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NGPE, Physics, Solutions, National Graduate Physics Examination for the year 2014 solutions

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You are on page 1of 8

Day & Date of Examination : Sunday, January 19, 2014

Time : 10 AM to 1 PM

Part A- Maximum Marks: 150

Part B- Maximum Marks: 150

Timefor Part B : 120 minutes

Solutions of part A

1.

= E .E 2 E 0

(b) curl of a gradient is

5.

dL

c2 c1 L

T dT yields that the specific heat of

because the saturation is lost on heating. Heat is

required to be abstracted from vapour to

achieve saturation again.

Ans: c & d

0

z

6.

. E i j k .

0

x y z x y z

Ex Ey Ez

(d) grad of a div

A single stage R-C coupled transistor is shown

below.

A

E Ey Ez

.E i j k x

0

z x y z

Ans: b & c

2.

dv

m

mg Kv . On solving we obtain

dt

gt

v v T [1 e Km ]

Ans: a

3.

capillary is kept horizontal so as to avoid any

effect of gravity and the flow is maintained

stream line for small pressure difference. When

the pressure difference is made large, the flow

velocity exceeds the critical velocity as a result

flow becomes turbulent and linearity of the

curve is lost.

Ans: b & c

4.

Ans: c & d

momentum can be seen in any standard text

hence momentum is not invariant under L T.

Ans: b,c & d

7.

provide equilibrium

Ans: c

8.

vector r) inside a uniformly charged (charge

density ) non conducting sphere is given by

r

E=

. If there lies a spherical cavity

3e0

(uncharged inside) and there be a point P inside

centre of cavity. Then E at P is obtained by

superposition principle as

r1 r2 r1 r2

b

E

30

3 0

30 30

Ans: c

9.

One parsec is the unit of distance.

Ans: a

10.

individual voltages or currents caused by each

source acting alone with all other voltage

sources replaced by short circuits and all other

current sources replaced by open circuits.

Ans: b, c & d

d

a

h2 k 2 l 2

18.

0.710

20.80 2048'

sin

2

Ans: c & d

electric field

r 2 dB

.

2 R dt

As a result the

torque on the outer ring will be qER .

qr 2

1

Thus

R qr 2

2 R

2

Ans: a

11.

one eigen function are said to be degenerate.

Ans: c

19.

12.

1 1 1

h : k : l :: : : :: 15 : 10 : 6

2 3 5

Ans: b

r

K

and

with b

is

2m

m

(i) Over damped when b >

(ii) Critically damped when b =

(iii) Damped harmonic when b <

20.

Ans: b, & c

13.

isochoric, hence no work is done. BC is an

isothermal process hence the internal energy

does not change.

Ans: d

Ans: a, b, c & d

21.

14.

baryon and has baryon number = 1. The

meson is a meson while a meson is a lepton

and for each of the meson and the lepton the

baryon number is zero.

Ans: b, c & d

l l 1 h of angular momentum is the eigen

presence of an external magnetic field the

angular momentum vector can have 2 l1 .

orientations at angles cos1

15.

as the magnetic susceptibility of a material.

Ans: b

Ans: c

22.

16.

edges AB, BC & CD and zero along other three

edges OA, DE & EO.

Ans: c

17.

external electric field, all its atoms get

1

polarized. Induced charges q ' q(1 )

K

appear on the surface. The electric field inside

E

the dielectric modifies to the extent E '

.

K

Gauss law applies well under all these situations.

(l 1)

interconnecting conduction pattern and

bonding pads.

Ans: b

23.

network containing linear impedances and

several sources, the voltage across or the

current through any impedance may be

properties of nodal points. It employs the

principle embodied in option b.

Ans: b

24.

waves carry more power while due to small

wavelength, the length l of the antenna is

4

reduced

formulae of star delta conversion in electric

networks.

Ans: a, b & d

Ans: b & d

Part B1

B1

volume of a parallelopiped whose concurrent

edges are represented by three vectors both in

magnitude and direction. If the three vectors

are coplanar the volume of parallelopiped will

be zero because there will be no height then.

B2

expressed asF= U TS dF = dU Tds SdT

or dF = dU (dU + PdV) Sdt

dF = PdV SdT . Thus F is unaltered in an

isothermal (dT = 0) & isochoric (dV = 0) process.

