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Ms. Ujwala B. Yeole, Mr. Ajay N. paithane, “Analysis of ECG Signal Using WP-HH Transform”, October 15 Volume 3 Issue 10 , International Journal on Recent and Innovation Trends in Computing and Communication (IJRITCC), ISSN: 2321-8169, PP: 5758 - 5761
APA
Ms. Ujwala B. Yeole, Mr. Ajay N. paithane, October 15 Volume 3 Issue 10, “Analysis of ECG Signal Using WP-HH Transform”, International Journal on Recent and Innovation Trends in Computing and Communication (IJRITCC), ISSN: 2321-8169, PP: 5758 - 5761

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Volume: 3 Issue: 10

ISSN: 2321-8169

5758 - 5761

________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Ms. Ujwala B. Yeole

ME Student

Department of Electronics and Telecommunication

JSPMs RSCOE, Tathwade, Pune

Pune, India

ujwalayeole59@rediffmil.com

Assistant Professor

Department of Electronics and Telecommunication

JSPMs RSCOE, Tathwade, Pune

Pune, India

ajaypaithane@yahoo.co.in

Abstract This paper introduces a method of ECG signal de noising using Hilbert Huang and Wavelet Packet Transform. Both HHT and WPT

are signal processing method. Wavelet Packet transforms is used to decompose the electrocardiogram signal into a set of narrow band signals.

Later the suitable threshold value is selected for each decomposed components. For those components for which wavelet coefficients are larger

than the threshold value, HHT is applied. This method removes the noise as well as base line wonder effect from ECG signal and reduces the

computing quantities and the decomposition layers of EMD. Paper includes features extraction method using ECG signal (IF, mean frequency,

phase) which are useful to discriminate normal and abnormal signal. The simulation result indicates the proposed method is very effective as

compared to other methods.

Keywords- ECG signal, Hilbert Huang Transform, Wavelet Packet Transform, KNN classifier, EMD, IMF

__________________________________________________*****_________________________________________________

I.

INTRODUCTION

heart and the variation of cardiac electrical potential over time.

Electrocardiogram (ECG) signal is used to diagnose many

heart disorders. Analysis of electrocardiogram signal is

difficult if noise is embedded with the signal.

There are various techniques given in the literature for

denoising of electrocardiogram signal such as adaptive method

[2], fuzzy multi wavelet de noising [4], wavelet de noising [6],

FIR and IIR filters [7],. However, for non-stationary and

nonlinear signal it is not sufficient to use digital filters or

adaptive. Initially, the wavelet transform is used as a signal

processing tool. Wavelet transform is complete, orthogonal

and adaptive. All these are basis to analyze the non-linear and

non-stationary signals. There are various deficiencies of

wavelet transforms which generates spikes over the frequency

range and makes the result confusing. Basically, wavelet

transform is divided into continuous wavelet transform and

discrete wavelet transform. The process of continuous wavelet

transform is intensive. If the data acquired is large then it

requires more time. The computing efficiency of discrete

wavelet transform is very good, but the resolution in frequency

at high frequency range is poor. So it is applicable to many

applications such as data compression, noise removal, but not

for frequency analysis in high frequency range[1].

Due to these drawbacks of wavelet transform, a new method

called Hilbert Hang Transform has been proposed for the

analysis of non-linear and non-stationary signal. But, the HHT

also suffers from a number of shortcomings. First, the EMD

will generate undesirable IMFs at the low-frequency region

that may cause misinterpretation to the result. Second, it

depends on the analyzed signal; the first obtained IMF may

cover too wide a frequency range that the property of mono

component cannot be achieved. Third, the EMD operation

cannot separate signals that contain low-energy components.

To overcome the shortcomings of HHT method, the improved

HHT is used. The improved HHT uses wavelet packet

transform (WPT) as a pre-processor. Then the EMD will be

applied to decompose the narrow band signal.

gives the theoretical background of Hilbert Huang Transform

and wavelet packet transform. Principal of improved Hilbert

Huang Transform is explained in section III. Results were

given in section IV. Finally section V gives the conclusion.

II.

THEORETICAL BACKGROUND

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proofreading spelling and grammar:

A. HILBERT HUANG TRANSFORM

Hilbert-Huang transform introduces two steps for signal

processing. Firstly, the EMD breaks up the original data into a

limited number of intrinsic mode functions, and then the IMF

components are executed Hilbert transform.

