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GEOTECHNICAL LABORATORY

CEG551

OPEN ENDED LABORATORY


WORKBOOK MANUAL

GEOTECHNICAL, HIGHWAY, TRANSPORTATION AND SURVEY DIVISION


FACULTY OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MALAYSIA

Table of Content
Item
1.
2.

Topics
General Laboratory Safety Procedures
General Laboratory Rules and Regulations

Page
1
2

Concept of Open Ended Laboratory Activities


3.

Introduction

3
3

Level of Openness in Open Ended Laboratory

Implementation of Laboratory Activities

Assessment of the Laboratory Activities

Course Outline

4.

Summary Remark

10

5.

Lab.1.1 Moisture content and particle density tests.

11

Lab. 1.4 Atterberg Limit tests (Plastic and Liquid Limit


tests)
Cone Penetration and Casagrande tests.
Lab. 2.1 Constant Head test on coarsegrained soil.

15

7.

Lab. 2.2 Falling Head test on finegrained soil.

23

8.

Lab. 3.1 Direct Shear Box test.

26

Lab. 3.2 Unconfined Compression test (UCT).

29

Lab. 3.3 Unconsolidated Undrained (UU) Triaxial test /


Consolidated Undrained (CU) Triaxial tests.
Lab. 5.1 JKR Probe Test

32

6.

9.

20

10.
11.
12.
13.

Lab. 5.2 Vane Shear Test


Construction of Sport Complex UiTM Pulau Pinang

34
36
38

GENERAL LABORATORY SAFETY PROCEDURES

Students or laboratory users are advised to read the following safety


procedures and rules carefully before or when using the equipment or run
the experiments:
1. Not point the open end of a test tube, breaker or any glassware that
is being heated at yourself or anyone else.
2. Keep the lab clean and neat before and after conducting an
experiment.
3. Keep the work area clear of all materials except those needed
for
your work.
4. If a piece of equipment falls while being used, report it immediately
to your lab assistant or tutor. Never try to fix the problem
yourself
because you could harm yourself and others.
5. If the chemicals are splashed into your eyes, immediately use
tap
water to flush your eyes with water and continue rinsing your
eyes
for at least 15 minutes.
6. If the chemicals are splashed on your skin or clothing, flush
the
affected areas with large quantities of water or if a large area
is
affected, please use the safety shower.
7. Wash your hands thoroughly before leaving the laboratory.

GENERAL LABORATORY RULES AND REGULATIONS


1. Student must arrive at each sessions on time, with proper dress code
(example: lab coat and covered shoes, and no slippers are allowed)
2. Students are not allowed to enter the laboratory without permission
from the lecturers or the technicians. Working alone or unsupervised
in laboratory is forbidden.
3. Bags are not allowed in the laboratory.
4. Students are not allowed to eat, drink or smoke while working in the
laboratory and are not allowed to run the experiments with
their
hands wet.
5. Students are not allowed to run the experiments when they are
sleepy or under medication.
6. Read the instruction carefully and follow the laboratory procedures.
Do not touch anything that you are not completely familiar with.
7. Ensure that your circuit and equipment connections are correct
before turning on the power supply.
8. Ensure that the switches are off, the power plugs are unplugged and
the working area is cleaned before you leave the laboratory.
9. Place the equipment, tools and components back to their
original
place after the experiments.
10.Notify your instructor immediately if there is an accident.

CONCEPT OF OPEN ENDED LABORATORY ACTIVITIES


From Prescriptive to Investigative
Introduction
Various methods of innovative teaching may be implemented in the teaching and
learning
activities to simulate an environment where students are encouraged to be proactive.
These
innovative methods may be in the form of Project Based Learning (PBL), Project
Oriented
Problem Based Learning (POPBL), Active Learning (AL), Cooperative Learning (CL), Independent
Learning (IL) and others.
Previous methods of teaching laboratory courses are basically in the form of fully
guided
assignment. The methods are described as prescriptive or traditional methods. However these
methods are now no longer adequate within the context of outcome based learning
environments (1). It could not provide the platform where students are given
opportunities to
explore their own simulation and design their own experimental works.
The Engineering Accreditation Manual (EAC) 2012

(2)

stipulated that:

Students should receive sufficient laboratory work to complement engineering


theory that is learnt through lectures. The laboratory should help students
develop competence in executing experimental work. Throughout the
programme, there should be adequate provision for laboratory or similar
investigative work, which will develop the young engineer the confidence
to
deal with new and unusual engineering problem.
Thus the need for an open ended laboratory is emphasized in enhancing independent learning
and inculcating creativity and innovation of students. They are required to determine
the
objectives and scope, identifying apparatus needed and preparing the methodology, running th
e
experiment and finally submitting the technical report. Through this process students
must
understand the principles of technical reasoning and the experimental design (3).
This manual looks at the practicality of implementing the open ended laboratory
activities at
different levels of education for a four year engineering degree program and how it
was
implemented at the Geotechnical Laboratory, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Universiti
Teknologi
MARA, Pulau Pinang.

Level of Openness in Open Ended Laboratory


The conduct of laboratory activities should be carried out at different levels of
openness
throughout the period of study. The concept of different level of openness is
categorized as
problem, ways and means and answers. as shown in Table 1 as envisaged by SchwabHerron
McComas (1997). Four levels were identified and three elements to be addressed were
categorized.
Table 1 suggests that there should be four (4) levels of openness, namely Levels 03, and three
categories of element to be incorporated into the laboratory manual, namely problem, ways an
d
means and answers. The ways and means are also mean as apparatus and procedures
respectively. The scientific enquiry rubric, as given by Fay, 2009, for the levels of openness are
summarized and described as in Table 2.

Table 1 Level of Openness according to SchwabHerron


Schwab/Herron Levels of Laboratory Openness

SUGGESTED
PERCENTAGE
BREAKDOWN
(%)

LEVEL

PROBLEM

WAYS & MEANS

ANSWERS

Given

Given

Given

25

Given

Given

Open

20

Given

Open

Open

20

Open

Open

Open

35

Note: Given means the traditional way of writing the documentation for each lab
activities.

Implementation of Laboratory Activities


Implementation of the laboratory activities at the Faculty of Civil Engineering, UiTM,
Pulau
Pinang was progressively introduced, monitored, reviewed and streamlined since the last
accreditation exercise by EAC in 2008. New guidelines were introduced to facilitate the teachin
g
and learning activities to benefit not only the students but new lecturers taking the courses. Thi
s
manual for each laboratory activities would include the elements such as introduction,
objectives and learning outcomes. Basic theoretical information are also included in
each
laboratory activity as found in the manual.
4

Table 2 : Scientific Enquiry Rubric


Establishing the level of independence and autonomy expected of students to carry out an
assessment task
Level of
Enquiry
0

Description
The problem, procedure and methods for achieving solutions are provided to
the
student. The student performs the experiment and verifies the results with
the
The
problem and procedure are provided to the student. The student interprets the
manual
data in order to propose viable solutions
The problem is provided to the student. The student develops a procedure
for
investigating the problem, decides what data to gather, and interprets the data in
order to propose viable solutions
A raw phenomenon is provided to the student. The student chooses the problem
to explore, develops a procedure for investigating the problem, decides what data
to gather, and interprets the data in order to propose viable solutions

Assessment of the Laboratory Activities


Twelve elements were identified to be assessed for the laboratory activities. These elements ar
e
grouped into individual, group or technical report assessments. Table 3 shows the
suggested
elements that could be assessed for the laboratory activities.
Table 3 : Suggested Elements to be Assessed for the Laboratory Activities
NO

