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Section 5

Mass Moment of Inertia


Center of Gravity
The center of gravity, cg, of an object is the balance point of that object. That is, it
is the single point at which the objects weight could be held and be in balance in all
directions. . For parts made of homogeneous material, the cg is the three-dimensional,
geometric center of the object. For many simple parts, such as a cylinder, the geometric
center is apparent.
For complex parts, the location of the center of gravity is not obvious. A common
method of determining the center of gravity is to divide the complex part into primary
shapes, where the center of gravity of each is apparent. The composite center of gravity
can be determined form a weighted average of the coordinates of the individual cgs.
xcg total =

ycg total =

zcg total =

m part 1 x cg

part 1

+ m part 2 x cg

part 2

+ m part

xcg

part 3

+ ...

m part 1 + m part 2 + m part 3 + ...

m part 1 y cg part 1 + m part 2 y cg part 2 + m part 3 ycg part 3 + ...


m part 1 + m part 2 + m part 3 + ...

m part 1 zcg part 1 + m part 2 zcg part 2 + m part 3 zcg part 3 + ...
m part 1 + m part 2 + m part 3 + ...

Since the acceleration due to gravity will be the same for the entire body, weight
can be substituted for mass in the equations above.

Mass Moment of Inertia (IA)


Mass moment of intertia is a measure of an object's
resistance to rotational acceleration

I A = r 2 dm

dm

It is more difficult to speed up a spinning object with a large mass


moment of inertia.
Charts available for common volumes.
Computed relative to an axis.
Strongly influenced by the amount of mass distributed from the axis.

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Mass Moments of Inertia for Primary Shapes


y

Rectangular Block:
w

[ (

)]

[ (

)]

[ (

)]

Ix =

1
m w 2 + h2
12

Iy =

1
m w2 + l2
12

Iz =

1
m h2 +l2
12

Ix =

1
mr 2
2

Iy =

1
m 3r 2 + l 2
12

Iz =

1
m 3r 2 + l 2
12

Ix =

1
mr 2
2

Iy =

1
mr 2
4

Iz =

1
mr 2
4

x
h

z
l

Cylinder:

z
l

Thin Disk:

[ ]
[(

)]

[ (

)]

[ ]
[ ]

[ ]

Slender Rod:

Ix = 0
x

z
l

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[ ]

Iy =

1
ml 2
12

Iz =

1
ml 2
12

[ ]

Radius of Gyration (k):


Distance from the reference axis to a point, where a concentrated mass would
have the same moment of inertia.
IA
kA =
m

Parallel Axis Theorem


To transfer the mass moment of inertia, from one axis to another, the following
equation is used..
IA = IA md2
d is the distance between the two axes.
Add if transfer is away from the centroid.
Subtract if transfer is towards the centroid.

Composite Bodies:
The mass moment of ine rtia of a body, comprised of several simple shapes, can be
combined as long as there is a single reference axis.
IA (Total) = IA (Body 1) + IA (Body 2) +...

Experimental Determination:
The mass moment of inertia of a body, can be determined
experimentally by swinging the part as a pendulum and
measuring the time to complete one oscillation (t).

I cg

rcg

t 2

= mrcg g rcg
2

Hints for Determining the Moment of Inertia:

When determining the center of gravity, use symmetry as much as possible


Divide a complex shape into a minimum number of primary shapes.
Select a convenient location to place a reference coordinate system.
Use the primary shape equations, which correspond to the reference coordinate
system. Ix in the table may actually be Iz in the analysis.
Make certain that a cutout is tabulated as a negative mass and moment of inertia
z cg total =

m part 1 z cg part 1 + m part 2 zcg part 2 m cuo out z cg cut out + ...
m part 1 + m part 2 m cut out + ...

IA (Total) = IA (Body 1) + IA (Body 2) - IA (cut-out) + ...

Double check the distance between inertial axes.

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Problems:
5-1.

The plate shown is made from steel (0.283 lb/in3 ). Determine the coordinates of
the center of gravity.
12
y

4Ans: 5.74, .25, 0 in.

3
3
x

0.5

5-2.

The plate shown is made from steel (0.283 lb/in3 ). Determine the coordinates of
the center of gravity.
4Ans: -1.81, .14, .38 in.
.375 in
y
.375 in

.75 in

.125 in

.75 in

1.75 in
3.25 in

5-3.

z
Calculate the mass moment of inertia and the radius of gyration about a centroidal
longitudinal axis of a shaft that weighs 5 lb and has a diameter of 0.625 in.
4Ans: 0.000632 lb in s2

5-4.

