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The 2nd International Conference Planning in the Era of Uncertainty:

Sustainable Development

IMPACT OF THE DEVELOPMENT IN NORTH


BANDUNG AS WATER CATCHMENT AREA TO THE
ENVIRONMENT AND SURROUNDING COMMUNITIES
Faris Dzulfikara1, Dinda Dewintab, Maryam Agree Alfani Thobanc
a

Urban and Regional Planning, Indonesian Computer University, Bandung 40132, Indonesia
Urban and Regional Planning, Indonesian Computer University, Bandung 40132, Indonesia
c
Urban and Regional Planning, Indonesian Computer University, Bandung 40132, Indonesia

E-mail Address: afaris.dzulfikar@gmail.com, bdewintadinda18@gmail.com, calfanithoban@gmail.com

Abstract
Planning is an activity managing a concept for achieving the objectives in the future. In other hand, planning is an
activity to achieve the future with present-oriented. In terms of planning an area, region or city theres required
elements that can create sustainable development, thats environment, economic and social. Those three elements is
the main key in realizing sustainable development. Sustainable development can only be achieved if economic
development is attached to be balance of the environment. But unfortunately, in Indonesia we havent seen yet the
integration of economic development and environmental sustainability. Limited land use is not balanced with high
economic development and the result is a conversion from open land for environmental sustainability into
development land for economic development. This development forgot the environmental sustainability and
ultimately resulting in changes of land use massively. Change of land use is the one who ultimately have implications
for the environmental damage. We need to realize that economic development could not be separated from
environmental sustainability because high economic growth and sustainable development marked by no occurrence
of environmental and social damage. Before the development getting started, there must be a method to know how
the development could impact the environment.

Keywords : sustainable development, changes of land use

1. INTRODUCTION
Development is one of the things that are needed to meet the needs of the community. Economic
development is a very absolute development to help the economic growth of a region. But the
development is running for granted without regard to the environment. We not realize that economic
development has forgotten environmental sustainability, and economic development should be integrated
with the environment so is not to cause the impact of declining power support and environmental damage.
Indonesia is a developing country thats need of development, especially economic development.
But in fact, the planning and development of this country are thus forgotten aspects of the environment.
1

* Corresponding author. Tel.: +62-838-2277-3168; fax: +62-22-253-3754.


E-mail address: faris.dzulfikar@gmail.com

Faris Dzulfikar, Dinda Dewinta, Maryam Agree Alfani Thoban

We must know that there are three main pillars required to achieve sustainable development, thats
environment, economic and social. These three pillars are inseparable. We cannot build the economy
without regard to the environmental and social impact.
The lack of integration between the economy and the environment on development in Indonesia
resulted in a large number of changes in land use. One of the problems change of land use in Indonesia is
in the North Bandung. The North Bandung area includes three villages namely Ledeng Village,
Ciumbuleuit Village and Hegarmanah Village is the water infiltration area for Bandung. But in fact, now
The North Bandung has been changed into the settlement of citizen start from high to low settlement,
many hotel, apartment and commercial that stands up in this area.
Ledeng village that should be a green open space has been changed into settlement of citizen,
hotels and commercial. The descending of green open space will give impact to the descending of water
infiltration area that can make a flood. Furthermore fulfillment of green open space in Bandung will be
difficult to achieve if the function of green area always changing.
Meanwhile Ciumbuleuit village close to Punclut area is a strategic area, which is this area is a
water infiltration for Bandung. Many settlements, hotels and illegal commercials in this area makes water
infiltration areas become descending. If the development in this area continue to take place without
thinking the balance of environment, then it would have an impact on the water needs for the citizens. So
the purpose of this research is to determine the impact of land use change to the environmental and the
social aspect in Northern Bandung.
2. Research Methodology
This research has combined qualitative and quantitative methods to collect and analyze the data.
Data for this research are derived from observation and government documents. The observation take
place in Northern Bandung, precisely in Cidadap District that occurs change of land use. Analysis is
performed continuously since the beginning until the end of the research.
3. Data Analysis
In Detail Spatial Planning (RDTR) of Cibeunying, Bandung City, Cidadap District lies in the
particular zone III. This zone is a protected area and has a very steep geographical condition. Because of
these conditions, the development of the region is directed only for low density residential. Unfortunately,
in fact, there are many change of land use in this area from green open space (include water catchment
area) become apartment, hotel, commercial and cafe which makes this area to be a solid area of the
settlements. Based on population projections in this region in 2010, Cibeunying population in Cidadap
District predicted as much as 56.588 inhabitants. But based on data obtained in field, Cidadap District
population in 2014 reached 57.735 inhabitants. With the increase of population, indirectly forced landneeds to be increased. This is the one to watch out for if you want to do the development in this area
because Cidadap District is an area in Northern Bandung which is the water infiltration function provides
protection for the area below.
Based on Spatial Plan (RTRW) of Bandung, Northern Bandung is a strategic area. The strategic
areas mentioned in Spatial Plan (RTRW) is an area which prioritizes its spatial planning because it has a
very important impact to a larger area.

