2006 Prepared by : VKL 141


1.3 ELECTRICAL - CORONA

- PRINCIPAL GAS - HYDROGEN

- LOW ENERGY ELECTRICAL DISCHARGES


PRODUCE H2 AND CH4 AND SMALL QUANTITIES
OF C2H6 AND C2H4.

- COMPARABLE AMOUNTS OF CO & CO2 MAY


RESULT FROM DISCHARGES IN CELLULOSE

19/09/2006 Prepared by : VKL 142


1.4 ELECTRICAL - ARCING

- PRINCIPAL GAS - ACETYLENE

- LARGE QUANTITIES OF H2 & C2H2 ARE


PRODUCED WITH MINOR QUANTITIES OF
CH4 & C2H4.

- CO2 & CO MAY ALSO BE FORMED IF THE


FAULT INVOLVES CELLULOSE

- OIL MAY BE CARBONISED

19/09/2006 Prepared by : VKL 143


2. USE OF GAS RATIOS

- ATTRIBUTED TO DOERNENBURG AND


ROGERS

- ARRAY OF 5 RATIOS
R1 = CH4 / H2
R2 = C2H2 / C2H4
R3 = C2H2 / CH4
R4 = C2H6/C2H2
R5 = C2H4 / C2H6

- RATIOS 1, 2, 3 & 4 - DOERNENBURG

- RATIOS 1,2,5 - ROGERS


19/09/2006 Prepared by : VKL 144
DOERNENBURG RATIO METHOD

1. VALUES OF KEY GASES COMPARED WITH


FOLLOWING ASCONCENTRATIONS (L1 IN
PPM) AND IF AT LEAST ONE OF THE GAS
CONCENTRATIONS EXCEEDS THE LIMITING
VALUES, THE UNIT IS CONSIDERED FAULTY

19/09/2006 Prepared by : VKL 145


KEY GAS CONCENTRATION, L1 PPM

H2 100

CH4 120

CO 350

C2H2 35

C2H4 50

C2H6 65

19/09/2006 Prepared by : VKL 146


3. DETERMINE RATIOS OF KEY GASES AS
FOLLOWS :

THE RATIO PROCEDURE IS VALID IF


AT LEAST ONE OF THE GASES IN EACH
RATIO R1, R2, R3 & R4 EXCEEDS LIMIT L1,
OTHERWISE UNIT SHOULD BE RESAMPLED.

19/09/2006 Prepared by : VKL 147


3.1 RATIOS FOR KEY GASES - DOERNENBURG

SUGGESTED FAULT RATIO 1(R1) RATIO 2(R2) RATIO 3(R3) RATIO 4 (R4)
DIAGNOSIS CH4/H2 C2H2/C2H4 C2H2/CH4 C2H6/C2H2
EXTRACTED EXTRACTED EXTRACTED EXTRACTED

1. THERMAL >1,0 <0.75 <0.3 >0.4


DECOMPOSITION

2. CORONA (LOW <0.1 Not signi- <0.3 >0.4


INTENSITY PD) ficant

3. ARCING (HIGH >0.1 <0.75 >0.3 <0.4


INTENSITY PD) <1.0

19/09/2006 Prepared by : VKL 148


3.2 ROGERS RATIOS FOR KEY GASES :

CASE R2 R1 R5 SUGGESTED FAULT


C2H2/ CH4/ C2H4/ DIAGNOSIS
C2H4 H2 C2/H6

0 <0.1 >0.1 <1.0 UNIT NORMAL


<1.0

1 <0.1 <1.0 <1.0 LOW ENERGY DENSITY


ARCING-PD

2 0.1- 0.1- >3.0 ARCING-HIGH ENERGY


3.0 1.0 DISCHARGE

3 <0.1 >1.0 1.0-3.0 LOW TEMP. THERMAL

4 <0.1 >1.0 1.0-3.0 THERMAL < 700 ºC

5 19/09/2006 <0.1 >1.0 >3.0


Prepared by : VKL THERMAL > 700 ºC 149
FAULTS DETECTABLE BY DGA : LEGEND

PD PARTIAL DISCHARGES

D1 DISCHARGES OF LOW ENERGY

D2 DISCHARGES OF HIGH ENERGY

T1 THERMAL FAULTS t < 300°C

T2 THERMAL FAULTS 300 °C < T < 700 °C

T3 THERMAL FAULTS > 700 °C

19/09/2006 Prepared by : VKL 150


SYSTEM OR COMPONENT DEFECTS OR FAULTS
DETECTABLE BY DGA

SYSTEM DEFECT FAULT AND FAULTS


COMPONENTS (REVERSIBLE) FAILURE-MODE DETECTABLE BY
(NOT REVERSIBLE) DGA (EXAMPLES)