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

ELEMENTS TO ASSESS
INDIVIDUAL INLAB ACTIVITIES ASSESSMENT
PUNCTUALITIY
DISCIPLINE (DRESS CODE,SAFETY SHOES,SAFETY REGULATIONS)
KNOWLEDGE ON OPEN ENDED LABORATORY
GROUP INLAB ACTIVITIES ASSESSMENT
LEADERSHIP SKILL
COMMUNICATION
ORGANISATION/TEAMWORK
TEST/REPORT/ASSIGNMENT ASSESSMENT
INTRODUCTION
BASIC CONCEPTS
SUMMARY OF PROCEDURES/ METHODS
ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA
DISCUSSION OF RESULT
CONCLUSION

In order to facilitate the assessment process rubrics for the suggested elements are prepare
d
and given as in Table 4.
Table 4 : Assessment Rubrics for Laboratory Activities
A. INDIVIDUAL IN LABORATORYACTIVITIES ASSESSMENT
NO

ELEMENT

RUBRICS/Marks
6

108
Arrive
Arriveon
ontime
time
and
Between 5 to Up to 5 min.
butfully
not fully
More than 10
utilizing
utilizinglab
lab10 min. late late
1
Punctuality
min. late
hours
hours
Conform to Conform to
Conform to
labs dress labs dress Does not fully
Discipline
labs dress
(such as lab Does not wear
code, code, conform to
dress
code,
dress codes,
code,
safety shoe, safety shoe, did
consistently consistently labs dress
not
clean
up
the
safety and
2
consistently
equipment and
all
clean up the clean up the code, major
did
know
follow
laboratory
clean up the
regulations) lab procedures
equipment and equipment flaws in safety
equipment and
nearly all lab without and seldom
nearly all lab
regulation but reminding and clean up the
Not able to
regulation and
Knowledge
all regulation with minor equipment
explain, design
safety
3
on the
and safety flaws in safety
and conduct the
Able to design,
openended
Able to design, Able to design,
experimental
conduct, Not able to
laboratory
conduct and conduct, testing
work in the lab
testing, explain the
explain the data and explain the
interpret and experiment and
B. GROUP IN LABORATORY ACTIVITIES ASSESSMENT
data obtained obtained but
RUBRICS/Marks explain the data the work
NO
ELEMENTS
6and the work not the work
2
4
8 the work assigned 10
and
Able
to control,
Able to control,
assigned
assigned
Able to control, assigned
lead and
Able to control,
lead
and
delivering the
Unable to
lead the group lead and
task to the
control, lead,
but fail to
delivering
the
group
fail to deliver
deliver the task delivering the
efficiently and
the task to the and does not
task to the
serves as a
group and does compromise
task to the
leader in
Leadership
not
4
towards the
group
managing
skill
compromise to achieveme5nt
group members
individual ideas
achieve the
objectives of
efficiently and
towards the
objectives of
the
and
achievement of
experiments
experiments
usually does
the objectives
occasionally
what is the best
helps the group
interest
of the
Communi
Unable to
Able to deliver Able to deliver
Able
to deliver Able to deliver
5
to
achieve
cation
deliver ideas
ideas ONLY
ideas
with the
ideas clearly,
ideas clearly,
group towards
objectives of
the
6
the
achievement of
experiments
the objectives
2

clearly,
effectively and
confidently in
the group

Organization
/Teamwork

with constant
prompting.
Delivery of
ideas is still not
clear, not
confident and
not effective in
the group

Team
demonstrated
Team showed
some cohesion,
poor cohesion, interaction
poor
respect. Most
interaction and work was done
poor respect.
by only 1
Only one
member team.
person does all Tasks were
the tasks. Tasks completed on
were not
time but with
completed.
unsatisfactory
results

limited clarity,
confidence and
effectiveness in
the group

Team showed
good cohesion,
interaction
respect. Team
member did
not share the
tasks equally
and did not
utilize abilities
of each team
members.

confidently,
and effectively
most of the
time in the
group

confidently and
effectively at all
times within
the group

Team showed
great cohesion,
interaction
respect. Team
member did
not share the
tasks equally
and did not
utilize abilities
of each team
members. Tasks
were
completed on
time with
satisfactory
results.

Team showed
great cohesion,
interaction
respect. Team
member shared
the tasks
equally and did
not utilizing
abilities of each
team members.
Tasks were
completed on
time and with
great results.

10

C. TEST/REPORT/ASSIGNMENT ASSESSMENT

NO

ELEMENT

Some
discussion on
purpose of
work , missing
some
information
background
Able to
analyzes the
basic concepts
Able to identify Able to discuss Able to apply
of solid
the basic
the basic
the basic
mechanics and
concepts of
concepts of
concepts of
solid mechanics solid mechanics solid mechanics structures
through
and structures
and structures
and structures
formative test
through
through
through
and lab report
formative test
formative test
formative test
and lab report
and lab report
and lab report

No information
on purpose/
objectives of
Introduction
work, no
background
information

Basic
concepts

Summary of
procedures/
methods

RUBRICS/Marks
6

Unable to
design
experiment and
no explanations
on the
procedures of
conducting

Little
information on
purposes,
objectives of
work and no
background
information

Able to design
the experiment
with little
explanations on
the procedures
of conducting
experimental

Some
discussion on
purpose of
work and no
background
information

Able to design
experiment,
find relevant
standard
procedure and
sufficient
explanations of

Able to design,
find
standard
procedure and
clear with
precise

Discussion the
purpose of
work with
relevant
background
information
Able to design
and evaluate
the basic
concepts of
solid mechanics
and structures
through
formative test
and lab report

Able to design,
find
Relevant
standard
procedure and
clearly stated

experimental
work

work

conducting
with good explanations on
experimental
explanations
conducting
on
work conductingexperimental
experimental
work
work
Data collected
is relevant, Data collected

Data collected

10

related to the Data collected Data collected is relevant,


was not
objectives, Analysis and is relevant but is relevant and related to the
relevant and
sufficient to interpretatinot sufficient to
sufficient to objectives and
not sufficient to

11

12

analyze and on of data analyze and analyze and sufficient to


analyze and
analyze and accurate interpret interpret
interpret
interpret interpretation
of data.
Result and Discussion on
Little discussion Description of
discussion are results is very
result is on what result
clearly stated, difficult to
generally clear. mean and
through No discussion follow, no
implications of Some
discussion on on the meaning discussion on
results. Enough discussion on
what results Discussion of experimental
the meaning of
errors are made what results
mean and of result results and very results and
mean and to be
implications of difficult to information is
distracting, but implications of
results. Provide follow so inaccurate
results. No some
consistently that makes the
significant information is
accurate report
errors are made accurate
information unreliable
Conclusion is Conclusion is
Conclusion is
excellent and good and
good and
derived from Conclusion is derived from
derived from No attempt was
the collected derived from the collected
the collected made to
and analyzed the collected and analyzed
and analyzed conclude and
Conclusion data and not and analyzed data and not
data and not objectives of
from other data but it is from other
from other the lab were
sources. not answering sources but did
sources and not answered
8
Conclusion the objectives not directly
directly answer
answering the clearly answers
the objectives
objectives. the objectives.

Course Outline
The course provides exposures to students on the basic theories and procedures in performing
standard laboratory tests for civil engineering purposes. Introduction to simple field
tests
method will also be presented. Course outcomes as well as the Program Outcome of this subjec
t
are stated in Table 5.

Table 5 : Course Outcome and Program Outcome of CEG551


Course Outcomes

PO1

1. Apply knowledge of soil mechanics on


standard laboratory soil tests and analyze
data obtain from the lab session.(C4)
2. Conduct a laboratory test and produce report
related to basic physical and mechanical
properties of soils.(P4)

PO2

PO3

PO4

PO5

PO12

Throughout the semester, students are required to conduct a series of laboratory


activities in
group as stated in the manual. Each laboratory activity has been assigned a level of openness a
s
stated in Table 6. Besides that, there are two formal assessments, i.e. Test 1 and Test 2 are used
to determine student understanding about the subject. The formal assessments will be
commenced on Week 7 and Week 13 as shown in Table 6.

