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SCHOOL OF BIOPROCESS ENGINEERING

LABORATORY REPORT
PROGRAMME

: BIOSYSTEM ENGINEERING

COURSE
CODE/TITLE
EXPERIMENT

: ERT255/3 ENGINEERING PROPERTIES OF


BIOLOGICAL MATERIALS
: 2

TITLE

: Viscosity Measurement of Liquid Biological Materials

DATE OF
EXPERIMENT
GROUP NO.

: 11/05/2015

EXPERIMENTERS
NAME
GROUP MEMBERS

: Foo

: A4

He Xuan(131190516)

: 1.Chen Koong Li

2.Nur Azwin Binti Selamat


3.Delsyini A/P Veerapan
4.Najihah Binti Abd. Jabbar
INSTRUCTORS
NAME

: 1. Miss Khalilah Binti Mohamad Yusuff


2. Mr. Hirun Azaman Bin Ismail

DATE OF
SUBMISSION

/05/2015

TABLE OF CONTENTS
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
OBJECTIVES
INTRODUCTION
CONCEPTS AND PRINCIPLES
MATERIALS AND EQUIPMENTS
PROCEDURES
RESULTS AND CALCULATION
DISCUSSION
CONCLUSION
REFERENCES
DATA SHEET

Objectives
1 .To familiarize with the operation and use of rotational viscometer.
2. To categorize the type of viscous fluid, Newtonian or non-Newtonian(shearthickening or shear-thinning)

Materials and Equipment


Apparatus/Equipment

1.Rotational viscometer
2.Beaker
3.Graduated cylinder
4.Ruler

Rotational viscometer

Beaker

Ruler

Graduated cylinder

Digital caliper

Materials
1.Cooking oil (Palm oil)
2.Oyster sauce

Cooking oil (Palm oil)

Oyster sauce

Introduction
Rheology is concerned with the flow and deformation of materials experiencing an
applied force. Two extremes of rheological behaviour are:
ELASTIC behaviour - e.g. perfectly rigid solids - where any deformation reverses
spontaneously when an applied force is removed. Energy is stored by the system, then
released.
VISCOUS (or PLASTIC) behaviour - e.g. ideal Newtonian liquids - where any
deformation ceases when the applied force is removed. Energy performs work on the
material.
In between elastic and viscous behaviour lies the real world of most substances,
which are viscoelastic materials. The rheology described on these net-pages is for
slurries and emphasises the underlying chemical effects. We continue with some
definitions Newtonian (or viscous) behaviour.
For ideal viscous materials, the rate of deformation is in proportion to the force applied.
Deformation ceases when the applied force is removed. The apparent viscosity is constant
with changing shear rates. This behaviour is typical of simple liquids such as water.
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Simple Newtonian behaviour

Thixotropy and Rheopexy (work hardening)


A thixotropic material becomes more fluid with increasing time of applied force. The
applied force could be stirring, pumping or shaking. This effect is sometimes called
work softening. It is often reversible, so that if left undisturbed for some time a
thixotropic slurry regains its viscosity. Quicksand is an example of a thixotropic
material.A rheopectic material becomes more viscous with increasing time of applied
force. This effect is the opposite of thixotropy, and is sometimes called work hardening.

Dilatancy (shear thickening)


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A dilatant material resists deformation more than in proportion to the applied force. For
example, the more effort you put into stirring a dilatant material, the more resistant it
becomes to stirring. This is usually an indication that the applied force is causing the
material to adopt a more ordered structure. A thick slurry of wet beach sand is often
dilatant.

Plastic and Pseudoplastic (shear thinning)


PLASTIC materials initially resist deformation, until a yield stress is reached. When that
stress is exceeded, the shear rate becomes measurable. Further stress leads finally to
linear (Newtonian) behaviour.
PSEUDOPLASTIC materials exhibit shear thinning without the initial resistance to
deformation. Like plastic materials, they also show linear (Newtonian) behaviour at the
highest levels of stress and shear rate.

