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Vision and Key Features

for 5th Generation (5G) Cellular


Jan 2014

Howard Benn
Head of Standards and Industrial Affairs
Samsung R&D Institute UK

Intro to Samsung in the UK


Samsung Electronics has made the UK its base for European 5G research
SRUK

Established in 1991 in the UK, ~170 staff


Based in Staines upon Thames

Branches in Finland (newly established), Netherlands

Founding member of the 5GIC

UK-government backed centre for collaborative R&D in 5G, led by University of Surreys
Communications Research Centre (Flagship Project) Prof. Rahim Tafazolli

GBP 15 million UK government funding


GBP 20 million funding from industry
Samsung is a founding member

Hub for European research

Samsung member of Net!Works

Actively contributing to the Horizon 2020 program through the 5G PPP

2013 Samsung DMC R&D Communications Research Team

5G Vision

2013 Samsung DMC R&D Communications Research Team

5G Service Vision

Wearable/Flexible Mobile Device

Mobile Cloud

Ubiquitous Health Care

UHD Video Streaming


2013 Samsung DMC R&D Communications Research Team

Smart Map/Navigation

Real-Time Interactive Game


4

Mobile Traffic Explosion in Korean Market (July 2013)


Korean smartphone growth

Mobile Subscriber
Smartphone Subscriber
LTE Subscriber

40

sn 30
oil 20
iM

Smartphone

10
0

Subs
Percentage
54,143,992
35,946,051
66.4
23,993,469
44.3

LTE

11
02
/2
1/
10

21
02
/2
0/
10

21
02
/4
0/
10

21
02
/6
0/
10

21
02
/8
0/
10

21
02
/0
1/
10

21
02
/2
1/
10

31
02
/2
0/
10

3
1
0
2
/4
0
/1
0

3
1
0
2
/6
0
/1
0

Total Korean mobile data


80

ht
no 60
m/
ety 40
ba
te 20
P

Average data usage per subscriber


2.3
2.1

ht 1.9
no
M/ 1.7
ety 1.5
BG
1.3

LTE
3G

1.1
0.9

Note : Operators did not provide unlimited data plan for LTE
service until Jan 13
2013 Samsung DMC R&D Communications Research Team

5G Key Performance Targets


Providing Gigabit Experience to Users Anywhere
5G Performances
Peak Data Rate > 50 Gbps

50 Gbps
1 Gbps

More than x50 over 4G

384 Kbps 14 Mbps1)


00 07
2)

1)

Theoretical Peak Data Rate

75 2)
Mbps
10

Anywhere 1 Gbps
50 Gbps
Gbps1)1)
50

1 Gbps1)

Gbps

4G

BS Locations

QoE
2)

18

Cell Edge

Year
2) Data Rate of First Commercial Products

5G
Latency < 1 msec

BS Locations

QoE

10 ms
1 ms

A Tenth of 4G Latency

Uniform Experience
Regardless of Location
Latency

2013 Samsung DMC R&D Communications Research Team

Technical Limit of Current LTE-Adv


Fundamental restriction to increase performance of current IMT
- Limit in expanding bandwidth: Carrier aggregation degrades system performance
- Limit in increasing the number of antenna
Challenges of Carrier Aggregation
 Multiple simultaneous Rx/Tx Chains at MS
 Switch loss (1dB per switch)
 Power amplifier & antenna inefficiency

TX Structure for Inter-band CA

3GPP TR 36.912 v.10.0.0 Figure 11.3.2-1


2013 Samsung DMC R&D Communications Research Team

Impact of the number of antenna in current


mobile form-factor
1.56 bps/Hz  6.27 bps/Hz  9.43 bps/Hz
(2 Antenna)

(32Antenna)

(64 Antenna)

UE Rx

Avg.
throughput
(bps/Hz)

Edge
throughput
(bps/Hz)

2Hx1V,
(0.5)

1.51

0.029

32Hx1V,
(0.5)

6.27

0.252

64Hx1V,
(0.5)

9.43

0.446

BS antenna
(H x V)

Practical limitation in the implementation of MIMO


- Isolation distance: 5 cm @ 3GHz
- Size for 32 Antenna (1 dimension): 170 cm @ 3GHz
7

5G Key Enabling Technologies

2013 Samsung DMC R&D Communications Research Team

5G Key Enabling Technologies (1/2)


Disruptive Technologies for Significant Performance Enhancement
mmWave System Tech.