A. Empirical Mode Decomposition

The EMD method will decompose the original signal into

several IMF components, and every IMF must meet the

following two conditions:

(a) In the entire signal length, an IMF with the number of

extreme points and zero crossings must equal or differ at most

by one;

(b) At any moment, the mean value of the envelope defined by

the maximum points and the envelope defined by the

minimum points is zero.

The result of the EMD produces n IMFs cj and a residue signal

rn(t) , so the original sequence can be expressed as:

controversial, it is tenable to define that for a given length of

signal, there is only one frequency value within the length of

the signal, or the signal is mono component. To extract the

5758

______________________________________________________________________________________________

Volume: 3 Issue: 10

ISSN: 2321-8169

5758 - 5761

________________________________________________________________________________________________________

instantaneous frequency of a mono component signal, the

some signals that contain low-energy components are

Hilbert transform can be used. For an arbitrary signal x(t), its

inseparable.

Hilbert transform y(t) is defined as

Figure 2 shows the process of improved HHT. The input taken

is electrocardiogram signal. Electrocardiogram signal is

applied to WPT. WPT is act as a preprocessor. The wavelet

packet decomposition is used to decompose the signal into

narrow band signals. Later the suitable threshold value is

selected for each decomposed components. From the

decomposed components, for which the wavelet coefficients

Where P is the Cauchy principal value.

are equal or less than the threshold value are considered as

The controversial instantaneous frequency is defined as the

noise and not need to determine the EMD. Secondly, the

time derivative of the instantaneous phase, as follows:

suitable threshold value is selected for each decomposed

components, respectively. Those of the decomposed

components, which wavelet coefficient are equal to or less

compute EMD. The soft-threshold method is applied to signal

B. Wavelet Packet Transform

denoising in WPD. The basic steps of signal denoising using

soft threshold method are as follows: First WPT for signal. By

Wavelet Packet Decomposition (WPD) is a wavelet transform

selecting a wavelet function and deciding the total level m for

where the discrete-time (sampled) signal is passed through

wavelet packet decomposition, the decomposed components

more filters than the discrete wavelet transform (DWT). The

can be obtained by WPT for signal S. The value of total level

only difference between wavelets and wavelet packets is that

m is commonly 6 or 7. According to minimum cost principle,

wavelet packets offer a more complex and flexible analysis,

choose the optimized wavelet packet groups. Here the Energy

because in wavelet packet analysis, the details as well as the

entropy standard as the criterion, the optimized orthogonal

approximations are split. WPT has the properties like

wavelet packet groups can be decided by selecting the least

orthogonal, complete and local; hence it is used as a preentropy value. Threshold value quantification of WPT

processor. WPT uses a pair of low pass and high pass filters to

coefficients, respectively. Last is the selection of WPT

split a low-frequency and a high frequency component. So the

coefficients sj for EMD.

WPT allows better frequency localization of signals. The

operation of WPT is illustrated in the below figure. Initially,

an inspected signal x(t), is divided into an approximation

portion A1 and detailed portion D1 through a couple of low

band filter (LF) and high band filter (HF), respectively. The

approximation portion (A1) is divided into two second level

approximation portion (AA2) and detailed portion (DA2), by

LF and HF respectively. Similarly, the first level detailed

portion (D1) will also divide into second level approximation

(AD2) and detailed portion (DD2). For n-level decomposition,

the signal will be decomposed into 2n narrow band signals.

Fig 1: WPT decomposition tree

III.

HUANG TRANSFORM

process is called as an improved HHT. The operation of

improved HHT is given in the flow chart as shown in the

figure. There are three shortcomings were found in the HHT

analysis. The three major shortcomings include the EMD

generating undesirable IMFs at the low-frequency region, the

first obtained IMF may cover too wide a frequency range such

that the property of mono component cannot be achieved, and

IV.

RESULTS

features were extracted from electrocardiogram signal like

instantaneous amplitude and instantaneous frequency which

are shown in below figure. Fig. 3 shows the original

electrocardiogram signal (ECG). Original signal is

decomposed by using empirical mode decomposition method

showing in fig. 4. After decomposition process reconstruction

is done. Two levels of reconstruction is performed on

decompose signal which is shown in fig. 6. After

reconstruction the denoise signal is obtained as shown in fig.

