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DIEVAR

UDDEHOLM
DIEVAR

DIEVAR

REFERENCE STANDARD

ASSAB DF-2

ARNE

ASSAB DF-3

AISI

WNr.

JIS

O1

(1.2510)

(SKS 3)

O1

(1.2510)

(SKS 3)

ASSAB XW-5

SVERKER 3

D6 (D3)

(1.2436)

(SKD 2)

ASSAB XW-10

RIGOR

A2

1.2363

SKD 12

ASSAB XW-41

SVERKER 21

D2

1.2379

SKD 11

D2

1.2379

SKD 11

ASSAB XW-42
CARMO

CARMO

1.2358

CALMAX

CALMAX

1.2358

CALDIE

CALDIE

ASSAB 88

SLEIPNER

ASSAB PM 23 SUPERCLEAN

VANADIS 23 SUPERCLEAN

(M3:2)

1.3395

SKH 53

ASSAB PM 30 SUPERCLEAN

VANADIS 30 SUPERCLEAN

(M3:2 + Co)

1.3294

SKH 40

ASSAB PM 60 SUPERCLEAN

VANADIS 60 SUPERCLEAN

VANADIS 4 EXTRA SUPERCLEAN

VANADIS 4 EXTRA SUPERCLEAN

VANADIS 6 SUPERCLEAN

VANADIS 6 SUPERCLEAN

VANADIS 10 SUPERCLEAN

VANADIS 10 SUPERCLEAN

VANCRON 40 SUPERCLEAN

VANCRON 40 SUPERCLEAN

ELMAX SUPERCLEAN

ELMAX SUPERCLEAN

(1.3292)

ASSAB 518

P20

1.2311

ASSAB 618

P20 Mod.

1.2738

ASSAB 618 HH

P20 Mod.

1.2738

ASSAB 618 T

P20 Mod.

1.2738 Mod.

ASSAB 718 SUPREME

IMPAX SUPREME

P20 Mod.

1.2738

ASSAB 718 HH

IMPAX HH

P20 Mod.

1.2738

NIMAX

NIMAX

MIRRAX 40

MIRRAX 40

VIDAR 1 ESR

VIDAR 1 ESR

UNIMAX

UNIMAX

CORRAX

CORRAX

ASSAB 2083

420 Mod.
H11

1.2343

SKD 6

420

1.2083

SUS 420J2

STAVAX ESR

STAVAX ESR

420 Mod.

1.2083 ESR

SUS 420J2

MIRRAX ESR

MIRRAX ESR

420 Mod.

POLMAX

POLMAX

RAMAX HH

RAMAX HH

ROYALLOY

ROYALLOY

420 F Mod.

PRODAX
ASSAB MM40
ALVAR 14

ALVAR 14

ASSAB 2714
ASSAB 8407 2M

ORVAR 2M

ASSAB 8407 SUPREME

ORVAR SUPREME

DIEVAR

DIEVAR

HOTVAR

HOTVAR

QRO 90 SUPREME

QRO 90 SUPREME

1.2714

SKT 4

1.2714

SKT 4

H13

1.2344

SKD 61

H13 Premium

1.2344 ESR

SKD 61

4340

1.6582

SNCM8

ASSAB 709

4140

1.7225

SCM4

ASSAB 760

1050

1.1730

S50C

ASSAB 705

ASSAB is a trademark of ASSAB Pacific Pte Ltd.


The information contained herein is based on our present state of knowledge and is intended to provide general notes on our products and their uses.
It should not therefore be construed as a warranty of specific properties of the products described or a warranty for fitness for a particular purpose.
Each user of ASSAB products is responsible for making its own determination as to the suitability of ASSAB products and services.
Edition D140715

DIEVAR

DIEVAR
Dievar is a hot work die steel specially developed by Uddeholm Tooling,
our steel mill in Sweden, to provide the best possible performance.
The chemical composition and the very latest in production technique
make the property profile outstanding. Dievar possesses a combination of
excellent toughness and very good hot strength, resulting in a superior hot
work die steel that have excellent resistance to heat checking and gross
cracking.
Dievar is suitable for high demand hot work applications like die casting,
extrusion and forging. The property profile also makes it a suitable choice
in other applications such as plastic moulding (e.g., to solve chipping/
cracking) and High Performance Steel.
Dievar offers the potential for significant improvements in die life, thereby
improving the tooling economy.