Fixed 1 Gbps
Mobile 100 Mbps

Fixed >50 Gbps


Mobile 5 Gbps

Adv. Small Cell


Previous
virtual cell

No cell boundary

Frequency band

4G frequencies

New higher frequencies

Adv. Coding & Modulation

Updated
user-centric
virtual cell

Device-to-Device (D2D)

Non-orthogonal Multiple Access

Time/Frequency/Space

Orthogonal Multiple Access


Time/Frequency/Space

Filter-bank Multi-carrier

2013 Samsung DMC R&D Communications Research Team

Enhancing areal spectral efficiency


9

5G Key Enabling Technologies (1/2)


Disruptive Technologies for Significant Performance Enhancement
mmWave System Tech.

Fixed 1 Gbps
Mobile 100 Mbps

Fixed >50 Gbps


Mobile 5 Gbps

Adv. Small Cell


Previous
virtual cell

No cell boundary

Frequency band

4G frequencies

New higher frequencies

Adv. Coding & Modulation

Updated
user-centric
virtual cell

Device-to-Device (D2D)

Non-orthogonal Multiple Access

Time/Frequency/Space

Orthogonal Multiple Access


Time/Frequency/Space

Filter-bank Multi-carrier

2013 Samsung DMC R&D Communications Research Team

Enhancing areal spectral efficiency


10

5G Key Enabling Technologies (2/2)


Disruptive Technologies for Significant Performance Enhancement
Enhanced Flat NW

IWK/Integration w/ Wi-Fi

Adv. MIMO/BF

Interference Management

Half-wavelength

Large scale
Multi-antenna

Interference alignment
2013 Samsung DMC R&D Communications Research Team

11

mmWave Channel Propagation & Measurements

2013 Samsung DMC R&D Communications Research Team

12

Spectrum Candidates
Candidates for Large Chunks of Contiguous Spectrum
-

13.4~14 GHz, 18.1~18.6 GHz, 27~29.5 GHz, 38~39.5 GHz, etc.


Higher Frequency Candidates
ITU

EESS
FSS
RL

MS
FS
FSS

MS
FS
FSS

27.5

26.5

13.4 14

18.1 18.6

MS
FS
FSS

29.5 31.3

33.8

29.5 31.3

27

40

33.4

29.5

41

40.2

38

Current Usage

42.5

42.5

39.5

Current Usage

US: LMDS, FSS


EU: Fixed P-P link , FSS earth sta.
China: Mobile, FSS
Korea : Marine time use
EESS (Earth Exploration-Satellite Service)
FSS (Fixed Satellite Service)
MS (Mobile Service)
FS (Fixed Service)
P-P (Point to Point)
2013 Samsung DMC R&D Communications Research Team .

38.6

US: Fixed P-P system


EU: Fixed P-P link
Korea : None

MOBILE Primary
No MOBILE

RL (RadioLocation service),
LMDS (Local Multipoint Distribution Services)

13

Friis Equation in Free Space (or why my TV aerial is big)


Measurement of Path-loss

% Same Size of Rx Aperture Captures Same Rx Power Regardless of Frequency


Distance [m]

Path-loss
(dB)

Distance (m)

60 mm

Patch Antenna @ 3 GHz

60 mm

60 mm

Array Antenna @ 30 GHz

60 mm

2013 Samsung DMC R&D Communications Research Team

14

Precipitation Loss (what happens if it rains really hard)