Table 6 : Laboratory Activity based on the Level of Openness


WEEK TOPIC

HOURS

LEVEL

1.

Briefing on the health and safety aspects in conduction


laboratory works.
Briefing on the purposes and objectives of soil
characterization and classification for civil engineering
works.

2.

1.1 Moisture content and particle density tests.

Level 0

3.

1.4 Atterberg Limit Tests Plastic and liquid limit tests


(a) Cone Penetration test.
(b) Casagrande test.

Level 0

4.

2.1 Constant Head test on coarsegrained soil.


2.2 Falling Head test on finegrained soil.

Level 0

5.

3.1 Direct shear box test.

Level 1

6.

Common Test 1.

7.

3.2 Unconfined Compression test (UCT).

Level 1

8.

3.3 Unconsolidated Undrained (UU) / Consolidated


Undrained (CU) triaxial test.

Level 2

9.

5.1 JKR probe test.


5.2 Vane shear test.

Level 2

10.

Open Ended Laboratory Level 3 Practical test

Level 3

11.

Open Ended Laboratory Level 3 Practical test

Level 3

12.

Open Ended Laboratory Level 3 Practical test

Level 3

13.

Open Ended Laboratory Level 3 Practical test

Level 3

14.

Common Test 2.

Summary Remark
The concept of adopting the new method in laboratory courses from prescriptive to
investigative in nature will eventually mould the students to be better engineers in the future. It
should be noted that wellprepared laboratory manuals based on the different levels of
openness would also enable students to be better prepared in taking final year
projects of
investigative nature in the fourth year in the studied program.

10

TITLE
LEVEL OFO
OPENNEESS
PREAMBBLE

La 1.1a: PARabRTICLE DENNSITY TEST ON SAND SOILTDY


0
1.1 Introduction1
Th specific gravity of soi solids is ohegiloften needed for various calculations in soilds
meechanics. It can be deteermined acccurately in th laboratory i.e. it is th mosthey,he
acccurate methhod; whereas the flask o pycnomete methods a only suitsoreraretable for
deetermination of specific gravity of coagarse-grained soil.d
1.2 Objectives2s
otnengottle.To determine the specific gravity of fin sand usin density bo
1.3 Learning Outcomes3O
By the end of this laborato work, stuytoryudents should be able:
or1. To recor the masrdsses of saample and/o density bottle during
the
performan of the pancearticle densit test.ty
2. To calcula the spec gravity o sandy soil.atecificof
1.4 Theoretica Backgrou4alund
Sppecific gravit Gs is defty,fined as the ratio of the weight of a certain voeolume of
soil solids to the weight of an equa volume o distilled walofwater at a cconstant
temmperature

PROBLEEM
STATEMMENT

Wh are the inherent prhatroblems and assumptiodons that had to be madade with
reggards to the sample, apparatus an procedures used th might afeandhatffect the
acccuracy and reliability of the results??

WAYS &
MEANS

3.1 Apparatus
ensity bottle with stoppe having caerapillary hole at its centeter, vacuum flask &De
deesiccators, wash bottle with de-aired distilled wawwdater, weighin balance, alcohol,ng
constant tempperature wate bath, etc.er

Density bott with stopper havingtle


capillary hole at its centery

Vacuuum flask & ddesiccators

23.2 Procedures
1 Clean and dry the deensity bottle a stopper properly.andr
2. Weight th dried bottle with stopp and reco the mass (m1).2heperords
3. Take abo 10 to 20 g of dry sa3outand sample in desiccato Pour it cors.carefully
into the density bottle Weight th e bottle with sand and sde.hstopper. Reccord the
mass (m22).
11

4. Pour distilled water in the bottle until about full and shake for 5 minutes.
5. Remove the entrapped air further by applying partial vacuum for 10
minutes.
6. Gently pour some more water into the bottle until completely filled without
any entrapped bubble. Put the stopper on.
7. Keep the bottle on the stand in constant temperature water bath for one
hour.
8. Take out the bottle from water bath. Wipe to clean and dry from outside. If
the capillary of the stopper is not full, fill it with drops of distilled water.
Again make sure the bottle and stopper are clean cry.
9. Weight the bottle filled with water and sand samples, with stopper. Record
the mass (m3).
10. Empty the bottle and clean it properly. Fill the bottle entirely with distilled
water. Make sure there are not entrapped air bubbles, or otherwise the
partial vacuum has to be used.
11. Put on the stopper as in step (8) and wipe dry from outside. Record the
mass (m4). Again empty the bottle and dry it properly.
12. Repeat the step (2) to (11) for two observations to obtain an average
specific gravity of the sample.

RESULTS

4.0 Results, Analysis and Conclusion


The group is required to submit the technical report of the laboratory results
highlighting the data acquisition process, analysis carried out and the relevancy
of the set-out output to achieve the objective.

The report must incorporate the results in the form below and answer the
following questions:
#

Density bottle no.


Mass of density bottle + stopper (gm)

m1

Mass of density bottle + stopper + dry soil (gm)

m2

Mass of density bottle + stopper + soil + water (gm)

m3
m4

Mass of density bottle + stopper + full of water (gm)


Mass of dry soil used (gm)

m2-m1

Mass of water used (gm)

m3-m2

Mass of water to fill density bottle (gm)

m4-m1

Particle density of soil (Mg/m )

Average particle density (Mg/m )

Gs=

Gs,ave=

m2-m1
(m4-m1)-(m3-m2)

Gs,1+Gs,2+Gs,3
3

a. What are the recommendations that can be implemented to improve the


accuracy and reliability of the results
b. What is the value of particle density or specific gravity, G s for the tested
soil? Discuss the suitability of the soil as a construction material in a
backfilling works.
12

TITLE
LEVEL OFO
OPENNEESS
PREAMBBLE

La 1.1b: MOISTURE COabONTENT ON COHESIVE SOILNE


0
1.1 Introduction1
Th ratio of th mass of water to th mass of solids in a soil specimhehehemen is
terrmed the mooisture conte of the soiil.ent
1.2 Objectives2s
To determine the moisture content of cohesive sooteoils.
1.3 Learning Outcomes3O
By the end of this laborato work, stuytoryudents should be able:
1. To record the masses of sample and/or contadsainer during the performmance
of the moisture content test.
2. To calcula the moisatesture content of cohesive soil.te
1.4 Theoretica Backgrou4alund
Mooisture conte is referre to as wat content a is define as the ra ofentedterandedatio
weeight of wate to the weig of solids in a given verghtvolume of sooil.

PROBLEEM
STATEMMENT

WAYS
MEANS

Wh are the inherent prohatoblems and assumption that had to be made withnse
reggards to the sample, apepparatus and procedure used that might affec thedestct
acccuracy and reliability of the results??
&

3.1 Apparatus
Deensity bottle with stoppe having caperpillary hole a its center vacuum fla &atr,ask
deesiccators, wash bottle with de-aiired distilled water, wewdeighing balaance,
alccohol, consta temperature water bantbath, etc.

Set of containeters

WWeighting balance

Drying ovenD
3.2 Procedures3
1. Clean and dry a set of 3 containeoers.
r2. Weight th dried emp container and record the mass (m 1).2heptydm
3. Take abo 10 to 20 g of natura cohesive soil each an place int the3out0alndto
13

respective containers. Weight the container with the wet soil. Record the
mass (m2).
4. Oven-dry the container & specimen to a constant mass in an oven
maintained at a temperature of 105C to 110C.
5. Weight the container with the dried soil. Record the mass (m3).
RESULTS

4.0 Results, Analysis and Conclusion


The group is required to submit the technical report of the laboratory results
highlighting the data acquisition process, analysis carried out and the
relevancy of the set-out output to achieve the objective.