DIEVAR

General
Dievar is a high performance chromium-molybdenumvanadium alloyed hot work tool steel which offers a very
good resistance to heat checking, gross cracking, hot
wear and plastic deformation. Dievar is characterised by:




DIE CASTING

Excellent toughness and ductility in all directions


Good temper resistance
Good high-temperature strength
Excellent hardenability
Good dimensional stability throughout heat
treatment and coating operations

Type

Cr-Mo-V alloyed hot work tool steel

Standard
specification

None

Delivery
condition

Soft annealed to approx. 160 HB

Colour code

Yellow / Grey

Part

Aluminium / Magnesium alloys

Dies

44-50 HRC

EXTRUSION

Dievar is a premium hot work tool steel developed by


Uddeholm. It is manufactured utilising the very latest in
production and refining techniques. The Dievar
development has yielded a die steel with the ultimate
resistance to heat checking, gross cracking, hot wear
and plastic deformation. The unique properties profile
of Dievar makes it the best choice for die casting, forging
and extrusion.

Applications
Heat checking is one of the most common failure
mechanisms, e.g., in die casting and nowadays also in
forging applications. Dievars superior ductility yields the
highest possible level of heat checking resistance. With
Dievars outstanding toughness and hardenability, its
resistance to heat checking will be further improved.
If gross cracking is not a factor, then a higher working
hardness can be utilised (+2 HRC).

Part

Copper
alloys

Aluminium /
Magnesium alloys

Dies

46-52 HRC

46-52 HRC

44-52 HRC

Liners, dummy
blocks, stems

HOT FORGING

Regardless of the dominant failure mechanism (e.g.,


heat checking, gross cracking, hot wear or plastic
deformation), Dievar offers the potential for significant
improvements in die life as well as tooling economy.
Part

Dievar is the material of choice for the high demand die


casting, forging and extrusion industries.

Inserts

Steel / Aluminium
44-52 HRC

DIEVAR

Properties
The reported properties are representative of samples
which have been taken from the centre of a 610 x 203
mm bar. Unless otherwise indicated, all specimens were
hardened at 1025C, quenched in oil and tempered
2 + 2 hours at 615C to 451 HRC.
PHYSICAL PROPERTIES

Charpy V-notch impact toughness at elevated


temperatures
Short transverse direction.

Hardened and tempered to 44 - 46 HRC.


Temperature

At a hardness of approximately 45 HRC, the minimum


average unnotched impact ductility is 300 J in the short
transverse direction.

20C

Impact energy, J

400C

140

600C

120
Density
kg/m3
Modulus of elasticity
MPa

7800

7700

7600

210 000

180 000

145 000

45 HRC
100
80
47 HRC
60

Coefficient of
thermal expansion
per C from 20C

13.3 x 10 -6

12.7 x 10 -6

40
20

Thermal
conductivity
W/m C

31

50 HRC

32
50

100 150

200 250 300 350 400 450C


Testing temperature

MECHANICAL PROPERTIES
Temper resistance

Approximate tensile properties at room temperature,


tested in the short transverse direction.
Hardness

The specimens have been hardened and tempered to


45 HRC, and then held at different temperatures from
1 to 100 hours.

44 HRC

48 HRC

52 HRC

Tensile
strength, Rm

1480 MPa

1640 MPa

1900 MPa

Yield
strength, RP0.2

1210 MPa

1380 MPa

1560 MPa

Elongation, A 5

13 %

13 %

12.5 %

Reduction of
area, Z

55 %

55 %

52 %

Hardness, HRC
50
500C
45
550C
40

35

Approximate tensile properties at elevated


temperatures

600C
30

Short transverse direction, 451 HRC.