Rain Attenuation at 28GHz is Approx. 4 dB at 200 m even in 110 mm/hr Intensity
Precipitation Loss
% 100-year recurrence 1-hour rain intensity is approx. 110 mm/hr (Seoul, Korea)

% 100-year recurrence 1-hour rain intensity is approx. 70 ~ 127 mm/hr (US Eastern)
100 Year Recurrence 1-hour Rain Intensity (US Eastern)

New York
: 69.85 mm/hr
Washington
: 76.2 mm/hr

Florida
: 127 mm/hr

[Attenuation due to Rain]

[Ref.] http://www.nws.noaa.gov/ohd/hdsc/On-line_reports/
[Ref.] M. Marcus and B. Pattan. Millimeter wave propagation: spectrum management implications. IEEE Microwave Magazine, June 2005.

2013 Samsung DMC R&D Communications Research Team

15

Does it go through trees


Loss in Dense Foliage Is Non-Negligible, But Other Paths Are Expected in Urban
Environments
Foliage Loss

% 28 GHz shows additional 3.3 dB loss for 2 m foliage and 8.6 dB for 10 m foliage
compared to 2.8GHz
- In urban environments, other reflection paths are highly expected from surroundings

Empirical relationship for loss :

L foliage = 0.2 f 0.3 D 0.6 dB

where
f : frequency in MHz,
D : depth of foliage transverse in meters (D < 400 m)
[Ref.] M. Marcus and B. Pattan. Millimeter wave propagation: spectrum management implications. IEEE Microwave Magazine, June 2005.

2013 Samsung DMC R&D Communications Research Team

16

Chassis / Hand / Power Absorption


Effect of Chassis/Hand/Head Could Be Compensated with Beamsteering Array
High Frequency Beamforming Reduces Power Penetration/Absorption through Skin
Chassis / Hand-held Effect

% Chassis/hand impact on gain and pattern

Power Absorption

% Low penetration and absorption due to


high frequency beamforming
1.9 GHz Omni-Antenna

Bare PCB

w/o head

Package

% Various antenna locations and BF


patterns can overcome these effects

Broadside
Beamforming

Endfire
Beamforming

w/ head

Penetration depth = 40~45 mm, Average = 0.29, MAX = 1 mW/g


28 GHz Beamforming

Penetration depth = 3 mm, Average = 0.15, MAX = 90 mW/g


Penetration depth = 3 mm, Average = 0.016, MAX = 2.11 mW/g
2013 Samsung DMC R&D Communications Research Team

17

Channel Measurement Sub-Urban


Similar Path-loss Exponent & Smaller Delay Spread Measured (w.r.t current cellular bands)
-

Measurements were made by using horn-type antennas at 28 GHz and 38 GHz in 2011

Samsung Campus, Korea

UT Austin Campus, US

LOS
2.22
4.0
11.4

Path Loss Exponent


Median
RMS
Delay Spread [ns]
99%

NLOS
3.69
34.2
168.7

Tx (10o)

Rx (60o)
28 GHz

Path Loss Exponent


Median
RMS
Delay Spread [ns]
99%

University of Texas at Austin,


TX

LOS
2.21
1.9
13.7

NLOS
3.18
15.5
166
Rx (49o)

Tx (7.8o)

[Received
Power]
Received power for 10->60

37.6 GHz

[Received Power]

0
LOS
n=2.22, s=4.18dB
NLOS-best
n=3.69, s=3.58dB
NLOS-all
n=4.20, s=7.38dB

-10

Received power [dBm]

-20

-30

-40

-50

-60

-70

10

10
Distance [m]

2013 Samsung DMC R&D Communications Research Team

* Reference : Prof. Ted Rappaport, UT Austin, 2011

18

Channel Measurement Dense Urban


Slightly Higher But Comparable Path Loss Measured in New York City in 2012
New York, Manhattan, US

Reference : Prof. Ted Rappaport, NYU, 2012


- T. S. Rappaport et.al. Millimeter Wave Mobile Communications for 5G Cellular: It Will Work!, IEEE Access Journal, May 2013