The report must incorporate the results in the form below and answer the
following questions:

Container no.

M1

Mass of container (g)

Mass of container + wet soil (g) M2


Mass of container + dry soil (g) M3
Mass of water (g)

Mw=M2-M3

Mass of dry soil (g)

Ms=M3-M1

Moisture content (%)

w=

Mw
Ms

x100%

Average moisture content (%) w,1+w,2+w,3


wave=
3

a. What are the recommendations that can be implemented to improve


the accuracy and reliability of the results?
b. What is the value of moisture content, w for the tested soil? Discuss
the significance of water in determining the engineering properties of
the soil.

14

TITLE
LEVEL OF
OPENNESS
PREAMBLE

Lab 1.4: ATTERBERG LIMIT TESTS ON COHESIVE SOIL


0
1.1 Introduction
The physical state of a fine-grained soil at particular water content is known
as consistency. Consistency or plasticity refers to the relative ease at which a
soil can be deformed via rolling & molding without breaking apart. Depending
on its water content, a soil may exist in liquid, plastic, semi-solid or solid state.
A Swedish agriculturist, Atterberg (1911) set arbitrary limits for these divisions
in terms of water content.
Liquid limit is defined as the water content at which soil, cut by a groove of
standard dimensions, will flow together for a distance of 12.7 mm ( in) under
a impact of 25 blows in a standard liquid limit device (ASTM D 4318-98,
2000).
Plastic limit is defined as the water content at which a silt or slay will just
begin to crumble when rolled into a thread approximately 3.2 mm (1/8 in) in
diameter (ASTMD 4318-98, 2000).
Shrinkage limit is defined as the water content at which any further reduction
in water content will not result in a decrease in volume of the soil mass
(ASTM D 427-98 or D 4943-95, 2000).

1.2 Objectives
1. To determine the water content corresponding to the behavior change
between the liquid and the plastic state of a silt or clay.
2. To determine the water content corresponding to the behavior change
between the plastic and the semi-solid state of a silt or clay.
1.3 Learning Outcomes
By the end of this laboratory work, students should be able:
1. To record the masses of sample and/or container during the performance
of the Atterberg limit tests.
2. To calculate the moisture content, and determine the Liquid Limit &
Plastic Limit thresholds of soil.
1.4 Theoretical Background
Plastic limit is defined as the moisture content, in percent, at which the soil
crumbles, when rolled into threads of 3mm in diameter.
Liquid limit is the moisture content at the point of transition from plastic to to
liquid state.
PROBLEM
STATEMENT

What are the inherent problems and assumptions that had to be made with
regards to the sample, apparatus and procedures used that might affect the
accuracy and reliability of the results?

15

WAYS
MEANS

AND 3.1 Apparatus1s


Te sieves of size 425 m and 2 mm & a receivestfmver, wash boottle with disstilled
waater, sharp knife, paleettes knife, airtight conntainer, glas plate, set ofss
containers, weeighting balaance, cone penetromete & brass cercup, Casagrrande
liquid limit appparatus & groooving tool, etc.

Set of contaainers

Wash bottle with distilled waterWw

Weighting balannce
Drying ovven
2es3.2 Procedure
Co Penetraoneation test (LLiquid Limit test):
1. Take a saample of the soil of sufficient size to give a test specimen weoweight
at least 150 g which passed the 4p425m test ssieve.
2. Transfer the soil to a flat glas plate. A2ossAdd distilled water and mixd
thoroughl with 2 palettes klyknives the mass beecomes a thick
homogenneous paste..
3. If necess3sary add mo distilled water so that the first corecone penetrration
reading is about 15 mm.sm
4. Push a po4ortion of the mixed soil i nto the cub with palette knife taking careg
not to trap air.p
5. Strike off excess so with the straightedg to give a smooth level5ffoilege
surface.
6. With the penetration cone loc6cked in the raised poeosition lower the
supportin assembly so that the t of cone ju touches the surface soil.ngtipust
7. Lower the steam of the dial gau ge to contac the cone shaft and re7etctecord
the readin of the dia gauge to th nearest 0 mm.ngalhe0.1
8. Release the cone a period 5 s 1 s. If the a8tpapparatus is not fitted wi anith
automatic release and locking decevice.
9. Record th difference between t9heethe beginnin and end of the drop coneng
penetratioon.
10. Lift out th cone and clean it careheefully to avoiid scratchingg.
11. Add little more distill water to the cub. Make sure the difefference betwween
setration is les than 0.5 mm.first and second peness
12. Take a moisture content sample of about 10 g from the area penetme0etrated
by the cone.
13. Repeat st 2 to 12 at least 3 mo time.tepaore
14. The reading of the liqquid limit shoould be arou 15 to 30 mm.und
16

Casagrande test (Liquid limit test):


1. Clean the apparatus and adjust height of drop of the cup using
adjustment screws.
2. Take about 150 g soil sample, passing though 0.425 mm sieve.
3. Form uniform paste of the soil sample by mixing it with distilled water on
glass plate. Leave the soil paste for some time to let the water permeate
thoroughly.
4. Fill the cup half with the paste and make surface level using spatula.
5. Cut a V shape groove (2 mm wide at bottom, 11 mm at top, and mm
deep) along cup diameter using grooving tool.
6. Turn the handle of the apparatus at the rate of 2 revolutions per second.
Count the number of blows required to cause the groove to close along a
distance of about 10 mm.
7. Collect a soil sample for water content determination by mixing the
spatula from one edge to the other edge of the soil cake at right angles
to the groove. Record the weight of sample and keep it in oven.
8. Remove the remaining soil from the cup. Change the consistency (water
content) of the mix either by adding some water or leaving the soil paste
to dry.
9. Repeat step (3) for four times. The soil paste in this repetition should be
of such a consistency that numbers of revolution (drop) to close the
groove are 10. (It is always better to proceed from drier to the wetter
condition of the soil).
10. Record dry weights of soil sample kept in oven after 24 hours.

Plastic Limit test:


1. Take a sample about 20 g from the soil paste and place it on the mixing
plate.
2. Allow the soil to dry partially on the plate until it becomes plastic enough
to be shape it into a ball.
3. Mould the ball of the soil between the fingers and roll it between the
palms of the hand until the heat of the hands has dried. The soil
sufficient for slight cracks to appear on its surface.
4. Device the sample in two sub sample of about 10 g each and carry out a
separate determination on each portion.
5. Divide into four more or less equal parts.
6. Mould the soil in the finger to equalize the distribution of moisture, then
from the soil into the tread about 6 mm diameter between first finger and
thumb of each hand.
7. Roll the tread to reduce to about 3 mm in 5 to 10 complete, forward and
backward movement of the hand.
8. Mould it between the fingers to dry it further. The first crumbling point is
the plastic limit.
9. Replace it to the container. Determine the moisture content of the soil in
the container.

17

RESULTS

4.0 Results, Analysis and Conclusion


The group is required to submit the technical report of the laboratory results
highlighting the data acquisition process, analysis carried out and the
relevancy of the set-out output to achieve the objective.

