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Human factors and ergonomics (HF&E), also known as comfort design, functional design,
and user-friendly systems, is the practice of designing products, systems or processes to take
proper account of the interaction between them and the people who use them.
The field has seen contributions from numerous disciplines, such
as psychology, engineering, biomechanics, industrial design, physiology and anthropometry. In
essence, it is the study of designing equipment and devices that fit the human body and
its cognitive abilities. The two terms "human factors" and "ergonomics" are essentially
The International Ergonomics Association defines ergonomics or human factors as follows:
Ergonomics (or human factors) is the scientific discipline concerned with the understanding of
interactions among humans and other elements of a system, and the profession that applies
theory, principles, data and methods to design in order to optimize human well-being and overall
system performance.
HF&E is employed to fulfill the goals of occupational health and safety and productivity. It is
relevant in the design of such things as safe furniture and easy-to-use interfaces to machines and
Proper ergonomic design is necessary to prevent repetitive strain injuries and
other musculoskeletal disorders, which can develop over time and can lead to long-term
Human factors and ergonomics is concerned with the "fit" between the user, equipment and their
environments. It takes account of the user's capabilities and limitations in seeking to ensure that
tasks, functions, information and the environment suit each user.
To assess the fit between a person and the used technology, human factors specialists or
ergonomists consider the job (activity) being done and the demands on the user; the equipment
used (its size, shape, and how appropriate it is for the task), and the information used (how it is
presented, accessed, and changed). Ergonomics draws on many disciplines in its study of humans
and their environments, including anthropometry, biomechanics, mechanical
engineering, industrial engineering, industrial design, information
design, kinesiology, physiology, cognitive psychology, industrial and organizational psychology,
and space psychology.

Volleyball is played in over 200 countries around the world by people of all ages and skill levels.
It is second only to soccer in popularity throughout the world. Volleyball was invented in 1895
by William G. Morgan at the YMCA in Springfield, Massachusetts.The goal was to create a
game that would be less stressful than basketball on the bodies of young athletes, yet enjoyable
and competitive enough to keep young people fit.Beach volleyball evolved sometime in the
1920s and organized beach tournaments began as early as 1948.Volleyball was first recognized
as an Olympic sport in 1964 in Tokyo for both men and women.At the 1996 Olympic games in
Atlanta, beach volleyball was added as a full medal sport.65% of the players registered with
USA Volleyball are less than 18 years of age. There are several types of volleyball; indoor,
outdoor sand, outdoor grass, water, and wallyball each with distinct set of rules and number of
players per side. In volleyball, players rotate position, so unlike other sports where players play
one position throughout a game, volleyball does have the advantage that different motions are
required in playing the different positions: serving, setting, spiking, etc. The only position that
does not rotate and that has specific responsibilities is the libero in indoor volleyball, a position
added in 1999 with no attack responsibilities.This position is responsible for saving the ball and
keeping it in play, passing to other players, and it requires quickness and excellent ball-handling
We will focus in this report on the repetitive motion (overuse) injuries which can be caused or
exacerbated by the sport of volleyball. Some of the biggest websites covering volleyball
coaching, rules, education, and training do not even mention the most common injuries and
prevention strategies, although concussion, a relatively rare traumatic injury in volleyball, is
discussed at some length on the Team USA Volleyball website. As with most sports, acute
injuries caused by sudden trauma do occur, but they are much less prevalent than overuse
injuries. Between 50-80% of all injuries in volleyball are overuse injuries.Although wrist and
forearm injuries are rarely reported as a result of playing volleyball, anyone currently suffering
symptoms of Repetitive Strain Injury (RSI) in the wrist or forearm is not advised to play this
sport. Volleyball requires hitting a ball with the hands and arms with force, which will cause
further injury to damaged tissues.

Problem statement
For many years the quality management on UTHMs volleyball facilities have been asked so
many times for the safety and other factors. At first glance the volleyball court may seem safe to
be use , but other factor must be taking care for the safety of the student. Once we understand the
factors and problems , well begin to see the answer to the problem.

1) To take others opinion on the quality management on UTHMs volleyball facilities.
2) To improve the UTHMs volleyball facilities.
3) To determine the risks of playing volleyball in the current facilities conditions.