Tx (10o)
Path Loss Exponent
Delay Spread [ns]

LOS
NLOS
1.68
4.58
Expected to be larger than the previous,
But to be still smaller than current bands

[New York, Manhattan NY University]

2013 Samsung DMC R&D Communications Research Team

Rx (10o)
28GHz

[Path Loss]

19

mmWave BF Prototype & Test Results

2013 Samsung DMC R&D Communications Research Team

20

mmWave BF Prototype Overview


Worlds First mmWave Mobile Technology
-

Adaptive array transceiver technology operating in the


millimeter-wave frequency bands for outdoor cellular
mmWave BF Prototype
Base Station

Carrier Frequency

27.925 GHz

Bandwidth

500 MHz

Max. Tx Power

37 dBm

Beam width (Half Power)

10o

Mobile Station

66 mm

Downlink Tx

44 mm

8x8 (=64) Antenna Elements

51 mm

Array Antenna
66 mm

Uplink Tx

Array Antenna

Baseband Modem

RF + Array Antenna

2013 Samsung DMC R&D Communications Research Team

DM
(Diagnostic Monitor )

RF + Array Antenna

Baseband Modem
21

Test Results of mmWave BF Prototype


Performance Tests of mmWave OFDM Prototype
-

OFDM system parameters designed for mmWave bands

Indoor & outdoor measurements performed for data rates and transmission ranges

System Parameters & Test Results


PARAMETER

VALUE

Carrier Frequency

27.925 GHz

Bandwidth

500 MHz

Duplexing

TDD

Array Antenna Size

8x8 (64 elements)


8x4 (32 elements)

Beam-width (Half
Power)

10o

Channel Coding

LDPC

PARAMETER
Supported
Data Rates
Max Tx Range

VALUE

REMARKS

1,056Mbps
528Mbps
264Mbps
Up to 2km @ LoS

>10 dB Tx power
headroom

Full-HD
4K UHD

Modulation

QPSK / 16QAM

2013 Samsung DMC R&D Communications Research Team

UHD & Full-HD Video Streaming

Measurements with DM
22

Test Results Range


Outdoor Line-of-Sight (LoS) Range Test
-

Error free communications possible at 1.7 km LoS with > 10dB Tx power headroom

Pencil BF both at transmitter and receiver supporting long range communications


LoS Range

% Support wide-range LoS coverage

Suwon Campus, Korea

- 1710m LOS

Station
Base

 16-QAM (528Mbps) : BLER 10-6


 QPSK

(264Mbps) : Error Free

1.7 km

Mobile
Station
BLER : Block Error Rate
Modulation
2013 Samsung DMC R&D Communications Research
Team

QPSK : Quadrature Phase Shift Keying

QAM : Quadrature Amplitude

23

Test Results Mobility


Outdoor Non-Line-of-Sight (NLoS) Mobility Tests
-

Adaptive Joint Beamforming & Tracking Supports 8 km/h Mobility even in NLOS

Mobility Support in NLoS


% Mobility support up to 8 km/h at outdoor
NLoS environments
 16-QAM (528Mbps) : BLER 0~0.5%
 QPSK

(264Mbps) : Error Free


Base
Station

Mobile
Station

[ DM Screen during Mobility Test]


2013 Samsung DMC R&D Communications Research Team

24

Test Results Building Penetration


Outdoor-to-Indoor Penetration Tests
-

Most Signals Successfully Received at Indoor MS from Outdoor BS

Outdoor-to-indoor penetration made through tinted glasses and doors


Outdoor to Indoor #2

Outdoor to Indoor #1
Signal measured inside office on 7th FL of R2
- QPSK : BLER 0.0005~0.6% (Target : < BLER 10%)

Signal measured inside the lobby at R4

- QPSK : BLER 0.0005~0.3% (Target : < BLER 10%)


R4
MS

MS
R2
160 m

BS
R1

2013 Samsung DMC R&D Communications Research Team

BS
R2

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