A5, Z
%
100

Rm, Rp0.2
MPa
2000
Z

1800

90

25
0.1

650C

10

100

Time, h

80

1600

70

1400
Rm

1200

60
50

1000
800

40

Rp0.2

30

600

20

400
200

10

A5
100

200
300
400
500
Testing temperature

600

700C

DIEVAR

Heat treatment
SOFT ANNEALING

QUENCHING

Protect the steel and heat through to 850C. Then cool


in the furnace at 10C per hour to 650C, then freely in air.

As a general rule, quench rates should be as rapid as


possible. Accelerated quench rates are required to
optimise tool properties specifically with regards to
toughness and resistance to gross cracking. However,
risk of excessive distortion and cracking must be
considered.

STRESS RELIEVING

The quenching media should be capable of creating a


fully hardened microstructure. Different quench rates
for Dievar are defined by the CCT graph as shown in
page 7.

After rough machining, the tool should be heated


through to 650C, holding time 2 hours. Cool slowly
to 500C, then freely in air.

High speed gas/circulating atmosphere


Vacuum (high speed gas with sufficient positive
pressure). An interrupted quench at 320450C is
recommended for distortion control, or when quench
cracking is a concern.
Martempering bath, salt bath or fluidised bed at
450550C
Martempering bath, salt bath or fluidised bed at
approx. 180200C
Warm oil, approx. 80C

HARDENING
Preheating temperature: 600900C. Normally a
minimum of two preheats, the first in the 600650C
range, and the second in the 820850C range. When
three preheats are used, the second is carried out
at 820C, and the third at 900C.
Austenitising temperature: 10001030C

Temperature
C

Soaking time
minutes

Hardness before
tempering

1000

30

522 HRC

1025

30

552 HRC

Note: Temper the tool as soon as its temperature


reaches 5070C.

TEMPERING
Choose the tempering temperature according to the
hardness required by reference to the tempering graph
below. Temper at least three times for die casting dies,
and two times for forging and extrusion tools. The tool
should be cooled to room temperature between the
tempers. The minimum holding time at tempering
temperature is 2 hours.

Soaking time = time at hardening temperature after the


tool is fully heated through.

Tempering in the range of 500550C is normally not


recommended, and it will result in a lower toughness.

Protect the tool against decarburisation and oxidation during


austenitising.

Tempering graph
Hardness, HRC
60

Hardness, grain size and retained austenite as


functions of austenitising temperature
Grain
size
ASTM Hardness, HRC
10 60
8

58

56

1000C

Retained austenite

1010

1020

1030

1040 1050C

Austenitising temperture

Temper

45

54

50
990 1000

50

Grain size

Hardness

52

Austenitising temperature
1025C

55
Retained austenite %

Retained austenite, %

40

35

30

25

Retained austenite

100

200

300

400

500

Tempering temperature (2 + 2h)

600

700C

DIEVAR

Effect of tempering temperature on room


temperature Charpy V-notch impact energy

DIMENSIONAL CHANGES DURING HARDENING


AND TEMPERING

Short transverse direction.

During hardening and tempering, the tool is exposed


to both thermal and transformation stresses. These
stresses will result in distortion. Insufficient levels of
machine stock may result in slower than recommended
quench rates during heat treatment. To reduce the
level of distortion, a stress relief is always recommended
bewteen rough and semi-finish machining, prior to
hardening.

Impact strength
60

Hardness HRC
60

50

50

40

40
Temper brittleness zone

30

30

20

20

10

10
200

300

400

500

600

For a stress relieved Dievar tool, a minimum machining


allowance of 0.3% is recommended to correct for
distortion during heat treatment with a rapid quench.