Types of viscosity
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Newtonian: fluids such as water and most gases which have a constant
viscosity.
Shear thickening: viscosity increases with the rate of shear.
Shear thinning: viscosity decreases with the rate of shear.
Shear thinning

liquids are very commonly, but misleadingly,

described as thixotropic.
Bingham plastic: a material that behaves as a solid at low
stresses but flows as a viscous fluid at high stresses. Next,
viscosity coefficients can be defined in four ways:
Dynamic viscosity: also known as the absolute viscosity.
The more usual one (typical units Pas, Poise, P);
Kinematic viscosity: is the dynamic viscosity divided by
the density (typical units cm2/s, Stokes, St).
Shear viscosity: often referred to as simply viscosity, describing
the reaction to applied shear stress; simply put, it is the ratio
between the pressure exerted on the surface of a fluid, in the
lateral or horizontal direction, to the change in velocity of the
fluid as you move down in the fluid (this is what is referred to as
a velocity gradient).

Procedure
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Operation
The following procedure is outlined for making a viscosity measurement:
1. The viscometer is switched on.
2. The speed of rotation is entered using the ARROW keys and SET SPEED key.
3. The guardleg is mounted on the viscometer. The spindle is attached to the lower
shaft. The shaft is lifted slightly, and holded firmly with one hand while the
spindle is screwed on with the other (left-hand thread noted). Side thrust on the
shaft is avoided.
4. The spindle number is entered using the SELECT SPINDLE key.
5. The spindle is inserted and centered in the material until the fluid level is at the
immersion groove in the spindle shaft.
6. The MOTOR ON/OFF is pressed to turn on the motor. The indicated reading is
allowed time to stabilize. The reading and relevant test parameters is recorded.
7. The MOTOR ON/OFF key is pressed to turn OFF the motor.
Test Method
1. The viscosity of the sample is measured using the Brookfield Viscometer. The
sample is placed in a beaker. RV Spindle #4 is used. The viscometer is set to zero
before any test. The viscosity is measured (in cPs) at speeds of 60, 30, 12, 6, 3, 0,
6 and 0.3 rpm. The torques is recorded at 8 speeds on the Brookfield Viscometer

Brookefield Viscometer

SPEED SETS
Beginning

0.0
0.3
0.5
0.6
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
4.0
5.0
6.0
10.0
12.0
20.0
30.0
50.0
60.0
100.0

When scrolling UP

Table 1 : Speed sets of viscometer

Results & calculation

Title
Sample to be tested
Viscometer model
Spindle
Rotational Speed
Container size
Use spindle guardleg?
Sample Temperature
Sample preparation procedure if any
Speed sets
(rpm)
0.0
0.3
0.5
0.6
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
4.0
5.0
6.0
10.0
12.0
20.0
30.0
50.0
60.0
100.0

Description
Cooking Oil
LVDV
S61
0-100 RPM
500 ml
Yes
Room temperature
No

Viscosity(cPs) Pa.s

0.00
0.00
96.0
20.0
12.0
76.0
57.0
45.6
60.0
55.5
50.4
47.0
48.0
50.0
51.3
52.2
52.3
53.0
54.8

0
0.0000
0.0960
0.0200
0.0120
0.0760
0.0570
0.0456
0.0600
0.0555
0.0504
0.0470
0.0480
0.0500
0.0513
0.0522
0.0523
0.0530
0.0548

Calculations:
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Apparent
Viscosity
(MPa.s)
0
0.00 x10-8
9.60 x10-8
2.00 x10-8
1.20 x10-8
7.60 x10-8
5.70 x10-8
4.56 x10-8
6.00 x10-8
5.55 x10-8
5.04 x10-8
4.70 x10-8
4.80 x10-8
5.00 x10-8
5.13 x10-8
5.22 x10-8
5.23 x10-8
5.30 x10-8
5.48 x10-8

Resistance(%
)
0.4
0.0
0.8
0.2
0.2
1.9
1.9
1.9
3.0
3.7
4.2
4.7
8.0
10.0
17.1
26.1
43.5
53.0
91.3

For speed is 0.5 rpm,


Resistance = 0.8%
cP.s = 20.0
cP.s to Pa.s = 96.0 x 0.001 = 0.0960 Pa.s
Pa.s to MPa.s = 0.0960 x 10-6 = 9.6x10-8 MPa.s