Calculate the mass moment of inertia and the radius of gyration about a centroidal
longitudinal axis of a shaft that has a mass of 100 kg and a diameter of 50 mm.
4Ans: 0.03125 kg m2

5-5.

A solid cylinder is 2 ft in diameter, 3 ft long and weighs 48 lbs. Determine the


mass moment of inertia about its centroidal axial axis.
4Ans: 8.944 lb in s2

5-6.

A solid cylinder is 2 ft in diameter, 3 ft long and weighs 48 lbs. Determine the


mass moment of inertia about a centroidal axis, perpendicular to its length.
4Ans: 17.89 lb in s2

5-7.

A slender rod, 14 in long, rotates about an axis perpendicular to its length and 3
inches from its center of gravity. Knowing that the rod weighs 2 lb, determine its
mass moment of inertia about that axis.
d

43

4Ans: 0.131 lb in s2

5-8.

A slender rod, 0.4 m long, rotates about an axis perpendicular to its length and
0.12 m from its center of gravity. Knowing that the rod has a mass of 6 kg,
determine its mass moment of inertia about that axis.
4Ans: 0.1664 kg m2

5-9.

Determine the mass moment of inertia of the plate about the rotation axis. The
plate is made from steel, with a density of 0.283 lb/in3 .
4Ans: 0.036 lb in s2

4 in

3.5 in

0.5 in
2 in

5-10. A flywheel can be considered as being composed of a thin disk and a rim. The rim
weighs 300 lbs and has diameters of 24 in and 30 in. The disk weighs 50 lbs.
Determine the mass moment of inertia about the centroidal axis which the
flywheel rotates.
4Ans: 40.76 lb in s2
6 in
A

24 in

30 in

A
1 in

Section A-A

5-11. The cross section of a steel (0.283 lb/in3 )


flywheel is shown. The web of the flywheel
consists of a solid plate 1 in. thick.
Determine the mass moment of inertia of the
flywheel with respect to the axis of rotation
4Ans: 6.63 lb in s2

1 in.
12 in.
2 in.

4 in.

4 in.

6 in.

44

16 in.

5-12. The cross section of a small steel flywheel is


shown. The rim and hub are connected by
eight spokes (two of which are shown in the
cross section). Each spoke has a cross
sectional area of 160 mm2 . Determine the
mass moment of inertia of the flywheel with
respect to the axis of rotation. The density of
steel is 7850 kg/m3 .

20
380
30 mm

60

4Ans: 0.211 kg m2

100

5-13. A shaft of a shredder has four cutter blades welded to the shaft. Each blade has a
mass of 1 kg. The shaft has a mass of 4.5 kg. Determine the mass moment of
inertia about the centroidal (z) axis of the shaft.
4Ans: 0.0161 kg m2
800 mm
Z

30 mm

120 mm

180 mm

Z
12 mm
60 mm

5-14. Determine the mass moment of inertia of the plate about an axis through its center
of gravity. The plate is made from steel, with a density of 0.283 lb/in3 .
4Ans: 0.0044 lb in s2
0.75 in

2 in
0.5 in

0.75 in
4.0 in

45

440

5-15. The section of sheet steel is 2mm thick anbd is cut and bent into the machine
component shown. The density is 7850 kg/m3 . Determine the mass moment of
inertia relative to the (a) x-axis, (b) y-axis, (c) z-axis.
y

120 mm

70 mm
x

70 mm
z

120 mm

150 mm

150 mm

5-16. Determine the moment of inertia of the steel link ( = 0.283 lb/in3 ) with respect to
the y axis.
4Ans: 0.000191 lb in s2
y
.75 in

.375 in -typ.

1.75 in
.125 in

3.25 in

5-17. Determine the moment of inertia of the steel link ( = 0.283 lb/in3 ) with respect to
the y axis.
4Ans: 0.00024 lb in s2
.375 in

.75 in

.375 in

.125 in

.75 in

1.75 in
3.25 in
B
rB

5-18. Experiments reveal that the moment


of inertia relative of the 2.2 kg
connecting arm is 0.80 kg m2 and
0.40 kg m2 , relative to axis A and B,
respectively. Determine the location
of the center of gravity.
4Ans: rB =55 mm

275 mm

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