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INDIAN ASSOCIATION OF PHYSICS TEACHERS

NATIONAL GRADUATE PHYSICS EXAMINATION 2014


Day & Date of Examination : Sunday, January 19, 2014
Time : 10 AM to 1 PM
Part A- Maximum Marks: 150
Part B- Maximum Marks: 150

Time for Part A: 60 minutes


Timefor Part B : 120 minutes

Solutions of part A
1.

(a) Curl of a curl


= E .E 2 E 0
(b) curl of a gradient is

(c) div of a curl is

5.

dL
c2 c1 L
T dT yields that the specific heat of

saturated water vapour is negative. This is so


because the saturation is lost on heating. Heat is
required to be abstracted from vapour to
achieve saturation again.
Ans: c & d

0
z

Clausius equation (Second latent heat equation)

6.


. E i j k .
0
x y z x y z
Ex Ey Ez
(d) grad of a div

The variation of gain with frequency of a class


A single stage R-C coupled transistor is shown
below.
A

E Ey Ez
.E i j k x

0
z x y z

Ans: b & c
2.

The equation of motion can be written as


dv
m
mg Kv . On solving we obtain
dt

gt

v v T [1 e Km ]
Ans: a

3.

In the experiment on Poiseuille's formula the


capillary is kept horizontal so as to avoid any
effect of gravity and the flow is maintained
stream line for small pressure difference. When
the pressure difference is made large, the flow
velocity exceeds the critical velocity as a result
flow becomes turbulent and linearity of the
curve is lost.

Ans: b & c
4.

Ans: c & d

Lorentz transformation equations for


momentum can be seen in any standard text
hence momentum is not invariant under L T.
Ans: b,c & d

7.

Three coplanar forces can be balanced to


provide equilibrium
Ans: c
8.

The electric field E at any point (position


vector r) inside a uniformly charged (charge
density ) non conducting sphere is given by
r
E=
. If there lies a spherical cavity
3e0
(uncharged inside) and there be a point P inside

the cavity at a location r1 with respect to the

centre of sphere and r2 with respect to the


centre of cavity. Then E at P is obtained by
superposition principle as

r1 r2 r1 r2
b
E

30
3 0
30 30

Ans: c

9.
One parsec is the unit of distance.
Ans: a
10.

calculated by adding algebraically all the


individual voltages or currents caused by each
source acting alone with all other voltage
sources replaced by short circuits and all other
current sources replaced by open circuits.
Ans: b, c & d

In a cubic crystal such as rock salt


d

a
h2 k 2 l 2

2 A . Now using Bragg's law,

2d sin n one obtains

18.

0.710
20.80 2048'
sin
2
Ans: c & d

A time varying magnetic field produces an


electric field

r 2 dB
.
2 R dt

As a result the
torque on the outer ring will be qER .
qr 2
1
Thus
R qr 2
2 R
2
Ans: a

11.

Eigen values of an operator having more than


one eigen function are said to be degenerate.
Ans: c

19.
12.

Miller indices of the crystal plane are


1 1 1
h : k : l :: : : :: 15 : 10 : 6
2 3 5
Ans: b

The solution of the given differential equation


r
K
and
with b
is
2m
m
(i) Over damped when b >
(ii) Critically damped when b =
(iii) Damped harmonic when b <

20.

Ans: b, & c
13.

The process AB and CD in the figure are both


isochoric, hence no work is done. BC is an
isothermal process hence the internal energy
does not change.
Ans: d

Ans: a, b, c & d
21.

14.

Unlike a meson & meson, proton is a


baryon and has baryon number = 1. The
meson is a meson while a meson is a lepton
and for each of the meson and the lepton the
baryon number is zero.
Ans: b, c & d

According to vector atom model the magnitude


l l 1 h of angular momentum is the eigen

value of the angular momentum operator. In the


presence of an external magnetic field the
angular momentum vector can have 2 l1 .
orientations at angles cos1

15.

The extent of acquiring magnetisation is defined


as the magnetic susceptibility of a material.
Ans: b

Ans: c
22.

16.

The work done is 1 joule along each of the


edges AB, BC & CD and zero along other three
edges OA, DE & EO.
Ans: c
17.

