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P613 HW # 2 Solutions

JM Densmore

1. The Free and Independent Electron Gas in Two Dimensions


(a) In a 2D system with periodic BC you can solve the SE with momentum kx = 2/Lnx and ky = 2/Lny . The number of allowed values
of k space inside a volume will be
V
4 2
The volume in k space is the area of a circle with radius kf . Taking
into account the number of spins for the electron
n

1
n

rs

kf2
2

(1)

(b)
rs2

2
kf

(2)
(3)

(c) In 2D the density of particles in range k + dk is 2kdk


Z
2kdk
n =
f (k )
4 2
Changing to an integral over energy we find
Z
m
n =
f ()d
h2

(4)

(5)
(6)

h2

g=
g=

>0
<0

(d) Since g is constant g0 = 0 all the terms in the BS expansion are equal
to zero. So we find
Z f
m
m
n =
(7)
2 dE + ( f )
h
h2
0
m
(8)
n = n( f ) 2
h
= f
(9)
(e) From 2.67 we have
m
n=
h2
1

1
e()

+1

This integral can be looked up in a table. Using the electron density


and the fermi energy it is easy to show
f

1
ln(1 + e )

(10)

(f) (T ) does not have an analytic expansion about T 0, which is why


the BS expansion does not work in 2D.
2. Entropy of a free electron gas
(a) Well start with the partition function, Z, for a free electron gas
X
Z =
e(ni i ni )
(11)
ni

e(n1 1 n1 )

n1

e(nN N nN )

(12)

nN

For Fermi-Dirac statistics n can be either 0 or 1. The sums are easily


evaluated.
Z

(1 + e(i ) )

(13)

The entropy S is

= T

= kB (ln Z + )

(14)

With the energy defined as


=
=

ln Z

X (i )e(i )
1 + e(i )

(15)
(16)

and

ln(fi ) =
=

ln

e(i )
1 + e(i )

(i ) ln(1 + e(i ) )

from (4), (6), & (8) it is easy to show that


X
[fi ln fi + (1 fi ) ln(1 fi )]
S = kb
k

(b) We can use integration by parts to integrate


Z
s = kB dEg(E)(f ln(f ) + (1 f ) ln(1 f ))
2

(17)
(18)

Z
hE =

g(E)dE

(f ln(f ) + (1 f ) ln(1 f )) =
E

ln

f
1f

f 0 ln f + f 0 f 0 ln(1 f ) f 0
f
)
1f

f 0 ln(

( )

(19)

(20)

The entropy becomes


Z
s

kB

h()( )

(21)

Taylor expanding h()

X
1 (l)
h ()( )l
l!

h() =

l=0

(l + 1) = 2n l = 2n 1
s =

( )2n
1 X (2n1)
h
()(2n)
(f 0 )
T n=1
2n!

(22)

The above integral is just (kB T )2n C2n . For n =1, f .


s

2 2
k T g(f )
3 B

(23)

The electron specific heat is


cv = T

S
/n
T

2 1 2
k T g(f )
3 n B
3. Pauli paramagnetism This problem was solved on the quiz, but here
I will use a different approach. The energy of a electron whose magnetic
moment is parallel (+) or antiparallel (-) to H is given by
cv =

p2
2m

B H

= E0 B H

(24)

where E0 = p2 /2m. The energy levels of the system are populated according to the fermi-dirac distribution function.
f () =
3

1
e()

+1

(25)

The density of levels is given by


M
V

4B
h3

4V
h3

p2 dp. The magnetization / volume is

dpp2 [f (+ ) f ( )]

(26)

Define A = -H if +, A = H if -. Well change the integral in p to an


integral in E.

3/2 Z
EdE
2 3/2
2 1 2
2m
=
[1 +
(
) + ...]
(27)
(E+)
3
8
e
+1
0
with = b A + then f (+) = + B H; f () = B H

8B (2m3 )1/2
2 kB T 2
3/2
]+
M/V =
(
+

H)
[1
+
B
3h3
8 + B H
!
2 kB T 2
3/2
( B H) [1 +
]
(28)
8 B H
After expanding in powers of H and keeping only the leading terms

!
M
82B (2m3 )1/2 H
2 kb T 2
=
1
+ ...
(29)
V
h3
24
is the chemical potential. In the low temperature limit it is just the
fermi energy f . You should be able to convince yourself that this the
same result as the quiz. = 2B g(f ) 106
Using the above results, making sure to use the correct units. We find
that RW = 1.
7.2 Measure K, then use k = 2/L to calculate the length of the box.
7.3See problem 1.
7.4 Make a plot of f vs n, which comes out to be a linear plot.
7.5 vsom 107 , vdru 104 . som 10 eV; dru 102 . som /dru 102 .