DIELECTRIC

MAJOR INSULATION - EXCESSIVE WATER - DESTRUCTIVE PD - DISCHARGES (D1)


MINOR INSULATION - OIL CONTAMINATION - LOCALISED TRACKING - DISCHARGES (D1)
LEADS INSULATION - SURFACE CONTAMINATION - CREEPING DISCHARGE - DISCHARGES (D1,D2)
ELECTROSTATIC - ABNORMAL AGED OIL - EXCESSIVE AGING/ / - THERMAL FAULT(T1,T2)
SHIELDS - ABNORMAL CELLULOSE AGING OVERHEATED
- PD OF LOW ENERGY CELLULOSE

- LOOSE CONNECTIONS CAUSING - DISCHARGES (D1)


SPARKING

19/09/2006 Prepared by : VKL 151


SYSTEM OR COMPONENT DEFECTS OR FAULTS
DETECTABLE BY DGA

SYSTEM DEFECT FAULT AND FAULTS


COMPONENTS (REVERSIBLE) FAILURE-MODE DETECTABLE BY
(NOT REVERSIBLE) DGA (EXAMPLES)

ELECTROMAGNETIC
CIRCUIT

- LOOSENING CORE CLAMPING - EXCESSIVE VIBRATION


CORE - OVERHEATING DUE TO HIGH AND SOUND
WINDINGS STRUCTURE STRAY FLUX - GENERAL OVERHEATING THERMAL FAULT (T1)
INSULATION - SHORT CIRCUIT (OPEN-CIRCUIT) - LOCALIZED HOT SPOT THERMAL FAULT (T2,T3)
CLAMPING STRUCTURE IN GROUNDING CIRCUIT - SPARKING/DISCHARGE DISCHARGES (D1)
MAGNETIC SHIELDS - ABNORMAL CIRCULATING - ONE OR MORE TURNS DISCHARGES (D2)
GROUNDING CIRCUIT CURRENT ARE SHORT CIRCUITED
- FLOATING POTENTIAL COMPLETELY
- AGING LAMINATION - STRANDS WITHIN THE
SAME TURN ARE SHORT
CIRCUITED

19/09/2006 Prepared by : VKL 152


SYSTEM OR COMPONENT DEFECTS OR FAULTS
DETECTABLE BY DGA

SYSTEM DEFECT FAULT AND FAULTS


COMPONENTS (REVERSIBLE) FAILURE-MODE DETECTABLE BY
(NOT REVERSIBLE) DGA (EXAMPLES)

MECHANICAL

- LOOSENING CLAMPING - LEADS SUPPORT FAILURE

WINDINGS - WINDING DISTORTION


CLAMPING - RADIAL
LEADS SUPPORT - AXIAL
- TWISTING

- FAILURE OF INSULATION DISCHARGES (D1,D2)

CURRENT CARRYING CIRCUIT

LEADS - POOR JOINT - LOCALIZED HOT SPOT THERMAL FAULT (T2,T3)

WINDING - POOR CONTACTS


OPEN-CIRCUIT DISCHARGES (D1,D2)
- CONTACT DETERIORATION SHORT-CIRCUIT
19/09/2006 Prepared by : VKL 153
TYPICAL DEFECTS OR FAULTS IN SELECTOR SWITCH &
DRIVE MOTOR OF OLTC DETECTABLE BY DGA

COMPONENTS DEFECT FAILURE MODE FAULTS


OR FAULT DETECTABLE BY
DGA (EXAMPLES)

SELECTOR SWITCH

DIELECTRIC

SOLID INSULATION : - EXCESSIVE WATER DESTRUCTIVE PD DISCHARGES (D1)


- BETWEEN TAPS, - OIL CONTAMINATION LOCALIZED TRACKING DISCHARGES (D1)
- TO GROUND, - SURFACE CONTAMINATION CREEPING DISCHARGE DISCHARGES (D1,D2)
- BETWEEN PHASES - PD OF LOW ENERGY EXCESSIVELY AGED /
- BARRIER BOARD & - ABNORMALLY AGED OIL OVERHEATED CELLULOSE THERMAL FAULT (T1,T2)
- BUSHINGS
LIQUID INSULATION :
- ACROSS CONTACTS

ADJACENT STUDS IN FLASHOVER DISCHARGES (D1)


COMBINED SELECTOR
DIVERTER TAPCHANGER
19/09/2006 Prepared by : VKL 154
TYPICAL DEFECTS OR FAULTS IN SELECTOR SWITCH &
DRIVE MOTOR OF OLTC DETECTABLE BY DGA

COMPONENTS DEFECT OR FAILURE MODE FAULTS


FAULT DETECTABLE BY
DGA (EXAMPLES)