B3

described by

I max

4R

1

sin 2

2

1 R 2

h

According to Bohr quantum

E t

2

condition the electron revolves in definite

quantized energy states where the angular

momentum is mvr nh . Each of these states

are considered to have a sharply defined

energy E, such that E 0 t which

means that the energy states have infinite life

time but the excited energy states are found to

have a life time t 108 s. Thus the concept of

definite Bohr orbits clearly violates uncertainty

principle.This finite life time of an energy state

yields finite width (uncertainty) of energy levels

h

E

108 eV which predicts that the

8

2 10

radiations emitted when atom de excites to

ground state from a particular higher state, are

not truly mono - chromatic. In other words the

spectral lines can never be infinitely sharp as

demanded by Bohr theory, rather have a finite

width hence the statement is refuted.

B5

Differentiating with respect to space and time

2

2

2

respectively, it yields

which is

c

t 2

x2

the differential equtation of a wave travelling

with velocity = c.

B6

turning the switch from B to C, is i0 E

R

While the time constant is L .

while

1

width of maximum. Putting I I max half

2

power points are obtained as

I

1

1

4R

I max 2

d

1

sin 2

2

2

1 R

B4

1 R

d

sin2 1 2sin 1

1 R 2

2 R

4R

R = 0.8, the half width is d=0.22 rad.

Intensity distribution in case of

Michelson interferometer is expressed as

1

2

2

power points, the half angular width of

1

maximum is obtained as 2cos 1

2

2

width of the maximum of F P fringes.

the growth

2

1 E

2

1

of current is = Li = L 2

2

energy stored in the inductor (L) starts

dissipating. The current (i) as a function of

time is expressed as i E e Rt /L . The total

R

energy dissipated in the resistance R

after turning the switch from B to C is.

B9

2

2 Rt

2R t

E2

E

L L

L

i

Rdt

e

dt

R 0

R 2R

0

0

E 2L

Thus

the

total

energy

dissipated

2R 2

during decay is equal to the energy stored

1 2 E 2L

during growth of current in

Li

2

2 R2

L-R circuit.

B7

B8

nucleus is surrounded by an electrostatic potential

barrier that opposes the entry and the escape of

positive particles. It is therefore concluded that

a compound nucleus formed by absorbing a

neutron is most likely to decay by emitting -rays

which carry no charge rather than a proton,

deuteron or -particle which are all positive.

outside the completely filled (closed)

shells are known as one electron atom

Hydrogen (Z =1) and alkali atoms Li (

Z=3), Na(Z=11) K(Z=19), Rb(Z=37) and

Cs(Z=55) belong to this class. The closed

shells in these atoms do not contribute to

orbital and spin angular momentum. It is

only the valence electron whose states

characterize the optical spectra of such

atoms. For alkali atoms the lowest energy

state is n > 1 rather than n = 1 as in the case

of hydrogen. The spectra of alkali atoms

consist of the following series with

specified transitions.

1.

2.

3.

4.

Principal Series: p-state to s-state

Diffuse Series: d-state to p-state

Fundamental Series: f-state to d-state

molecule are majorly

c

c

or d 2 d now using coherent

2

the magnitude of |d|

length lc

a.

b.

c.

d.

c

can be written as further using l c c c

lc

1

we get . Therefore the frequency

c

spread of a spectral line is of the order of the

inverse of coherence time c showing that the

perfectly monochromatic spectral line with

= 0 means having infinite coherence time

may not be possible. This is why the concept of

temporal coherence is intimately connected

with mono-chromaticity. Further the quantity

Q

is taken to represent the monod

chromaticity or the spectral purity of the

2

Q .

source. Thus one obtains lc

B10

Rotational spectra

Rotational-viberational spectra

Electronic-viberational spectra

Electronic-rotational spectra

forces between two like charges running

parallel can be expressed as

FM

0 qv qv

1 qq

and FE

4 R2

4 0 R2

Thereby

FM

v2

00 v 2 2

FE

c

Part B2

The moment of inertia, about an axis

perpendicular to its plane and passing through

2

its centre is I s ml of a square lamina and

6

mR 2

for a circular lamina.

