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HUMAN NERVOUS SYSTEM

Human nervous system is made up of the central nervous system and the
peripheral nervous system. The central nervous system is the control centre of the body. It
relays messages, integrates information, compares and analyses information as well as
coordinates the responses. Brain is including in central nervous system.
Figure at the bottom shows the human nervous system.

Figure at the bottom shows the organisation of the human nervous system.

NERVOUS SYSTEM

Central Nervous System


(CNS)

Brain

Peripheral Nervous System


(PNS)

Spinal cord

Somatic nervous system

Autonomic nervous system

(Controls voluntary action) relays


information to and from skin and
skeletal muscles

(Controls involuntary action) relays


information to internal organs

Cranial nerves

Spinal nerves

Sympathetic nervous system


Controls organ in times of stress

Parasympathetic nervous
system
Controls organs when body is at
rest

BRAIN

The brain is enclosed in the bony skull, which protects it from injuries. The outer
part of the brain is made up of grey matter while inner part is made up of white matter.
Grey matter consists of cell bodies of neurons while the white matter consists of
axons. The blood capillaries supply the brain with nutrients and oxygen and removes
wastes and carbon dioxide.
The human brain is a soft, shiny, grayish white, mushroom-shaped structure
encased within the skull. At birth, a typical human brain weights between 12 and 14
ounces (350 and 400 grams). By the time an average person reaches adulthood, the brain
weighs about 3 pounds (1.36 kilograms). Because of greater average body size, the brains
of male are generally about 10 percent larger than those of females. Although brain size
varies considerably among humans, there is no correlation or link between brain size and
intelligence.
The human brain is composed of up to one trillion nerve cells. One hundred
billion of these are neurons, and the remainder are the supporting neuroglia. The brain
consists of gray and white matter. Gray matter is nerve tissue in the CNS composed of
neuron cell bodies, neuroglia, and unmyelinated axons; white matter is nerve tissue in the
CNS composed chiefly of bundles of myelinated axons.

HUMAN SKELETAL SYSTEM


Adult skeletal system consists of approximately 206 bones which are arranged to
form a strong flexible body framework. It was divided into axial skeleton and
appendicular skeleton.
Figure at the bottom shows the human skeletal system.

AXIAL SKELETON
These types of skeleton are made up of the bones that form the vertical axis of the
body. It supports and protects the organs of the head, neck and trunk. It includes the skull,
vertebral column (backbones) and the rib cage.
SKULL
Human skull, the skeleton of the head consists of the cranial bones and facial
bones. Cranial bones enclose and protect the brain and the sensory organ. The cranium is
formed by the fusion of several fluttered bones which have immovable joints between
them. Facial bones consist of sockets for the eyes, nose ears, providing support for the
teeth and framework for the face. There are altogether 14 bones including the lower and
upper jaws.

Figure of the top shows of human skull

Figure at the top shows the structure of human teeth.

APPENDICULAR SKELETON
These types of skeleton are made up of the bones that are attached to the axial
skeleton. It includes bones of the limb, the pectoral girdle and the pelvic girdle.