The report must incorporate the results in the form below and answer the
following questions:
Cone Penetration test (Liquid Limit test):
Container no.
Mass of container (g)

M1

Mass of container + wet soil (g)

M2

Mass of container + dry soil (g)


PLASTIC LIMIT
DETERMINATION
Mass of water (g)

M3
Mw=M2-M3

Mass of dry soil (g)

Ms=M3-M1

MOISTURE CONTENT (%)

w=Mw/Msx100

Container no.
Cone penetration (mm)

Individual
Average

LIQUID LIMIT
Mass of container (g)
DETERMINATION
Mass of container + wet soil (g)
Mass of container + dry soil (g)

M1
M2
M3

Mass of water (g)

Mw=M2-M3

Mass of dry soil (g)

Ms=M3-M1

MOISTURE CONTENT (%)

w=Mw/Msx100

60

50

Cone penetration
(mm)40
PENETRATION
CURVE

30

20

10
10

Plastic
limit, PL (%)

20

30

Liquid limit, LL (%)

Soil
classification

18

4050
Moisture content, w (%)

60

Plasticity index,
PI=LL-PL (%)

70

80

Casagrande test (Liquid limit test):


Container no.
Mass of container (g)

M1

Mass of container + wet soil (g)

M2

Mass
container + dry soil (g)
P L A S T IC
L IMofIT
DETERM
IN AofTwater (g)
Mass
IO N

Mw=M2-M3

Mass of dry soil (g)

Ms=M3-M1

MOISTURE CONTENT (%)

Container no.
Number of blows
Mass of container (g)

M3

w=Mw/Msx100

M1

Mass of container + wet soil (g)


M2
L IQ U IDMass
L IM of
IT container + dry soil (g)
M3
D E T E R M IN A T
Mass of water (g)
Mw=M2-M3
IO N

Mass of dry soil (g)

MOISTURE CONTENT (%)

Ms=M3-M1

w=Mw/Msx100

80

70
Moisture
60 w
content,
(%)
PENETRAT
IO N C U R V E

50

40

30

20

10
1
Plastic
limit, PL (%)

10

Liquid
limit, LL (%)

25100
No. of blows

1000

Plasticity index,
PI=LL-PL (%)

Soil
classification

a. What are the recommendations that can be implemented to improve the


accuracy and reliability of the results
b. What are the classification of the soil based on both Cone Penetration and
Casagrande tests? Discuss the potential causes for the difference in soil
classification between the two tests, if any. Also discuss the typical
engineering characteristics of the soil.

19

TITLE
LEVEL OFO
OPENNEESS
PREAMBBLE

La 2.1: CONSTANT HEA TEST ON COARSE-GRAINED SOILabADN


0
1.1 Introduction1
A material e.g sand is to be permg.meable if it contains coontinuous vvoids.
ermeability is a property of permeasyable material that permit flow of liqtsquidsPe
thrrough the voids. The flows of liqvquid through soil eithe by lamina orherar
turrbulent depeending on peermeability o soil and the head causofsing flow.
1.2 Objectives2s
To determine coefficient of permeabiility of coarsoose-grained ssoils by connstant
head method.
1.3 Learning Outcomes3O
By the end of this laborato work, stu dents should be able:ytory
1. To record the amount of water c.dcollected ove a specific duration of timeercf
during the performanc of the conecenstant head test.
2. To calcula the coeff.ateficient of perrmeability for coarse-grarained soil.
1.4 Theoretica Backgrou4alund
q kiA
wh :here
rgemeq Dischar per
unit tim
fyk Darcy's coefficient
of permeability
ulici Hydrau gradient
rossalmassA Total cr - sectiona area
of soil m
perpendicular to the diirection of floow

PROBLEEM
STATEMMENT

WAYS
MEANS

Wh are the inherent prohatoblems and assumption that had to be made withnse
reggards to the sample, apepparatus and procedure used that might affec thedestct
accuracy and reliability of the results?r

AND 3.1 Apparatus1s


Peemeameter complete with accessowories, de-aiired distilled water source,d
stoopwatch, graaduated meaasuring cylinnder, thermoometer, etc.

Permeameter with accessoriesPr

20

De-aire distilled wedwater sourcee

StopwatchS

2es3.2 Procedure
1. Clean the mould an apply greendside the moould. Recor itsrdease on ins
weight.
2. Prepare sample:s
3. Trim the sample to the size of mould from undisturbfmbed lump of soilf
collected from the site. Fit this saample into th mould. AheApply wax arround
periphery of the samp mould to prevent leaypleoakage OR.
4. Prepare statically comsmpacted remmolded speccimen of dessired density andy
water conntent. OR.
5. Prepare dynamically compacted remolded sdspecimen of desired defensity
and water content.
6. Trim of th excess so Place filt paper on top of soil sheoil.terspecimen an fixnd
perforated base plate to it.de
7. Turn the assembly upside down and remov compactunvetion plate or endr
plug and collar, as th case ma be, place top perforaheayated plate on then
top of soil specimen insert sealing gasket and fix top cap properly.gdp
8. Saturate the sample. Use vacuum desiccator facility if atmrsavailable.
9. Take out specimen (mmould) when saturation is complete.n
10. Place the mould in boeottom tank.
11. Fill the boottom tank with water up to its outletwpt.
12. Connect out tube of constant head tank to the inle nozzle of theoetf
permeammeter. Remov all air bubvebbles from th system.he
13. Adjust hydraulic head Record the head.d.e
14. Start the stop watch, and the sam time put a beaker unmender the out oftlet
the bottom tank.m
15. Run the te for same convenient time interva Record th time.estetal.he
16. Measure and record the quantity of water colllected durin that time.tng
17. Repeat th test two times more under the shetsame head a for the sandsame
time interrval.

21

RESULTS

4.0 Results, Analysis and Conclusion


The group is required to submit the technical report of the laboratory results
highlighting the data acquisition process, analysis carried out and the
relevancy of the set-out output to achieve the objective.

The report must incorporate the results in the form below and answer the
following questions:

Hydraulic head
Length of sample
Hydraulic
gradient

h (cm)
L (cm)
h/L

Diameter of sample D
A
Cross sectional area of
sample

Time interval
Quantity of flow
- Test no.
- Individual
- Average

Coefficient of
permeability
- Individual

- Average

Temperature

t
Q

(cm)
2

(cm )

(sec)

(ml)
(ml)

QL
k=
(cm/sec)
thA
(cm/sec)

( C)

a. What are the recommendations that can be implemented to improve


the accuracy and reliability of the results ?
b. What is value for the coefficient of permeability of the soil? Discuss on
the drainage capability of the soil and its likely usage in the
construction industry ?

22

TITLE
LEVEL OF
OPENNESS
PREAMBLE

Lab 2.2: FALLING HEAD TEST ON FINE-GRAINED SOIL


0
1.1 Introduction
Permeability is defined as the capacity of a soil to allow water to pass through
and the coefficient of permeability is the flow velocity produced by a hydraulic
gradient of unity.
The falling head test is used to determine the coefficient of permeability of
fine-grained soils such as silts and clays. For these types of soil, the rate of
water flowing through them is too small to enable accurate measurements
using constant head permeameter. The determination of k using the falling
head test is govern by Darcys Law which states that the flow velocity of
proportional to the hydraulic gradient and derived as:
1.2 Objectives
To determine the coefficient of permeability of fine-grained soils by falling
head method.
1.3 Learning Outcomes
By the end of this laboratory work, students should be able:
1. To record the duration of time required for a column of water to fall during
the performance of the falling head test.
2. To calculate the coefficient of permeability for coarse-grained soil.
1.4 Theoretical Background

h
aLln(h21

k=
A(t 2 - t 1 )
where :
a Cross - sectional area of the standpipe
A Cross - sectional area of the sample
L Length of the sample
h1 Initial height of the standpipe
hs Final height of the standpipe
t1 Initial time before the start of the test
t 2 Final time before the end of the test
PROBLEM
STATEMENT

Permeability of soil is an important soil parameters used in the design of


geotechnical structures. As a group you are given a set of samples to test to
determine the permeability parameter using a falling head test apparatus.
The group must carry out the test following the procedures outline and
subsequently analyse the data and present it in a proper technical format.