Ic

2

l 2R

186

72 2 4 3

Ml 2

1.69MR 2 8.45 kgm 2

I 1.69

4

2m

P2.

each semicircular lamina in question. So that

Ms + 4Mc = M = 5 kg ---- (1). If s be the

surface density, then

down with acceleration A and in c and in turn

the wedge of mass M moves left with an

acceleration A.

mA

FR

m

7M

11M

& Mc

............(2)

18

72

mg sin + mA cos

mg

mg sin + mA cos = m a -- (1)

FR mg cos mA sin cos(90-) MA (2)

mg sin cos M m sin 2 A

uniform semicircular lamina lies at 4R/3

from centre, therefore the moment of

Inertia about an axis perpendicular to its plane

and passing through its centre of mass is

obtained by using the theorem of parallel axis as

g sin cos

M sin 2

m

I0

m A sin

R2

7M

M l2 4

l 2 1

2

72

2

Thereby M s

R2 l2 4lR

M s l2

2

4 Mc

kgm

6

2 4 3

mg

co

s

P1.

M c R2

4R

Mc

Further using theorem

2

3

given axis is I c I 0 M c l 4 R

mg (cos2q - sin2q)

dA

M m sin2 2mA sinq cosq

dq

dA

For maximum A, setting

=0

dq

substituting I0

inertia of one semicircular section about the

2

2

2

M R2

4R

l 4R

Ic c Mc Mc

3

2 3

2

g cos2 sin2 2

or

mg sin cos

sin cos

M m sin2

2

R2 l 2 4lR

Ic Mc Finally I I s 4 I c

2 4 3

1 2sin M m sin

2

2 k T 2

m 2

N CV

C V N 2 k T

sin1

m 2M

Substituting

the

value

P3.

(a)

I

IL 10log 105( given ) using I0=10-12 w 2

m

I0

105

P

2 R2

12

P 2 20 10

by definition, then

(10) 80 W

p2

2 v

dP v

dv

v rms

2kT

2

4 v dv CV

4

4m

2kT

m

2kT

dn

P5.

mv 2

2 kT

mv 2

v e

mv

2k T

mv

0

kT

2kT

v 2d n

is dn Ce d Ce

dxdydzdvx dvy dvz

Now considering a sphere of radius v then

infinitesimal volume between radii v and

2

v+dv can be written as d V 4 v dv. The

total number of particles will then be

2ve

mv

2k T

in a given range of speeds between v and v+dv

is given by Maxwell Boltzmann distribution

law according to which the probability of a

molecule to have energy E is proportion to

E

ideal gas the energy of molecules is purely

1 2

kinetic energy hence E mv . Thus the number

2

of molecules having speed between v and v+dv

in a given six dimensional vol d dxdydzdvx dvy dvz

N CV e

mv

v rms

get

mv 2

or 2 v

0 v mp

kT

6.36 1012

8 db

IL 10 log

1012

E

kT

we

m

2 2 2 kT

P v 4 N

v e

2 kT

The most probable velocity is the value of v for

which the function P(v) is maximum. Therefore

293

293

332

as v293 v0

273

273

3

using 1.20 kg/m and v273 332m/s

2

6 105 273

W

I

4.36 1012 2

2 1.2 332 293

m

I

Now the intensity level is IL 10log

I0

3

105

10

P4.

of

mv2

2

2 kT

m 2

dn 4 N

v e dv If P(v) represent

2 kT

the the probability that a molecule will

have velocity between v and v+dv

in the velocity range zero to infinity then

The

I I0 (10)10

3 kT

m

v4 e

mv 2

2 kT

mv

2 kT

dv

dv

vrms

v mp

3

Hence proved

2

glass plate is really the source of glare. A thin

film which can produce destructive

interference in reflected light shall reduce the

glare and the sculpture will be seen clearly by

refraction. This can be achieved by coating the

glass (=1.62) surface by a thin film of either

MgF2 (=1.38) or diamond (=2.42). The

conditions being different in the two cases.

The phase difference caused by a thin transparent

film between two light beams, reflected

successively from the two surfaces of a film is

2

(due to Stokes' law)

2

2 t cos( r ) (due to stoke's law)

light (in case of thin diamond film = 2.42)

2

2 t cos( r ) (2 n 1)

and for normal incidence r = 0 implies that

2 t n t n

1214, 2428, 3642 A

2

On the other hand, there shall not be

stoke's contribution to the phase difference in

case of MgF2 (=1.38) film as the phase change

of occur on each face of the film, therefore

2

2

or

2 t cos ( r ) 2n 1

film under normal incidence, therefore

t 2n 1

1065, 3193,5322 A

2 2

P6. In the given solenoid of rectangular

cross section, the current i through its

winding produces a magnetic field. Let B

be the magnetic field produced at a radius r.