When a dielectric slab is introduced in an


external electric field, all its atoms get
1
polarized. Induced charges q ' q(1 )
K
appear on the surface. The electric field inside
E
the dielectric modifies to the extent E '
.
K
Gauss law applies well under all these situations.

(l 1)

Metallization of an IC means forming of the


interconnecting conduction pattern and
bonding pads.

Ans: b
23.

Superposition theorem is In any linear


network containing linear impedances and
several sources, the voltage across or the
current through any impedance may be

The nodal slide experiment is based on the


properties of nodal points. It employs the
principle embodied in option b.

Ans: b

24.

Because of their large frequency the carrier


waves carry more power while due to small
wavelength, the length l of the antenna is
4

reduced

25. Expressions a, b & d are the correct


formulae of star delta conversion in electric
networks.
Ans: a, b & d

Ans: b & d

Part B1
B1

The scalar product of three vectors represents the


volume of a parallelopiped whose concurrent
edges are represented by three vectors both in
magnitude and direction. If the three vectors
are coplanar the volume of parallelopiped will
be zero because there will be no height then.

B2

The free energy of a thermodynamic system is


expressed asF= U TS dF = dU Tds SdT
or dF = dU (dU + PdV) Sdt
dF = PdV SdT . Thus F is unaltered in an
isothermal (dT = 0) & isochoric (dV = 0) process.

B3

The intensity distribution in F P Etalon is


described by

I max
4R

1
sin 2
2
1 R 2

Heisenberg uncertainty principle gives


h
According to Bohr quantum
E t
2
condition the electron revolves in definite
quantized energy states where the angular
momentum is mvr nh . Each of these states
are considered to have a sharply defined
energy E, such that E 0 t which
means that the energy states have infinite life
time but the excited energy states are found to
have a life time t 108 s. Thus the concept of
definite Bohr orbits clearly violates uncertainty
principle.This finite life time of an energy state
yields finite width (uncertainty) of energy levels
h
E
108 eV which predicts that the
8
2 10
radiations emitted when atom de excites to
ground state from a particular higher state, are
not truly mono - chromatic. In other words the
spectral lines can never be infinitely sharp as
demanded by Bohr theory, rather have a finite
width hence the statement is refuted.

B5

The given wave function is x, t x2 c2 t 2


Differentiating with respect to space and time
2
2
2
respectively, it yields
which is

c
t 2
x2
the differential equtation of a wave travelling
with velocity = c.

B6

The saturation current in LR circuit, just before


turning the switch from B to C, is i0 E
R
While the time constant is L .

while

the sharpness of fringes is dictated by half


1
width of maximum. Putting I I max half
2
power points are obtained as
I
1
1

4R
I max 2
d
1
sin 2
2
2
1 R

B4

1 R
d
sin2 1 2sin 1

1 R 2
2 R
4R

Using the value of reflection coefficient


R = 0.8, the half width is d=0.22 rad.
Intensity distribution in case of
Michelson interferometer is expressed as
1

I Imax cos2 . Putting I I max at half


2
2
power points, the half angular width of
1
maximum is obtained as 2cos 1
2

1.57 which is 7 times the half


2
width of the maximum of F P fringes.

The magnetic energy stored during


the growth
2
1 E
2
1
of current is = Li = L 2
2

Once the switch in the circuit is turned from B to

C, the cell is no longer in the circuit and the


energy stored in the inductor (L) starts
dissipating. The current (i) as a function of
time is expressed as i E e Rt /L . The total
R
energy dissipated in the resistance R
after turning the switch from B to C is.

B9

2
2 Rt

2R t

E2
E
L L
L
i
Rdt

e
dt

R 0
R 2R
0
0
E 2L
Thus
the
total
energy
dissipated

2R 2
during decay is equal to the energy stored
1 2 E 2L
during growth of current in
Li
2
2 R2
L-R circuit.

B7

B8

The structure of an atom is such that every


nucleus is surrounded by an electrostatic potential
barrier that opposes the entry and the escape of
positive particles. It is therefore concluded that
a compound nucleus formed by absorbing a
neutron is most likely to decay by emitting -rays
which carry no charge rather than a proton,
deuteron or -particle which are all positive.