700C

Tempering temperature (2h + 2h)

CCT graph
Austenitising temperature 1025C. Holding time 30 minutes.
C
1100

Austenitising temperature 1025C


Holding time 30 minutes

1000

AC1 = 890C

900

AC1 = 820C

Carbides

800

Pearlite

700
600
500

Cooling Hardness
Curve No. HV 10

400
300

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

Bainite

MS

200

Mf

Martensite

100
1

10

100
1

1000
10

1.5

10 000

10

100 000

100

1000

1
0.2

1.5
15
280
1248
3205
5200
10400
20800
41600

Seconds
Minutes

10
90

681
627
620
592
566
488
468
464
405

T800-500
(sec)

600

100 Hours
Air cooling of
bars, mm

DIEVAR

Machining recommendations
The cutting data below are to be considered as guiding
values and as starting points for developing your own
best practice.

MILLING
Face and square shoulder milling

Condition: Soft annealed condition ~160 HB


TURNING

Cutting data
parameters

Rough
turning

Fine
turning

Fine
turning

150 - 200

Feed (f)
mm/r

0.2 - 0.4

0.05 - 0.2

0.05 - 0.3

2-4

0.5 - 2

0.5 - 2

P20 - P30
Coated
carbide

P10
Coated
carbide or
cermet

Carbide
designation
ISO

Turning
with HSS

Turning with cabide

Cutting speed
(vc)
m/min

Depth of cut (ap)


mm

Milling with carbide

Cutting data
parameters

200 - 250

Rough milling

Fine milling

Cutting speed
(vc)
m/min

130 - 180

180 - 220

Feed (f z)
mm/tooth

0.2 - 0.4

0.1 - 0.2

2-4

P20 - P40
Coated carbide

P10
Coated carbide
or cermet

15 - 20
Depth of cut (ap)
mm
Carbide
designation
ISO

End milling

High speed steel

Type of milling
Cutting data
parameters

Solid
carbide

Carbide
indexable
insert

High speed
steel

130 - 170

120 - 160

25 - 301

Feed (f)
mm/tooth

0.03 - 0.202

0.08 - 0.202

0.05 - 0.352

Carbide
designation
ISO

P20 - P30

DRILLING
High speed steel twist drill
Drill diameter
mm

Cutting speed (vc)


m/min

Feed (f)
mm/r

15 - 20 *

0.05 - 0.15

5 - 10

15 - 20 *

0.15 - 0.20

10 - 15

15 - 20 *

0.20 - 0.25

15 - 20

15 - 20 *

0.25 - 0.35

Cutting speed
(vc)
m/min

For coated HSS end mill, vc~ 4550 m/min

* For coated HSS drill, vc~ 3540 m/min

GRINDING
Wheel recommendation

Carbide drill

Type of grinding

Type of drill
Cutting data
parameters

Cutting speed
(vc)
m/min
Feed (f)
mm/r
1
2

Indexable
insert

Solid
carbide

180 - 220

120 - 150

60 - 90

0.05 - 0.252

0.10 - 0.252

0.15 - 0.252

Drill with replaceable or brazed carbide tip


Depending on drill diameter

Brazed
carbide1

Grinding wheel designation

Face grinding straight wheel

A 46 HV

Face grinding segments

A 24 GV

Cylindrical grinding

A 46 LV

Internal grinding

A 46 JV

Profile grinding

A 100 LV

DIEVAR

Machining recommendations
The cutting data below are to be considered as guiding
values and as starting points for developing your own
best practice.

MILLING
Face and square shoulder milling

Condition: Hardened and tempered to 451 HRC


TURNING
Cutting data
parameters

Turning with carbide


Rough turning

Fine turning

Cutting speed
(vc)
m/min

40 - 60

70 - 90

Feed (f)
mm/r

0.2 - 0.4

0.05 - 0.2

1-2

0.5 - 1

Depth of cut (ap)


mm
Carbide
designation
ISO

Milling with carbide

Cutting data
parameters

P20 - P30
Coated carbide

Rough milling

Fine milling

Cutting speed
(vc)
m/min

50 - 90

90 - 130

Feed (f z)
mm/tooth

0.2 - 0.4

0.1 - 0.2

2-4

P20 - P40
Coated carbide

P10
Coated carbide
or cermet

Depth of cut (ap)


mm
Carbide
designation
ISO

P10
Coated carbide or
cermet

End milling
Type of milling
Cutting data
parameters

DRILLING

Solid
carbide

Carbide
indexable
insert

High speed
steel
TiCN coated

60 - 80

70 - 90

5 - 10

Feed (f)
mm/tooth

0.03 - 0.201

0.08 - 0.201

0.05 - 0.351

Carbide
designation
ISO

P10 - P20

High speed steel twist drill (TiCN coated)