Ampere's law in electromagnetism provides

f B.dl 0 r i or B.2 r 0 r Ni

the locus of 1OA + 2AI = const which means

1OAB + 2AI = 1 OB + 2BI

= 1(OB +BC) + 2 BI - 1BC -2CI + 2CI

<1 (OC) + 2CI -2 (BC + CI -BI)

Further since BC+CI-BI>0 always, one

can say that in any case (for all paths)

1OA + 2AI < 1OD + 2DI. The actual path is

therefore a minimum i,e extremum.

(b)

F1

Ni

weber/m2 where N is the total

2 r

number of winding over a length 2r.

Considering small area h dr, the flux.

2

2

b

b

0 r N ih b

Ni

NBh dr 0 r

ln W

hdr

2

a

2 r

a

a

2

N

h

b

0

r

Using now NLi L

ln

2

a

With the given values

10

L 0 2 1240(1000) 2 0.01 ln

4

5

L = 2.48 ln2 = 1.72 h & total flux linked is

Li 1.72 10 17.2 Wb

P1

L2

F2

Fd

f2

i,e on the

Fd

i,e on

f1

the left of eye lens. The two focal points F1 and

F2 are located such as P1F1 = F and P2F2 =+F

As long as the media on the two sides of the

eyepiece are the same, the two nodal points

coincide with the respective principal points.

Since it is difficult to use a crosswire in the first

focal, plane of Huygen's eye piece, Ramesden's

eyepiece is preferred in all instruments used

for physical measurements.

P8.

1

.

probability occupancy is f (E) E E

kT

e

1

1

.

rather than f (E) EE

Let us consider

e kT 1

two energy levels E1 and E2 which are equally

spaced above and below the Fermi level such

F

C>

>

P2

XA

2

L1

ray permitted by Fermat's principle for

1

f1 f2

d f1 f2

B 0 r

P7.

(field lens) and f2 = f (eye lens) mounted coaxially in a metallic tube at a separation of d = 2f.

The focal length of the eyepiece as a whole is

2 > 1 means ray of light goes from a rarer medium

f ( E1 ) f (EF E)

E E E

(1)

e kT 1

The probability of occupancy of the level E2 is

F

f ( E2 ) f (E F E)

kT

ih

1

f E1 f E2

e kT 1

f E1 f E2

Hence proved.

e kT 1

1e

E

kT

E E F

as Vth = VA VB

with no load impedance between

A & B. Then the nodal analysis gives

Vth 36 Vth 0

0 Vth 24 V

3

6

To find Thevenin impedance across A & B, we

consider voltage sources short circuited and

current sources open circuited as below

kT

100

kT

E F EF

EF

e100 kT 1

EF

1

EF

100 kT

101

100 kT

1 10

EF

EF

ln9 T

100 kT

100k ln 9

ZTh = 6

d

d

d

dx ,V dx VV dx

dV

d d dV

d

or dx ,V dx V dx V dx dx

dV

d

dV

d

,V

or ,V

dx

dx

dx

dx

VTh= 24 V

i t kx

system be x, t Ae

.

Then

i Aei t kx which implies

t

ih

IN=4A

ZTh=6

ZL= 18

VTh 24

4 A further applying KCL,

ZTh 6

hence the V 0 V 0 4 V 18 V

6

18

IN

i2 h x, t h x, t E x, t

t

2

2

and 2 ik Ae it kx now multiplying by- h2 we get

x

2

2

2

h

h2 ik x, t h2 k 2 x, t

2

x

ZL= 18

VTh

24

IZ

1 A

Z Th Z L 6 18

Using the concept of duality between voltage

and current source, Norton equivalent circuit

is as drawn below,

hence proved.

Further if the eigen function of a quantum

ZTh

3 6

6

then ZTh 4 3 || 6 4

3 6

Thereby the Thevenin equivalent circuit is as below

dx

5.5 1.61019

T

290 K

100 1.381023 ln9

P9.

ZTh

36V

E

101

E EF F

EF . Now the occupancy of

100 100

10

Now

100

h 2 2

V ih

H

2

t

t

2 m x

e kT

V

V h

2m

2m

or

e kT 1

hk 2

(2)

E F E EF

p2

V or

2m 2

hk

18

current through ZL is I Z Z 18 1 A

L

L

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