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Advances in Coding Algorithms!

for 5G!
Jossy Sayir, University of Cambridge!
Athens, 17 March 2014!
Place, Date!

5G REQUIREMENTS!
! 1000 times higher mobile data volume per
area
! 10 times to 100 times higher number of
connected devices
! 10 times to 100 times higher typical user
data rate
! 10 times longer battery life for low power
Machine-to-Machine-Communications
! 5 times reduced End-to-End latency
(source METIS / Neelie Kroes press release)!

ENERGY
BOTTLENECK!
Current computational cost of transmission:
approx. 6 nJ/bit!
Current battery capacity 5.45 Wh!
Target 100 Gbit / s!

Resulting battery life: 32.7 seconds!!!

CODING FOR #G!


Quantum leap from 2G to 3G with the
adoption of modern iteratively decodable
codes (Turbo and/or LDPC)!
3G to 4G more of the same, adoption of
HARQ, but techniques essentially similar!
In order to satisfy 5G requirements, we need a
paradigm change in coding!

CODING WISH LIST!


3/4G coding is essentially capacity-achieving
for point to point BIAWGN!
Gains in transmission power efficiency to be
expected from!
Better spectral efficiency!
Multi-terminal coding / decoding!
Gains in computational power efficiency
equally important!

OUR MISSION!
We need spectrally ecient coding methods that
can be applied to mul6-terminal scenarios
(relaying, coopera6on, MIMO) with extremely low
complexity encoders and decoders
Same applies to backhaul
Currently there is no single technique that ticks all
these boxes
There are a few promising new techniques in need of
further research

CODING
TECHNIQUES!
Spatially Coupled (Convolutional) LDPC Codes!
LDPC code units that can be regular and geometrically
designed
Code units sparsely interconnected
Result is capacity-achieving for a wide range of channels
and rates
Windowed decoders being studied for reduced decoding
complexity

CODING
TECHNIQUES!
Non-binary LDPC codes!
Better performance at low block lengths
No loss of optimality when code alphabet = modulation
alphabet
Better spectral efficiency
Increased complexity with respect to binary LDPC codes
EMS, trellis-EMS and other new techniques being
developed to bring complexity down

CODING
TECHNIQUES!
Analog-Digital Belief Propagation!
Decoding directly using parametric densities
No complexity increase for larger modulation alphabets!
Essentially optimal spectral efficiency
Ring LDPC codes (addition mod M)

CODING
TECHNIQUES!
Sparse Regression Codes!
Gaussian codebooks are optimal for the Gaussian channel
but were always thought impractical
Gaussian codebooks constructed from a library of
elementary Gaussian vectors, achieving capacity!
Decoding using linear regression has moderate complexity
but performance needs improvement
New low complexity decoding algorithms could propel
this technique forward

CODING
TECHNIQUES!
Polar Codes!
First constructive coding technique to provably achieve
channel capacity
Codes constructed recursively using Kronecker product
Equivalent channels using successive decoding polarise
to capacities 0 and 1
Performance for finite length below LDPC codes, but
polar coding may have advantages for multi-terminal
scenarios

SOME N# CODING
EXPERTS!
Erdal Arikan
Bilkent Uni.

Michael Lentmaier
Lund University

Inventor of
Polar Codes

Co-inventor of
Spatially Coupled
LDPC Codes

Guido Montorsi
Politec. Torino
Analog Digital
Belief Propagation

Ramji
Venkataramanan
Univ. of Cambridge
Sparse Regression
Codes
and many others!...