The atoms which have only one electron


outside the completely filled (closed)
shells are known as one electron atom
Hydrogen (Z =1) and alkali atoms Li (
Z=3), Na(Z=11) K(Z=19), Rb(Z=37) and
Cs(Z=55) belong to this class. The closed
shells in these atoms do not contribute to
orbital and spin angular momentum. It is
only the valence electron whose states
characterize the optical spectra of such
atoms. For alkali atoms the lowest energy
state is n > 1 rather than n = 1 as in the case
of hydrogen. The spectra of alkali atoms
consist of the following series with
specified transitions.
1.
2.
3.
4.

Sharp Series: s-state to p-state


Principal Series: p-state to s-state
Diffuse Series: d-state to p-state
Fundamental Series: f-state to d-state

The spectra of diatomic molecules such as H2


molecule are majorly

For monochromatic travelling wave


c
c
or d 2 d now using coherent

2
the magnitude of |d|
length lc

a.
b.
c.
d.

c
can be written as further using l c c c
lc
1
we get . Therefore the frequency
c
spread of a spectral line is of the order of the
inverse of coherence time c showing that the
perfectly monochromatic spectral line with
= 0 means having infinite coherence time
may not be possible. This is why the concept of
temporal coherence is intimately connected
with mono-chromaticity. Further the quantity

Q
is taken to represent the monod
chromaticity or the spectral purity of the
2
Q .
source. Thus one obtains lc

B10

Rotational spectra
Rotational-viberational spectra
Electronic-viberational spectra
Electronic-rotational spectra

The attractive magnetic and repulsive electric


forces between two like charges running
parallel can be expressed as

FM

0 qv qv
1 qq
and FE
4 R2
4 0 R2

Thereby
FM
v2
00 v 2 2
FE
c

Part B2
The moment of inertia, about an axis
perpendicular to its plane and passing through
2
its centre is I s ml of a square lamina and
6
mR 2
for a circular lamina.
Ic
2

substituting the values of Ms and Mc

7Ml2 411M R2 l2 4lR using


l 2R


186
72 2 4 3
Ml 2
1.69MR 2 8.45 kgm 2
I 1.69
4

2m
P2.

Let Ms and Mc be the masses of the square and


each semicircular lamina in question. So that
Ms + 4Mc = M = 5 kg ---- (1). If s be the
surface density, then

When left free the small block of mass m slides


down with acceleration A and in c and in turn
the wedge of mass M moves left with an
acceleration A.

mA

FR
m

7M
11M
& Mc
............(2)
18
72

mg sin + mA cos

mg

The two equations of motion can be written as


mg sin + mA cos = m a -- (1)
FR mg cos mA sin cos(90-) MA (2)
mg sin cos M m sin 2 A

Further since the centre of mass of


uniform semicircular lamina lies at 4R/3
from centre, therefore the moment of
Inertia about an axis perpendicular to its plane
and passing through its centre of mass is
obtained by using the theorem of parallel axis as

g sin cos
M sin 2
m

Differentiating with respect to q

I0

m A sin

R2
7M

M l2 4
l 2 1
2
72
2

Thereby M s

R2 l2 4lR
M s l2
2
4 Mc
kgm
6
2 4 3

mg
co
s

P1.

M c R2
4R
Mc
Further using theorem
2
3

given axis is I c I 0 M c l 4 R

mg (cos2q - sin2q)
dA
M m sin2 2mA sinq cosq
dq
dA
For maximum A, setting
=0
dq

substituting I0

we get g (cos2q - sin2q ) = 2 A sinq cosq

of parallel axis again, the required moment of


inertia of one semicircular section about the
2

2
2
M R2
4R
l 4R
Ic c Mc Mc
3
2 3
2

g cos2 sin2 2

or

mg sin cos
sin cos
M m sin2

1 2sin M msin 2 m sin cos


2

R2 l 2 4lR
Ic Mc Finally I I s 4 I c
2 4 3

1 2sin M m sin
2

m sin2 m sin2 12sin2

2 k T 2
m 2
N CV
C V N 2 k T

sin1

m 2M

Substituting

the

value

P3.