Cooking Oil(Palm oil)


12
10
8
6
4
2
0
Apparent Viscosity (MPa.s)(10-8)

Speed Set (RPM)

Figure 1

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Title
Sample to be tested
Viscometer model
Spindle
Rotational Speed
Container size
Use spindle guardleg?
Sample Temperature
Sample preparation procedure if any

Description
Oyster sauce
RVDV
S04
0-100 RPM
500 ml
Yes
Room temperature
No

Speed sets
(rpm)

Viscosity(cPs)

Pa.s

0.0
0.3
0.5
0.6
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
4.0
5.0
6.0
10.0
12.0
20.0
30.0
50.0
60.0
100.0

0
231000
139000
126000
82600
63067
50000
42400
38000
30550
26040
23633
16400
14800
EEEE
EEEE
EEEE
EEEE
EEEE

0
231.000
139.000
126.000
82.600
63.067
50.000
42.400
38.000
30.550
26.040
23.633
16.400
14.800
EEEE
EEEE
EEEE
EEEE
EEEE

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Apparent
Viscosity
(MPa.s)
0
0.2310 x10-5
0.1390 x10-5
0.1260 x10-5
8.2600 x10-5
6.3067 x10-5
5.0000 x10-5
4.2400 x10-5
3.8000 x10-5
3.0550 x10-5
2.6040 x10-5
2.3633 x10-5
1.6400 x10-5
1.4800 x10-5
EEEE
EEEE
EEEE
EEEE
EEEE

Resistance(%
)
0.3
34.4
34.8
37.7
41.4
47.3
50.0
53.0
57.9
61.1
65.3
70.8
82.2
89.8
EEEE
EEEE
EEEE
EEEE
EEEE

Calculations:
For speed is 0.5rpm,
Resistance = 34.8%
cP = 139000.0
cP to Pa.s = 139000 x 0.001 = 139.0 Pa.s
Pa.s to MPa.s = 139.0 x 10-6 = 0.139 x10-5

Cooking Oil
10
8
6
4
2
0
Apparent Viscosity (MPa.s)(X10-5)

Speed Set (RPM)

Figure 2

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Discussion
In the experiment, oyster sauce and cooking oil is been used to
determine the type of viscous fluid. This is to find their viscometer to use to
predict whether they are Newtonian or non-Newtonian fluid.
The relationship between the shear stress and the velocity gradient can
be obtained by considering two plates closely spaced at a distance y, and separated
by a homogeneous substance.
From the data collected from cooking oil, we can find that it recorded
highest viscosity which is 96 cp.s when speed set is 0.5rpm.The value of viscosity
and shear rate keep changing without sequence. Therefore, we cannot prove that
cooking oil is Newtonian or non-Newtonian. This might be due to the temperature
surrounding which keep changing. The experiment is carry out in a air-condition
room. To obtain more accurate results, we should carry out experiment in a
thermal equilibrium condition.
From result oyster oil,we can find that it recoeded highest viscosity of
82600 cp.s when speed set is 1.0rpm.By study the graph above, we know that
oyster sauce is a non-Newtonian fluid because the value of viscosity is decrease
whereas the shear rate is increasing.
If we want determine Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluid through
graph, we can look at the line. From Figure 2, the line is going down against
torque. This is a non- Newtonian liquid.

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Besides that, the result which display EEE means the DV-E gives
indications for out of range operation. We should reduce the speed or use a smaller
size spindle to correct the situation.

Conclusion
In conclusion, we know that we can predict a fluid is Newtonian or nonNewtonian by using Brookfield viscometer and we need to use different types of
spindles for different types of fluid.Objective achieved.

References
1. Hibbeler,R.2011.Mechanics of Materials,Prentice Hall
2. Yunus A. Cengel, Michael A. Boles.Thermodynamics : An Engineering
Approach, 7th edition in SI units.2011, McGraw-Hill
3. http://www.atascientific.com.au/blog/2010/02/18/an-introduction-to-viscosityand-rheology/
4. http://weitzlab.seas.harvard.edu/links/tutorials/introductiontorheology2.pdf

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