23

WAYS
MEANS

AND 3.1 Apparatus1s


Peemeameter complete with accesswsories, de-aired distilled water sodource,
stoopwatch, graaduated meaasuring cylinnder, thermoometer, etc.

urceWater sou

Falling head permeamFmeter withh


sttandpipes & other accesssories

Stopwatch
CCompaction mould
2es3.2 Prosedure
1. Take a U100 sample or from a core-cutter tube and tri the samp toUeimple
assure th both surfa is flat an smooth.hatacend
2. Place the soil sample fully into a triaxial cell o top of a p2eeonporous stone ande
again place a porous stone on to of the soil sample.sop
3. Place the whole set up in a bu3eucket partially submerge in water. Theed.
sample should be ensncased in th triaxial c to make sure that n airhecellno
bubbles are entrappe in the soill sample.aed
4. Measure the length, (L) and the diameter, (D of the sam4D)mple. Recor therd
diameter, d of the sta,andpipe used in the test.d.
5. Connect the standpip to the sam5pemple. The coonnection of the standpi tofipe
the samp should be intact to make sure that the prplebresence of air is
minimizedd.
6. Open the valve and fill the wate into the s6eerstandpipe to a marked initialo
height of the standpip Record t initial reape.theading for heiight, h1 and time,
t1 before the commenncement of t test.the
7. Close the valve and start the test by observin the flow o water and time7estngofd
of the redduction. Onc the flow of water reaches the final height mcemark,
stop the time and reecord the fi nal reading for height, h2 and tim t2me,
simultaneeously.
8. Record the temper8trature at th time of the test and obtain thehefn
temperatuure correction from Taable 1 for kT and k20. Compute thee
average value of k by repeating the above pvyprocedure. T correctio forTheon
the effect of temperatttures is give by:en

24

k t= tk

20

where :
k t Value of k coorresponding to a teemperature of k
k

20

Value of k coorresponding to a teemperature of 20C

t Temperature correction coefficie tcen

RESULTTS

4.0 Results, Analysis and Conclusio0Aon


Th group is reheequired to submit the te chnical repo of the labortboratory resuults
higghlighting the data acquisition proceeess, analysis carried out and thes
rellevancy of th set-out ouheutput to achiieve the objeective.
Th report must incorpora the result in the form below and answer theheatetsmde
following quesstions:
SO SAMPLE DATAOIL
Diaameter of sampleD
cm
Crooss-sectional area of sa A2
cm

Len of samplength L
cm
Ma of dry sampleassMs
g
Mooisture content ofwsample
%
Bulk density of sample

3
STTANDPIPE DATA
Mg/cm
Staandpipe no.
Diaameterd cm
Areeaa cm2

Test
No.

Standpipe a h1
No.
cm2

cm

h2

Individual
t1t2t3
cm sec sec secs

Ov average coefficient of permeability of soil sam


kverallomple,

Average
t
sec

cm2 cm

k=

h1aL
ln()
h2At
cm/sec

ccm/sec

a. What are the recoaommendatio ns that can be implemeented to improve


the acccuracy and reliability of t resultsrthe
b. What is value for the coefficien of permeasntability of the soil? Discuss one
the drrainage cappability of tthe soil an its likely usage in thendyn
construuction industtry.

25

TITLE
LEVEL OF
OPENNESS
PREAMBLE

Lab 3.1: Direct Shear Box Test on Cohesionless Soil


1
1.1 Introduction
The shear strength of a soil is its maximum resistance to shearing stresses. It
is usually considered to be equal to the shear stress at failure on the failure
plane. The shear strength of soil mainly consists of the resistance due to
interlocking of particle and friction between individual particles at their contact
point i.e. internal friction and the resistance due to inter particle forces which
tend to hold the particles together in a soil mass, what so called cohesion.
1.2 Objectives
To determine the shear strength of soil using direct shear or shear box
apparatus.
1.3 Learning Outcomes
By the end of this laboratory work, students should be able:
1. To record the normal & shear loads, and deformation of soil.
2. To plot the shear load vs. deformation, and determine the shear load at
failure.
3. To plot the Coulomb failure envelope, and determine the cohesion &
internal friction angle of soil.
1.4 Theoretical Background
The shear strength t of soil can be represented by coulombs equation of:

f c n tan

where :
n Total normal stress on failure plane
c Cohesion

Angle of internal friction


Problems
Statement

Shear strength parameters are important soil parameters used in the design
of geotechnical structures. As a group you are given a set of samples to test
to determine the strength parameters using a shear box apparatus.
The group must carry out the test following the procedures outline and
subsequently analyse the data and present it in a proper technical format.

TASK/
ACTIVITIES/
CASE STUDY

3.1 Apparatus
Triaxial testing machine with accessories, triaxial cell, deformation dial gauge,
proving ring, stopwatch, sampling tube, extractor & trimmer, verniercallipers,
weighting balance, etc.

26

Direct shear apparatus with


accessories

Shear box

Weighting balance
Loading weights
3.2 Procedures
1. Find the volume of the space assigned for sample in the shear box, i.e.
measure length and width of the shear box and height from lower grid
plate to mark for upper grid plate and calculate volume, V.
2. Calculate weight of the soil required to obtain desired density of soil
sample in the shear box i.e. .
3. Place the grid plate on the base plate such that the serrations of grid
plate are at right angles to the direction of the shear. Tighten the locking
screws.
4. Pour the weighed sand carefully into the shear box in two or three layers
and tamp each layer by the wooden piece to obtain the desired density.
5. Place upper grid plate on the soil with serrations of grid plate at right
angles to the direction of shear.
6. Keep the loading pad on the top grid plate.
7. Choose a suitable strain rate and select the gear accordingly.
8. Position the loading frame on the top of loading pad.
9. Fix the dial gauges to measure change in thickness and deformation of
the specimen (if required).
10. Make sure that the proving ring to measure the shear force is in contact
with the shear box.
11. Set proving ring dial gauge and deformation dial gauge to zero.
12. Apply the required normal stress depending on design requirements.
13. Remove the locking screws.
14. Raise upper half of the shear box by about 1.0mm above lower half for
free movement by turning spacing screws.
15. Apply the shear force at the selected strain rate toll failure or until 20 %
of longitudinal displacement, whichever occurs earlier.
16. Record the shear force reading (proving ring reading) longitudinal
displacement and change in thickness of specimen, if required until
failure of the sample occurs.
17. Remove the dial gauges, loading frame, loading pad etc and remove the
sample from the shear box.
18. Repeat step (3) to (16) on three more specimens with same initial

27

condition but at different normal stresses applied.


19. Plot the graph between shear and longitudinal displacement for each set
of the test. Note the maximum shear stress and corresponding
longitudinal displacement. Finally plot a graph between normal stress
and maximum shear stress. The slope of the average line joining above
points with normal stress axis, gives value of internal friction angle,
and the intercept on shear stress axis gives value of cohesion, c.

Results

4 Results, Analysis and Conclusion


The group is required to submit the technical report of the laboratory results
highlighting the data acquisition process, analysis carried out and the
relevancy of the set-out output to achieve the objective. The format of the
report is left to the creativity discretion of the group.
The report must be submitted 7 days after the completion of the test.

28

TITLE

Lab 3.2: Unconfined Compression Test (UCT) on Cohesive Soil

LEVEL OF
OPENNESS
PREAMBLE

1
1.1 Introduction
The unconfined compression test (UCT) is a type of the triaxial test in which a
cylindrical specimen is failed due to axial compressive stress only, thus as
without any lateral stress (==0). This test is considered as an undrained
shear test assuming that there is no moisture loss from the specimen during
the test.
This test is used to determine the in-situ strength of fully or partially saturated
cohesive soils in the field and to study the decrease in shear strength due to
remoulding. The failure occurs along the weakest portion of the sample and
hence the test gives conservative shear strength value.