Faris Dzulfikar, Dinda Dewinta, Maryam Agree Alfani Thoban

The determination of strategic areas rated based on the significance points include:
1. The area has a strategic value from the point of economic interests.
2. The area has a strategic value from a socio-cultural interests.
3. The area has a strategic value utilization of natural resources and/or high-tech.
4. The area has a strategic importance from the point of power function support environment.
Based on the points above, then Northern Bandung is an area that has a value of environmental
carrying capacity. The development of land in this area is categorized as limited development due to its
role as a water catchment area.
The change of land use can not be apart from the increased of population growth. If the
population increased, so the demand for land and construction also increased. The following table
regarding the projection of the total population per village in Cidadap District:
Table III-1
Projection of The Total Population in Cidadap District from 2012 to 2013
Village
2012
2013
Hegarmanah

23.782

24.058

Ciumbuleuit

22.198

22.456

Ledeng

12.020

12.158

58.000

58.672

Total

Source : Bandung Dalam Angka 2014


Based on population projections table above it can be seen that from 2012 to 2013 Cidadap
district population has increased. From the results of observation, Cidadap district population numbered
57.735 inhabitants. This number has decreased from previous years. But the descending population in
Cidadap District does not make the development in these areas decreased. Many new hotels and
commercials stands in this area.
According to the observation, the change of land use has impacted the social of communities in
Northern Bandung. That social impact will be explained in tables below:

1
2

Table III-2
The Percentage Impact of North Bandung Development to Surrounding Communities
Influence
M
F
Frequency
Percentage
(People)
(People)
(%)
Increasing income
22
9
31
21
Increasing the density of
population

30

11

41

27

Increasing the
communities welfare

Cause new problems to


the environment

Faris Dzulfikar, Dinda Dewinta, Maryam Agree Alfani Thoban

26

16

42

28

23

13

36

24

Source : Survey and Analysis Results 2014

Chart III-2
Source : Survey and Analysis Results 2014
Based on the observation, 28% of the respondents said that the activities of change of land
use can improve the welfare of society. It is inseparable from the benefits of the development in this area
as a catalyst for community employment. Meanwhile, 27% of the respondent said that change of land use
can cause a density of the environment that indicates the environmental damage as a result of the reduced
space for the environmental carrying capacity.
Table III-3
The Percentage of Most Existing Activities in Change of Land Use Area
Activities
M
F
Frequency
Percentage
(People)
(People)
(%)
1
Trade
34
13
47
31
2
Settlement
58
33
91
61
3
Education
6
6
12
8
Source : Survey and Analysis Results 2014

Faris Dzulfikar, Dinda Dewinta, Maryam Agree Alfani Thoban

Chart III-3
Source : Survey and Analysis Results 2014
Based on the observation, 61% of respondents said that change of land use area used as a
settlement, it is indicates the settlement dominate the change of land use area. Then followed by trading
activity and education that each have percentage of 31% and 8%.
Table III-4
The Percentage of Respondent Awareness of Land Use Change
Awareness
M
F
Frequency
Percentage
(People)
(People)
(%)
1
Aware
47
18
65
43
2
Not Aware
52
33
85
57
Source : Survey and Analysis Results 2014