(a)

intensity level of sound is


I
IL 10log 105( given ) using I0=10-12 w 2
m
I0
105

P
2 R2
12

P 2 20 10

by definition, then

(10) 80 W
p2
2 v

dP v
dv

v rms

2kT

2
4 v dv CV

4
4m

2kT

m
2kT

dn

P5.

mv 2
2 kT

mv 2

v e

mv
2k T

mv

0
kT
2kT

v 2d n

is dn Ce d Ce
dxdydzdvx dvy dvz
Now considering a sphere of radius v then
infinitesimal volume between radii v and
2
v+dv can be written as d V 4 v dv. The
total number of particles will then be

2ve

mv
2k T

Also the root mean square velocity is

At any temperature T, the number of molecules


in a given range of speeds between v and v+dv
is given by Maxwell Boltzmann distribution
law according to which the probability of a
molecule to have energy E is proportion to
E

e kT where k is Boltzmann constant. For an


ideal gas the energy of molecules is purely
1 2
kinetic energy hence E mv . Thus the number
2
of molecules having speed between v and v+dv
in a given six dimensional vol d dxdydzdvx dvy dvz

N CV e

mv

v rms

get

mv 2

or 2 v
0 v mp
kT

Further using I 0 10 12 W/m2 we get


6.36 1012
8 db
IL 10 log
1012

E
kT

we

m
2 2 2 kT
P v 4 N
v e
2 kT
The most probable velocity is the value of v for
which the function P(v) is maximum. Therefore

The velocity of sound at T = 293 K is expressed


293
293
332
as v293 v0
273
273
3
using 1.20 kg/m and v273 332m/s
2
6 105 273

W
I
4.36 1012 2
2 1.2 332 293
m
I
Now the intensity level is IL 10log
I0

3
105
10

(b) The intensity of sound is I

P4.

of

mv2

2
2 kT

m 2
dn 4 N
v e dv If P(v) represent
2 kT
the the probability that a molecule will
have velocity between v and v+dv
in the velocity range zero to infinity then

The

I I0 (10)10

1 2sin M m sin sin m 2M

3 kT
m

v4 e

mv 2
2 kT

mv
2 kT

dv

dv

vrms

v mp

3
Hence proved
2

The light reflected strongly back from the


glass plate is really the source of glare. A thin
film which can produce destructive
interference in reflected light shall reduce the
glare and the sculpture will be seen clearly by
refraction. This can be achieved by coating the
glass (=1.62) surface by a thin film of either
MgF2 (=1.38) or diamond (=2.42). The
conditions being different in the two cases.
The phase difference caused by a thin transparent
film between two light beams, reflected
successively from the two surfaces of a film is
2
(due to Stokes' law)

2
2 t cos( r ) (due to stoke's law)

For destructive interference in reflected


light (in case of thin diamond film = 2.42)

2
2 t cos( r ) (2 n 1)

For a thin parallel film the wedge angle =0


and for normal incidence r = 0 implies that

2 t n t n
1214, 2428, 3642 A
2
On the other hand, there shall not be
stoke's contribution to the phase difference in
case of MgF2 (=1.38) film as the phase change
of occur on each face of the film, therefore
2
2

or
2 t cos ( r ) 2n 1

Again taking cos(a + r) = 1 for a parallel


film under normal incidence, therefore

t 2n 1
1065, 3193,5322 A
2 2
P6. In the given solenoid of rectangular
cross section, the current i through its
winding produces a magnetic field. Let B
be the magnetic field produced at a radius r.
Ampere's law in electromagnetism provides
f B.dl 0 r i or B.2 r 0 r Ni

to a denser medium. Let the curve X Y represents


the locus of 1OA + 2AI = const which means
1OAB + 2AI = 1 OB + 2BI
= 1(OB +BC) + 2 BI - 1BC -2CI + 2CI
<1 (OC) + 2CI -2 (BC + CI -BI)
Further since BC+CI-BI>0 always, one
can say that in any case (for all paths)
1OA + 2AI < 1OD + 2DI. The actual path is
therefore a minimum i,e extremum.
(b)

F1

Ni
weber/m2 where N is the total
2 r
number of winding over a length 2r.
Considering small area h dr, the flux.
2
2
b
b
0 r N ih b
Ni
NBh dr 0 r
ln W
hdr
2
a
2 r
a
a
2