1.2 Objectives
To determine shear strength of soil by conducting unconfined compression
test.
1.3 Learning Outcomes
By the end of this laboratory work, students should be able:
1. To record the deviator force & deformation of soil.
2. To plot the shear load vs. deformation, and determine the shear load at
failure.
3. To plot the Mohr-Coulomb failure envelope, and determine the
unconfined compressive strength & undrained shear strength of soil.
1.4 Theoretical Background
From the major principal stress:
1 3 tan 2 2cu tan
where :
u 45 u 2

For 3 0 , the above equation reduces to:

1 2cu tan 2cu tan 45 u


2

For pure cohesive soils, u 0 & tan 0 :

1 2cu
The major principal stress at failure in an unconfined compression test is
called the unconfined compressive strength, qu of the soil:
1 qu
qu 2cu

The undrained shear strength of a saturated clay (where, u 0 ), f may be


expressed as:
f cu q u 2
29

PROBLEM
STATEMENT

Shear strength parameters are important soil parameters used in the design
of geotechnical structures. As a group you are given a set of samples to test
to determine the strength parameters using an unconfined compression test.
The group must carry out the test following the procedures outline and
subsequently analyse the data and present it in a proper technical format.

WAYS
MEANS

AND 3.1 Apparatus


Triaxial testing machine with accessories, triaxial cell, deformation dial gauge,
proving ring, stopwatch, sampling tube, extractor & trimmer, verniercallipers,
weighting balance, etc.

Triaxial testing machine with


accessories

Triaxial cell

Upper & lower porous stones

Stopwatch

3.2
1.

Procedures
Prepare the cylindrical specimens, undisturbed, compacted or
remoulded as per requirement, at pre-determined water content.
2. Measure the dimensions of the specimen and record.
3. Record the weight of the specimen.
4. Keep representative sample for water content determinations, i.e. record
the weight of wet sample, keep it into the oven and take weight after 24
hours when it becomes dry.
Place the specimen on the bottom plate of the loading device of the
5. testing machine. Adjust the upper plate to make contact with the
specimen.
Fix the deformation dial gauge in position.
6. Make sure that the proving ring is central and just in contact with the
7. upper plate.
Adjust deformation and proving ring dial to zero.
Set the strain rate of 1.5 mm/min.
8.
Apply the axial load with preset strain rate.
9.
Record force and deformation reading at suitable intervals, preferably at
10.
closer intervals during initial stages of the test.
11.
Continue the test until the specimen fail or 20 % of axial strain is
reached.
12. Carefully sketch the failure pattern of the specimen.
13.
30

14. Take a sample from the failure zone of the specimen for water content
determinations, i.e. weight the wet sample, keep it after about 24 hours
when it becomes dry into oven, obtain dry weight.
15. Repeat steps (2) to (14) for other sample (at least three samples).
RESULTS

4.0 Results, Analysis and Conclusion


The group is required to submit the technical report of the laboratory results
highlighting the data acquisition process, analysis carried out and the
relevancy of the set-out output to achieve the objective. The format of the
report is left to the creativity discretion of the group.
The report must be submitted 7 days after the completion of the test.

31

TITLE

LAB 3.3: UNCONSOLIDATED


COHESIVE SOIL

LEVEL OF
OPENNESS
PREAMBLE

UNDRAINED

(UU)

TRIAXIAL

1.1 Introduction
The shear strength of soil is its maximum resistance to shearing stresses
and represented by coulombs equation of:

f c n tan
where :
n Total normal stress on the failure plane
c Cohesion

Angle of internal friction


In a triaxial compression test, a specimen of soil is subjected to three principal
compressive stresses at right angle to eagle other. The specimen is failed by
changing one of the stresses. The specimen used in triaxial test in cylindrical
in shape and confining pressure is applied by a liquid under pressure, which
creates a condition where the intermediate and minor principal stress ( and
) become equal to the confining pressure. In order to fail the specimen, the
major principle stress is applied axially on top of the specimen. The
relationships between principle stresses at failure are obtained by using Mohr
circle concept. In terms of total stress:

1 3 tan 2 2cu
tan
where :
u 45 u 2
When the stresses in a soil mass are in accordance with the above equations,
the soil mass is considered in a state of plastic equilibrium.
The difference bet major and minor principal stresses in a triaxial test is
called deviator stress . Deviator stress at failure is the compressive strength
of the specimen.
For calculation of stress at any state of test, it is assumed that any changes in
length and volume of specimen results in a uniform change in area over the
entire length of the specimen. Average cross sectional area A at a particular
strain is given by:
A
A o
1
where :
Ao Initial average area of cross - section of the specimen
Axial strain
L

Lo
L The change in specimen length (mm)
Lo Initial length of specimen (mm)

32

ON

Proving ring reading Proving ring constant


Deviator stress,
A
Plot deviator stress versus strain curve. Peak of the plot gives ultimate stress.
If a distinct peak does not exist before 20 % straining of the specimen, take
stress corresponding to 20 % strain calculate major principal stress 1:

1 3
Plot Mohrs circles for principal stress and obtain shear strength parameters.
1.2 Objectives
To determine the shear strength of soil using triaxial shear apparatus.
1.3 Learning Outcomes
By the end of this laboratory work, students should be able:
1. To record the deviator force & deformation of soil.
2. To plot the shear load vs. deformation, and determine the shear load at
failure.
3. To plot the Mohr-Coulomb failure envelope, and determine the cohesion
& internal friction angle of soil.
4.
PROBLEM
STATEMENT

Shear strength parameters are important soil parameters used in the design
of geotechnical structures. As a group you are given a set of samples to test
to determine the strength parameters using an unconfined undrained triaxial
test.
The group must carry out the test following the procedures outline and
subsequently analyse the data and present it in a proper technical format.
3.1 Apparatus (OPEN)
The group must identify the availability of the chosen apparatus in the
lab before the right procedures can be identified.
3.2

Procedures (OPEN)
The group is required to search for the relevant procedure to carry out
the test based on the available apparatus in your laboratory. The
document must be made ready for verification by the instructor during
the laboratory activity.

WAYS &
MEANS
3.3

Data Acquisition (OPEN)


All data collected and observed during the test must be tabulate in
proper format for easy verification and presentation of the technical
report

RESULTS

4 Results, Analysis and Conclusion


The group is required to submit the technical report of the laboratory results
highlighting the data acquisition process, analysis carried out and the
relevancy of the set-out output to achieve the objective. The format of the
report is left to the creativity discretion of the group.
The report must be submitted 7 days after the completion of the test.
33

TITLE

Lab 5.1: JKR Probe Test on In Situ Soil

LEVEL OF
OPENNESS
PREAMBLE

2
1.1 Introduction
The supporting power of a soil or rock is referred to as its bearing capacity.
The value of bearing capacity can also be determined by conducting tests on
undisturbed sample in laboratory. But it is very difficult and expensive to
collect undisturbed samples from cohesionless soils. The bearing capacity of
cohesionless soils can be determined most economically by conduction in-situ
dynamic and static penetration tests. The most commonly used test in
Malaysia is JKR probe test. This is a light dynamic test. The cone is driven
into the soil by a 5 kg hammer falling freely from a height of 280 mm. the
numbers of blow required for every 300mm penetration of cone are noted and
from which the allowable bearing is estimated using empirical relationship
between number of blows and allowable bearing capacity. The test is stopped
when the number of blows required for 300mm penetrations reach 400 blows.
The JKR probe can be used up to 12.0 m depth.