Faris Dzulfikar, Dinda Dewinta, Maryam Agree Alfani Thoban

Chart III-4
Source : Survey and Analysis Results 2014
Based on the observation, the level of respondents awareness over the change of land use is
still low, because 57% of the respondent said that do not know about the change of land use. This shows
that many citizens who still not understand about change of land use and the impact of it.
Table III-5
The Percentage of Land Use Change Impact on the Respondent
Impact on the Respondent
M
F
Frequency
Percentage
(People)
(People)
(%)
1
Feel change of land use can
26
16
42
28
cause a disaster, like
landslide
2
Distracted
52
24
76
51
3
Indifferent
21
11
32
21
Source : Survey and Analysis Results 2014

Faris Dzulfikar, Dinda Dewinta, Maryam Agree Alfani Thoban

Chart III-5
Source : Survey and Analysis Results 2014
Based on the observation, 51% of respondents said that theyre being distracted because change
of land use in their area. Its happen because the development in their area very distracting for the society.
Then, 21% of respondent said that change of land use can cause a disaster such as flood, reducing water
infiltration area and surface water.
In addition to the impact of social, change of land use is also give impact on the environment in
the North Bandung, as described in the tables below:
Table III-6
The Percentage of Land Utilization That Suitable On Change of Land Use Area
Land Utilization
M
F
Frequency
Percentage
(People)
(People)
(%)
1
Settlement
34
17
51
34
2
Industry
5
5
10
7
3
Green Open Space (RTH)
58
31
89
59
Source : Survey and Analysis Results 2014

Faris Dzulfikar, Dinda Dewinta, Maryam Agree Alfani Thoban

Chart III-6
Source : Survey and Analysis Results 2014
Based on the observation, 59% of respondents said that land utilization that suitable on change
of land use area is green open space and 34% of respondent said settlement is suitable for change of land
use area. Its indicates that society is more needed green open space beside settlement and industry.
Table III-7
The Percentage of Land Utilization Around Respondent Home
Land Utilization
M
F
Frequency
Percentage
(People)
(People)
(%)
1
Trade
76
44
76
80
2
Industry
9
2
11
7
3
Sanitary landfill
12
7
19
13
Source : Survey and Analysis Results 2014

Faris Dzulfikar, Dinda Dewinta, Maryam Agree Alfani Thoban

Chart III-7
Source : Survey and Analysis Results 2014
Based on the observation, 80% of respondents said that land around their home are utilized for
trade activity, whereas the other respondent said that land around their home are utilized for industry and
landfill.Its indicates that so many trade activity around citizens home.
Table III-8
The Percentage of Government Responsibility for Change of Land Use
Government
M
F
Responsibility
(People)
(People)
1
Theres an action
35
18
from government
2
No action from
63
34
government
Source : Survey and Analysis Results 2014

Frequency
53

Percentage
(%)
35

97

65

Faris Dzulfikar, Dinda Dewinta, Maryam Agree Alfani Thoban

Chart III-8
Source : Survey and Analysis Results 2014
Based on the observation, 65% of respondents said that government still not take any action
against change of land use, the other respondent said that government have take an a action against
change of land use. Its indicates if the society in change of land use area still not feel the action of the
government to overcome change of land use.

Faris Dzulfikar, Dinda Dewinta, Maryam Agree Alfani Thoban

4. Conclusion

North Bandung is a strategic area that has a value as environmental carrying capacity
and protect larger area. This is because North Bandung area has a function as water
catchment area.
Based on the result of observation in Cidadap District, respondents argue that
development in North Bandung has positive impact in improving the welfare of society.
It means that the development can create jobs and minimize unemployment in
respondent area. The creation of employment in that area can increase inhabitants who
settled around that area, in the end it can be increasing the density of population.
In general, the inhabitants who settled in North Bandung do not know that North
Bandung has a function as water catchment area. Even so, some of the inhabitants feel
distracted because of the development in their area. The noises and dust from the
development process in their area are some of the disorders that they feel. Beside that,
some of the inhabitants argues that land use in the area of land use change is more
suitable as an industrial area. This is certainly will cause new problems to the
environment such as river water pollution.
Until now, government of Bandung have not give the punishment decisively to the
violations of the development in North Bandung. Land use change problem in North
Bandung needs a serious attention to ensure that the development does not give
negative impact to environment and surrounding communities.

References
[1] BPS, Kabupaten Bandung Dalam Angka 2013
[2] Detail Spatial Planning (RDTR) of Cibeunying
[3] Geological Agency of Indonesia (Badan Geologi Indonesia)
[4] Spatial Plan (RTRW) of Bandung, period 2011-2031