N
h
b
0
r
Using now NLi L
ln
2
a
With the given values

10
L 0 2 1240(1000) 2 0.01 ln
4
5
L = 2.48 ln2 = 1.72 h & total flux linked is
Li 1.72 10 17.2 Wb

P1

L2

F2

Fd
f2

i,e on the

Fd
i,e on
f1
the left of eye lens. The two focal points F1 and
F2 are located such as P1F1 = F and P2F2 =+F
As long as the media on the two sides of the
eyepiece are the same, the two nodal points
coincide with the respective principal points.
Since it is difficult to use a crosswire in the first
focal, plane of Huygen's eye piece, Ramesden's
eyepiece is preferred in all instruments used
for physical measurements.

P8.

(a) According to Fermi Dirac distribution the


1
.
probability occupancy is f (E) E E
kT
e
1
1
.
rather than f (E) EE
Let us consider
e kT 1
two energy levels E1 and E2 which are equally
spaced above and below the Fermi level such
F

C>

>

P2

right of field lens and L2P2

XA
2

L1

piece are located as L1 P1

(a) Let the path OAI be the actual path of light


ray permitted by Fermat's principle for
1

f1 f2
d f1 f2

The two principal points P1 and P2 of the eye

B 0 r

P7.

Huygens' eyepiece consists of two planoconvex lenses of focal lengths f1 = 3f


(field lens) and f2 = f (eye lens) mounted coaxially in a metallic tube at a separation of d = 2f.
The focal length of the eyepiece as a whole is

that E1 EF E and E2 EF E. Now the

refraction of light through a concave surface with


2 > 1 means ray of light goes from a rarer medium

probability of occupancy of the level E1 is

f ( E1 ) f (EF E)

Also we can write E

E E E
(1)
e kT 1
The probability of occupancy of the level E2 is
F

f ( E2 ) f (E F E)

kT

ih

The total probability is


1

f E1 f E2

e kT 1

f E1 f E2

Hence proved.

e kT 1

1e

E
kT

E E F

we consider the open circuit voltage


as Vth = VA VB
with no load impedance between
A & B. Then the nodal analysis gives
Vth 36 Vth 0

0 Vth 24 V
3
6
To find Thevenin impedance across A & B, we
consider voltage sources short circuited and
current sources open circuited as below

kT

100

kT

E F EF

EF

e100 kT 1

EF

1
EF
100 kT

101

100 kT

1 10

EF
EF
ln9 T
100 kT
100k ln 9

ZTh = 6

d
d
d
dx ,V dx VV dx

dV
d d dV
d
or dx ,V dx V dx V dx dx

dV
d
dV
d
,V
or ,V
dx
dx
dx

dx

VTh= 24 V

i t kx

system be x, t Ae
.

Then
i Aei t kx which implies
t

ih

IN=4A

ZTh=6

ZL= 18

VTh 24
4 A further applying KCL,
ZTh 6
hence the V 0 V 0 4 V 18 V
6
18

IN

i2 h x, t h x, t E x, t
t

2
2
and 2 ik Ae it kx now multiplying by- h2 we get
x
2
2
2
h
h2 ik x, t h2 k 2 x, t
2
x

ZL= 18

Thevenin current will therefore be


VTh
24
IZ

1 A
Z Th Z L 6 18
Using the concept of duality between voltage
and current source, Norton equivalent circuit
is as drawn below,

hence proved.
Further if the eigen function of a quantum

ZTh

3 6
6
then ZTh 4 3 || 6 4
3 6
Thereby the Thevenin equivalent circuit is as below

The commutator d , V can be expanded as


dx

5.5 1.61019
T
290 K
100 1.381023 ln9
P9.

ZTh

this state is f (E)

36V

(b) The electron energy in silver is


E
101
E EF F
EF . Now the occupancy of
100 100

10

Now
100

h 2 2


V ih
H
2
t
t
2 m x

e kT

V
V h
2m

P10. In order to draw Thevenin equivalent circuit,

2m

This is well known Schrodinger Equation.


or

e kT 1

hk 2

which in turn can be written as

(2)

E F E EF

p2
V or
2m 2
hk

18

current through ZL is I Z Z 18 1 A
L
L