1.2 Objectives
To determine allowable bearing capacity of the ground using JKR dynamic
cone penetrometer.
1.3 Learning Outcomes
By the end of this laboratory work, students should be able:
1. To record the number of blows required over every 1 foot penetration,
and plot the total depth of penetration versus the number of blows/foot.
2. To correlate the number of blows/foot with the safe bearing capacity of
the soil, and recommend the founding depth & design bearing capacity of
shallow foundation.
PROBLEM
STATEMENT

Bearing capacity parameters are important soil parameters used in the design
of geotechnical structures. As a group you are given a set of samples to test
to determine the bearing capacity parameters using JKR Probe Test.
The group must carry out the test following the procedures outline and
subsequently analyse the data and present it in a proper technical format.
3.1 Apparatus (OPEN)
The group must identify the availability of the chosen apparatus in the
lab before the right procedures can be identified.
3.2

WAYS &
MEANS

Procedures (OPEN)
The group is required to search for the relevant procedure to carry out
the test based on the available apparatus in your laboratory. The
document must be made ready for verification by the instructor during
the laboratory activity.

3.3

Data Acquisition (OPEN)


All data collected and observed during the test must be tabulate in
34

proper format for easy verification and presentation of the technical


report
RESULTS

4 Results, Analysis and Conclusion


The group is required to submit the technical report of the laboratory results
highlighting the data acquisition process, analysis carried out and the
relevancy of the set-out output to achieve the objective. The format of the
report is left to the creativity discretion of the group.
The report must be submitted 7 days after the completion of the test.Refer to
BS1377:1990 Part 7 Clause 8 & other relevant soil engineering references.

35

TITLE

Lab 5.2: Vane Shear Test on Cohesive Soil

LEVEL OF
OPENNESS
PREAMBLE

2
1.1 Introduction
The measuring part of the instrument is a spiral-spring, max torque
transmitted 38kgcm. When the handle is turned, the spring deforms and the
upper part and the lower part of the instrument get a mutual angular
displacement. The size of this displacement depends on the torque which is
necessary to turn the vane. By means of a graduated scale the shear strength
of the clay is obtained.
The lower and upper halves of the instrument are connected by means of
threads. The scale is also supplied with threads and follows the upper part of
the instruments by means of two lugs. The 0-point is indicated by a line on the
upper part. When torque is applied, the scale-ring follows the upper part of
the instrument and when failure is obtained, the scale-ring will remain in its
position due to friction in the threads.
Three sizes of four-bladed vanes are used:
16 mm 32 mm (extra)multiply readings with 2
20 mm 40 mm (standard) direct readings
25.4 mm 50.8 mm (extra) multiply reading with 0.5
This makes it possible to measure shear strength of 0 to 260, 0 to 130 and 0
to 65 kPa respectively.
The area ratio of the vanes is 14, 16.5 and 24 % (ratio of cross sectional area
of vane to the area to be sheared).
The vane blades are soldered to a vane shaft which again is extended by one
or more 0.5m (0.49m) long rods. The connection between the shaft-rods the
instrument is made by threads. To make the connection as straight as
possible, the rods have to be screwed tightly together and the threads are to
be cleaned.

The maximum shear strength that can be measured with the inspection vane
tester is 260 kPa.A force of about 40 to 50 kN is required to press the vane
down into the clay. The vane shaft is designed to take this force, but if
extension rods are used, precautions against buckling are required.
1.2 Objectives
To measure the in situ undrained shear strength in clays primarily in trenches
and excavation at a depth not influenced by drying and excavation procedure.
1.3 Learning Outcomes
By the end of this laboratory work, students should be able:
1. To record the undrained cohesion readings from the graduated scales in
both natural & disturbed soil conditions.
2. To determine the sensitivity of the vane shear apparatus.

36

PROBLEM
STATEMENT

In situ undrained shear strength is an important soil parameter used in the


design of geotechnical structures. As a group you are given a set of
apparatus to determine the in situ undrained shear strength using Vane Shear
Test.
The group must carry out the test following the procedures outline and
subsequently analyse the data and present it in a proper technical format.
3.1 Apparatus (OPEN)
The group must identify the availability of the chosen apparatus in the
lab before the right procedures can be identified.
3.2

Procedures (OPEN)
The group is required to search for the relevant procedure to carry out
the test based on the available apparatus in your laboratory. The
document must be made ready for verification by the instructor during
the laboratory activity.

WAYS &
MEANS
3.3

Data Acquisition (OPEN)


All data collected and observed during the test must be tabulate in
proper format for easy verification and presentation of the technical
report

RESULTS

4 Results, Analysis and Conclusion


The group is required to submit the technical report of the laboratory results
highlighting the data acquisition process, analysis carried out and the
relevancy of the set-out output to achieve the objective. The format of the
report is left to the creativity discretion of the group.
The report must be submitted 7 days after the completion of the test.Refer to
BS1377:1990 Part 7 Clause 8 & other relevant soil engineering references.

37

TITLE

Construction of Sport Complex UiTM Pulau Pinang

LEVEL OF
OPENNESS
PREAMBLE

3
1.1 Introduction
This open-ended laboratory is prepared to assess students ability operating
within cooperative intra-group environment in solving practical civil
engineering problem specifically involving soil investigation (S.I.) works. The
problem encompasses issues relating to soil type determination & drainage
capability, backfill & sub-grade compaction, and soft ground settlement. The
S.I. works involve planning, site preparation, sampling, testing, analyzing &
recommending appropriate soil design parameter, which form indispensable
complement to the structural design & implementation processes.

1.2 Objectives
1. To identify specific engineering problems relating to sport complex
construction over soft ground.
2. To determine comprehensive S.I. program aimed towards solving the said
problem.
1.3 Learning Outcomes
By the end of this laboratory work, students should be able:
1. To identify engineering problems relating to sport complex construction
over soft ground, which involves among others soil type determination &
drainage capability, backfill & sub-grade compaction, and soft ground
settlement.
2. To collect representative samples, and conduct laboratory & field testing.
3. To analysize the data & obtain results relating to the classification and
compressibility of soil, and recommend valid design parameter.

PROBLEM
STATEMENT

A sport complex is to be constructed at site which is located opposite Pusat


Islam, UiTM (Penang) campus. The underlying soil is found to be of Penang
marine clay and the area is susceptible to flooding due to its low-lying
topography formerly made of a paddy field. Furthermore any superimposed
load might result in large consolidation settlement. Consequently, a 3 feet
residual soil shall be placed on top of the clay formation to raise the platform
level.
In the construction, four problems have been foreseen with regards to the
materials used as given below:
1. Suitability of the residual soils as a back fill material.
2. Relative compaction for the raised platform.
3. CBR values for the sub-grade to be used in the design of the flexible
pavement.
4. Total consolidated settlement expected at the site.

Each group will be assigned to collect representative samples of the soils to


be used (i.e. residual soil and undisturbed clay from the site) for laboratory
testing from a makeshift construction or any real construction work which
38

utilized equivalent materials. The group is also required to design and


conduct related laboratory experiments for the purpose of obtaining relevant
soil parameters which would address the four problems mentioned above.
The experiments should be conducted in succession in 4 consecutive weeks,
inclusive of all of the preparatory works. Throughout the activities are
conducted, a practical test will be used to assess the works conducted by
each group.
Following that, the group will be required to prepare a technical soil
investigation report highlighting the entire investigative process including
design recommendations.
WAYS
MEANS

& Ref. Standard Procedure : BS 1377, 1990 Testing of soils in civil engineering,
Part 2 Clause 9, Part 4 Clause 3 & 4, Part 5 Clause 3 &Part 9 Clause 2 & 4.
Brief Procedure of work to be written by each group.
Format for data acquisition to be prepared by the group. The process of all
the experiment activities and data acquisition must be recorded clearly

RESULTS

Technical data, analysis, video tape and report to be submitted by each


group.

39