ELECTRICAL

CONNECTIONS - POOR CONNECTIONS - OVERHEATING THERMAL FAULT (T1)


CONTACTS - MIS-ALIGNED CONTACTS - SPARKING / ARCING DISCHARGES (D1)
- SELECTOR CONTACTS - SILVER COATING - OVERHEATING - THERMAL FAULT (T1)
- CHANGEOVER SWITCH DISTURBED / WORN - CARBON BUILD UP THERMAL FAULT (T2,T3)
- COURSE FINE - POOR CONTACT PRESSURE BETWEEN CONTACTS
THROUGH BUSHINGS

19/09/2006 Prepared by : VKL 155


TYPICAL DEFECTS OR FAULTS IN SELECTOR SWITCH &
DRIVE MOTOR OF OLTC DETECTABLE BY DGA

COMPONENTS DEFECT FAILURE MODE FAULTS


OR FAULT DETECTABLE BY
DGA (EXAMPLES)

MECHANICAL

DRIVE SHAFT - DAMAGED OR BROKEN OUT OF SYNCH OPERATION


SELECTOR CONTACTS - INCORRECT ALIGNMENT OF SELECTOR & DIVERTER
WITH DIVERTER SWITCH SWITCHES ARCING DISCHARGES (D1, D2)

OPERATION
- TRAVEL BEYOND THE
END STOP

19/09/2006 Prepared by : VKL 156


TYPICAL DEFECTS OR FAULTS IN SELECTOR SWITCH &
DRIVE MOTOR OF OLTC DETECTABLE BY DGA

COMPONENTS DEFECT FAILURE MODE FAULTS


OR FAULT DETECTABLE BY
DGA (EXAMPLES)

DRIVE MECHANISM

DRIVE SHAFT - INCORRECT TIMING INCORRECT OPERATION OF


MECHANICAL END STOPS - OPERATION BEYOND THE SELECTOR SWITCH
MOTOR AND GEAR DRIVE END STOP IN RELATION TO DIVERTER
CONTROL EQUIPMENT - BROKEN GEARS
AUXILLARY SWTICHES - MISALIGNED COUPLING TAPCHANGER JAMMED
- WORN,DAMAGED OR ON A TAP - WILL NOT
BROEKN AUXILLARY OPERATE
SWITCHES

19/09/2006 Prepared by : VKL 157


TYPICAL DEFECTS FOR BUSHINGS DETECTABLE BY
DGA

COMPONENTS DEFECT FAILURE MODE FAULTS


OR FAULT DETECTABLE BY
DGA (EXAMPLES)

CONDENSER LOCAL NATURE


CORE RESIDUAL MOISTURE PARTIAL
POOR IMPREGNATION IONIZATION PARTIAL DISCHARGES(PD)
WRINKLES IN PAPER GASSING
DELAMINATED PAPER THERMAL RUN AWAY THERMAL FAULT (T2,T3)

OVER-STRESSING
SHORT-CIRCUIT LAYER DISCHARGES(D1,D2)

INGRESS OF MOISTURE
INGRESS OF AIR PUNCTURE DISCHARGES(D1)
GRAPHITE INK MIGRATION EXPLOSION THERMAL FAULT(T2,T3)
DIELECTRIC OVERHEATING DISCHARGES(D2)
X-WAX DEPOSIT PARTIAL DISCHARGES (PD)

BULK NATURE
AGING OF OIL-PAPER BODY
THERMAL UNSTABLE OIL FLASHOVER
GAS UNSTABLE OIL EXPLOSIONS DISCHARGES(D1)
OVER-SATURATION DISCHARGES(D2)
19/09/2006 Prepared by : VKL 158
TYPICAL DEFECTS FOR BUSHINGS DETECTABLE BY DGA

COMPONENTS DEFECT FAILURE MODE FAULTS


OR FAULT DETECTABLE BY
DGA (EXAMPLES)

CORE SURFACE CONTAMINATION PD DISCHARGES (D1)

OIL MOISTURE CONTAMINATION SURFACE DISCHARGES (D1)


INTERNAL PORCELAIN AGING DISCHARGE
SURFACE GASSING

TAPS UNGROUNDINGS PD DISCHARGES (D1)


SHORTED ELECTRODES

CONDUCTOR OVERHEATING OVERHEATING THERMAL FAULT (T1,T2)


- TOP CONTACT GASSING
- FOOT CONTACT SPARKING DISCHARGES (D1)
- DRAW ROD
CIRCULATING CURRENT IN THERMAL FAULT(T2,T3)
THE HEAD

EXTERNAL CRACKS FLASHOVER DISCHARGES (D1)


PORCELAIN CONTAMINATION
SURFACE DISCHARGE

19/09/2006 Prepared by : VKL 159


Thank You

19/09/2006 Prepared by : VKL 160