Drill diameter
mm

Cutting speed (vc)


m/min

Feed (f)
mm/r

4-6

0.05 - 0.10

5 - 10

4-6

0.10 - 0.15

10 - 15

4-6

0.15 - 0.20

15 - 20

4-6

0.20 - 0.30

Cutting speed
(vc)
m/min

Depending on radial depth of cut and cutter diameter

GRINDING
Wheel recommendation

Carbide drill

Type of grinding

Type of drill
Cutting data
parameters

Cutting speed
(vc)
m/min
Feed (f)
mm/r
1
2

Indexable
insert

Solid
carbide

Brazed
carbide1

60 - 80

60 - 80

40 - 50

0.05 - 0.252

0.10 - 0.252

0.15 - 0.252

Grinding wheel designation

Face grinding straight wheel

A 46 HV

Face grinding segments

A 36 GV

Cylindrical grinding

A 60 KV

Internal grinding

A 60 IV

Profile grinding

A 120 JV

Drill with replaceable or brazed carbide tip


Depending on drill diameter

DIEVAR

Surface treatment
NITRIDING AND NITROCARBURISING

Depth of nitriding

Nitriding and nitrocarburising result in a hard surface


layer which has the potential to improve resistance to
wear and soldering, as well as resistance to premature
heat checking. Dievar can be nitrided using gas or
plasma. It can also be nitrocarburised via gas or salt
bath process. The nitriding and nitrocarburising
temperature should be at least 2550C below the
highest previous tempering temperature, depending
upon the process time and temperature. Otherwise,
a permanent loss of core hardness, strength, and/or
dimensional tolerances may be experienced.
During nitriding and nitrocarburising, a brittle compound
layer, known as the white layer, may be generated. The
white layer is very brittle and may result in cracking or
spalling when exposed to heavy mechanical or thermal
loads. As a general rule, the white layer formation
must be avoided.

Process

Surface
hardness

HV0.2

Depth*
mm

Gas nitriding at
510C

10
30

1100
1100

0.16
0.22

Plasma nitriding
at 480C

10

1100

0.15

1100

0.13

1100

0.08

Nitrocarburising
in gas at
580C
in salt bath at
580C
*

Time
h

Depth of case = distance from surface where hardness is 50 HV0.2 over base
hardness

Electrical discharge machining


Following the EDM process, the applicable die surfaces
are covered with a resolidified layer (white layer) and a
rehardened and untempered layer, both of which are very
brittle and hence detrimental to die performance.
If EDM is used, the white layer must be completely
removed by grinding or stoning. After finish machining,
the tool should be given an additional temper at approx.
25C below the highest previous tempering temperature.

Nitriding in ammonia gas at 510C, or plasma nitriding at


480C, both result in a surface hardness of approx.
1100 HV0.2 . In general, plasma nitriding is the preferred
method because of better control over nitrogen
potential. However, careful gas nitriding can give
perfectly acceptable results.
The surface hardness after nitrocarburising in either gas
or salt bath at 580C is approx. 1100 HV0.2 .

10

DIEVAR

Welding

Further information

Welding of die components can be performed, with


acceptable results, as long as proper precautions are
taken during the preparation of the joint, the filler
material selection, the preheating of the die, the controlled
cooling of the die and the post weld heat treatment
processes. The following guidelines summarise the most
important welding process parameters.
Welding
method

TIG

MMA

Working
temp.1

325 - 375C

325 - 375C

Filler
material

QRO 90 TIG-WELD
DIEVAR TIG-WELD

QRO 90 WELD

475C

475C

Maximum
interpass
temp.2
Cooling
rate
Hardness
after
welding

For further information, i.e., steel selection, heat


treatment, application and availability, please contact our
ASSAB office nearest to you.