7. Similarly fig 8 to fig 10 shows the results for abnormal

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Volume: 3 Issue: 10

ISSN: 2321-8169

5758 - 5761

________________________________________________________________________________________________________

case. Fig. 11 and fig. 12 shows the instantaneous frequency

and instantaneous amplitude of original signal.

Fig 3: Original ECG signal

Fig 11: Instantaneous frequency of original signal

5760

IJRITCC | October 2015, Available @ http://www.ijritcc.org

______________________________________________________________________________________________

Volume: 3 Issue: 10

ISSN: 2321-8169

5758 - 5761

________________________________________________________________________________________________________

V. CONCLUSION

[10] ManpreetKaur, Birmohan Singh, Seema, Comparisons of

Different Approaches for Removal of Baseline Wander

A novel timefrequency analysis method named as HHT has

from ECG Signal, 2nd International Conference and

been given in detail. Here the improved HHT is used to

workshop on Emerging Trends in Technology (ICWET),

denoise the electrocardiogram signal rather than using a

2011, Issue 2, Volume 2.

simple HHT. The improved HHT utilizes the WPT to act as a

[11] Pradnya B. Patil, Dr. Mahesh S. Chavan, Analysis of

pre processor to decompose the raw signal into a set of narrow

Non-stationary ECG signals using Iterative Wavelet

band signals. Then the EMD will be applied to these narrow

Decomposition, Proceedings of the 2011 IEEE

band signals and extract sets of IMFs. Finally the KNN

International Conference on Mechatronics and

classifier is used to identify that the patient is in normal or

Automation, vol. 2, pp. 316-327, 2012.

abnormal situation.

[12] Ani! Chacko, Samit Ari, Denoising of ECG signal using

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

Empirical Mode Decomposition based technique, IEEE

Authors would like to thank to the institute authorities for

International Conference on Advance In Engineering,

their kind support without which this work could not have

Science and Management, Vol-3, March 2012.

been conducted.

[13] ChitrangiSawant, Harishchandra T. patil, Performance

Comparison of Wavelet Based ECG Signal Denoising,

International Journal of Advance Foundation and

REFERENCES

Research in Computer (IJAFRC), Vol. 1, Issue 5, May

[1] Paithane, A. N., and D. S. Bormane. "Analysis of

2014.

nonlinear and non-stationary signal to extract the features

using Hilbert Huang transform." Computational

Intelligence and Computing Research (ICCIC), 2014

IEEE International Conference on. IEEE, 2014.

[2] Paithane, A. N., and D. S. Bormane. "Electrocardiogram

signal analysis using empirical mode decomposition and

Hilbert spectrum." Pervasive Computing (ICPC), 2015

International Conference on. IEEE, 2015.

[3] D. L. Donoho, De-noising by soft-thresholding, IEEE

Transaction on Biomedical signal Processing Theory,

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[4] Wei Zhang,Xu Wang , LinlinGe , Zhuo Zhang. Noise

Reduction in ECG Signal Based on Adaptive Wavelet

Transform. Proceedings of the 2005IEEE Engineering in

Medicine and Biology 27th Annual conference, September

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[5] A. K. Barros, A. Mansour, and N. Ohnishi, "Removing

artefacts from electrocardiographic signals using

independent component analysis, "Neuro computing,

vo1.22, pp. 173-186, Nov. 1998.

[6] Y.-F. Ho, B. W.-K. Ling, T. P.-L. Wong, A. Y.-P. Chan,

and P. K.-S. Tam, "Fuzzy multi wavelet denoising on

ECG signal," Electronics Letters, vol. 39, no. 16, pp.

1163-1164, Aug. 2003.

[7] AnandaJonnabhotla, Nikita Sadam and Naga Deepthi,

ECG Noise Removal and QRS Complex Detection

Using UWT, 2010 International Conference on

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[8] Mashud Khan,Faizen Aslam,Tahir Zaidi,Shoab A. Khan.

Wavelet Based ECG Denoising Using Signal-Noise

Residue

Method

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[9] Seema Rani ,Amarpreetkaur, J S Ubhi. Comparative

study of FIR and IIR filters for the removal of Baseline

noises from ECG signal International Journal of

Computer Science and Information Technologies, Vol 2

(3), 2011.

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