20 - 40C/h for the first 2 to 3 hours and


then freely in air

50 - 55 HRC

50 - 55 HRC

Heat treatment after welding

1
2

Hardened
condition

Temper at 25C below the original tempering temperature.

Soft
annealed
condition

Soft anneal the material at 850C


in protected atmosphere.
Then cool in the furnace at 10C per hour
to 600C, then freely in air.

Preheating temperature must be established throughout the die and must be


maintained for the entire welding process, to prevent weld cracking
The temperature of the tool in the weld area immediately before the second
and subsequent pass of a multiple pass weld. When exceeded, there is a
risk of distortion of the tool or soft zones around the weld.

11

DIEVAR

Relative comparison of ASSAB hot work die steels


QUALITATIVE COMPARISON OF CRITICAL DIE STEEL PROPERTIES
ASSAB grade

Temper
resistance

Hot yield
strength

Creep
strength

Coefficient
of thermal
expansion

Heat
conductivity

Ductility

ALVAR 14
ASSAB 8407 2M
ASSAB 8407 SUPREME
DIEVAR
HOTVAR
QRO 90 SUPREME

QUALITATIVE COMPARISON OF RESISTANCE TO DIFFERENT DIE FAILURES


ASSAB grade
ALVAR 14
ASSAB 8407 2M
ASSAB 8407 SUPREME
DIEVAR
HOTVAR
QRO 90 SUPREME

12

Heat
checking

Gross
cracking

Hot wear /
Erosion

Plastic
deformation

Corrosion (Al)

DIEVAR

13

DIEVAR

Case study
RESISTANCE TO HEAT CHECKING
Product
: Automotive housing
Work material : A380 Aluminium alloy
Work temp. : 690C
Tooling size : 406 x 508 x 508 mm
Die material : Premium H13 at 44-46 HRC vs DIEVAR 46-48 HRC
Background : Severe heat checking begins on Premium H13 at approximately 20,000 shots.
The customer wanted better die life.

Premium H13

DIEVAR

Comparison of Premium H13 and DIEVAR after 42,000 shots.

Premium H13

14

DIEVAR

DIEVAR

Ningbo
ASSAB Tooling Technology
(Ningbo) Co., Ltd.
Tel : +86 574 8680 7188
Fax: +86 574 8680 7166
info.ningbo@assab.com

Cikarang*
PT. ASSAB Steels Indonesia
Tel : +62 21 461 1314
Fax: +62 21 461 1306/
+62 21 461 1309
info.cikarang@assab.com

MALAYSIA
Kuala Lumpur - Head Office
ASSAB Steels (Malaysia) Sdn. Bhd.
Tel : +60 3 6189 0022
Fax: +60 3 6189 0044/55
info.kualalumpur@assab.com

Tel : +62 21 5316 0720-1

Jiangxi*
ASSAB Tooling (Dong Guan)
Co, Ltd., Jiangxi Branch
Tel : +86 769 2289 7888
Fax : +86 769 2289 9312
info.jiangxi@assab.com

15

Choosing the right steel is of vital importance. ASSAB engineers


and metallurgists are always ready to assist you in your choice of
the optimum steel grade and the best treatment for each application.
ASSAB not only supplies steel products with superior quality, we offer
state-of-the-art machining, heat treatment and surface treatment
services to enhance steel properties to meet your requirement in
the shortest lead time. Using holistic approach as a one-stop solution
provider, we are more than just another tool steel supplier.
ASSAB and Uddeholm are present on every continent. This ensures
you that high-quality tool steels and local support are available
wherever you are. Together we secure our position as the world's
leading supplier of tooling materials.
For more information, please visit www.assab.com