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Carl R.

Darnall Army Medical Center Replacement


FORT HOOD, TEXAS / PN74650 / 74728

PART VI
6.1

Overall HVAC System Concept

6.2

Performance Criteria

6.3

System Design Standard

6.4

HVAC System Description

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HVAC

HVAC
PART 6-1

Carl R. Darnall Army Medical Center Replacement


FORT HOOD, TEXAS / PN74650 / 74728

PART VI

6.1

IFC SUBMITTAL
DP-5
12 DECEMBER, 2012

HVAC

Overall HVAC System Concept


The HVAC system selection for the Carl R. Darnall Army Medical Center Replacement
(CRDAMCR) was driven by the following broad criteria:

Optimize the healing environment


Sustainable system choices and layouts that provide flexibility to accommodate future
change
Meet the project energy goals including 30% energy reduction as compared to
ASHRAE 90.1-2004
Best lifecycle cost
Provide a world class healthcare mechanical system

Through a comprehensive analysis of the factors above and the UFC and RFP
requirements, it was found that the optimum and most lifecycle cost-effective mechanical
system for the new CRDAMCR hospital uses a multiple, parallel 100% Dedicated Outside
Air System (DOAS) approach with a remote central plant that provides steam, heating hot
water and chilled water to the facility.
6.1.1

Central Plant
The main chilled water, steam, hot water, and plumbing systems are centrally located in a
remote Central Utility Plant (CUP) approximately 250' southwest of the Hospital loading
dock. The CUP houses the following major equipment and its components: chillers, cooling
towers, steam boilers, chilled water and condenser water pumps, hot water generators and
distribution pumps, condensate return pumps, steam deaerators, chemical water treatment
equipment, fire pumps, domestic water heaters, and booster pumps. The CUP is
connected to the hospital campus via an accessible underground tunnel that terminates in
a dedicated plumbing service room in the basement level of the hospital building. Further
details of the systems located in the CUP are covered in Section 6.4.1.

6.1.2

Hospital/Clinic
A significant feature for a healthcare mechanical system is the ability to deliver and
maintain the required amount of outdoor air while meeting the RFP energy reduction goals.
Conventional re-circulating (mixed air) systems typically fail to provide or maintain the
required amount of outdoor air (ventilation) to the occupied space. This issue is further
compounded when incorporating variable air volume systems to reduce energy
consumption. As a result, the conventional re-circulating air system does not effectively
achieve both the indoor air quality and energy reduction goals required for this project.
Although the advent of alternative systems has improved the performance and complexity
of these recirculating systems, the fundamental challenge of providing and maintaining the
UFC required outside air to the occupied space while reducing energy still remains difficult
to accomplish in a lifecycle cost effective manner.
To overcome the limitations of a conventional re-circulating system the CRDAMCR design
incorporates a 100% DOAS. The DOAS utilizes 100% outside air and continuously
exceeds the ventilation requirements of all occupied space (a stated goal of the RFP). This
system provides superior indoor air quality and building flexibility, and when combined with
the appropriately selected energy recovery devices exceeds the energy reduction goals
specified for this project. Details of the 100% DOAS system and components can be found
in Section 6.4.2.

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PART VI
6.2

HVAC

Performance Criteria

6.2.1
Intent
The intent of this Performance Criteria section is to collect in one place all the relevant information
governing the design of the HVAC systems as a reference. The information is mainly gathered from
the RFP, and from subsequent RFI responses, but where the RFP did not give specific information,
assumptions have been made following good engineering practice.
It is not the intent of this document to override the RFP and/or the RFI process.
6.2.2

Codes and Standards


The engineering calculations are based on the applicable Unified Facilities Criteria (UFC),
the latest recommendations of ASHRAE, and good engineering practices consistent with
industry practice. The UFC is the governing design/code guide for the project. If a conflict
exists between UFC 3-600-01 and any other DOD document, referenced code, standard or
publication, UFC 3-600-01 takes precedence.
Where the various elements of the RFP are in conflict, the following priority list is used to
establish precedence, in descending order, unless specifically noted otherwise:

UFC 4-510-01
RFP sections 01 10 00 Statement of Work and 01 33 16 Design After Award
Fort Worth District Architect Engineer Instruction Manual
RFP Specific UFGS Specifications and Project Criteria
Fort Hood Installation Standards

The military standards applicable to the design are as follows:

UFC 3-400-01 Design Energy Conservation


UFC 3-410-01FA Heating, Ventilating and Air Conditioning
UFC 3-600-01, Fire Protection engineering for Facilities
UFC 4-010-01, DoD Minimum Antiterrorism Standards for Buildings
UFC 4-510-01 Medical Military Facilities

The codes applicable to the design are as follows:

2006 International Building Code (IBC)


2006 International Mechanical Code (IMC)
2006 International Plumbing Code (IPC)
2006 International Fire Code (IPC)
2006 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC)
Energy Policy Act of 2005
The current versions at date of RFP of: National Fire Protection Association (NFPA); 30
Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code; 37 - Standard for the Installation and Use
of Stationary Combustion Engines and Gas Turbines; 54 National Fuel Gas Code,
90a Installation of Air Conditioning and Ventilating Systems, 96 Standard for
Ventilation Control and Fire Protection of Commercial Cooking Operations, 99 Standard for Health Care Facilities; 101 Life Safety Code.

The standards applicable to the design are as follows:

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PART VI

6.2.3

6.2.3.2

American Society of Heating, Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE)


handbooks; 2006 Refrigeration, 2007 HVAC Applications, 2008 HVAC Systems &
Equipment, 2009 Fundamentals
ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2007 Energy Standard for Buildings except Low-Rise
Residential Buildings.
ASHRAE Standard 62.1-2007 Ventilation for Acceptable Indoor Air Quality.
ASHRAE Standard 55-2004 Thermal Environmental Conditions for Human Occupancy
ASHRAE Guideline 1-1996 The HVAC Commissioning Process
ASHRAE 15-2007 Safety Standard for Refrigeration Systems
ASHRAE 170-2008 Ventilation of Health Care Facilities
ASHRAE 0-2005 Total Building Commissioning
NEBB Procedural Standards for Testing Adjusting and Balancing
Sheet Metal and Air Conditioning Contractors National Association (SMACNA)
USGBC - LEED v2.2
USP-797- Pharmaceutical Compounding Sterile Preparations Applicable to PHIV3
Room Codes

Outdoor Design Parameters


The following parameters are be used for the HVAC system:

6.2.3.1

HVAC

Altitude (above sea level)


1,024 ft
Latitude
31.07 N
Longitude
97.83 W
Location
Fort Hood, TX (WMO# 722576)
Outside temperature and humidity conditions (ASHRAE Fundamentals 2009):

Outside Design Conditions

Summer

99.9F DB, 73.4F WB


81.0F DB, 76.6F WB
77.7F WB
41.9 Btuh/lb, 89.7F DB

Dry bulb and coincident wet bulb (0.4% column)


Wet bulb and CDB - 100% OA Coils (0.4% column)
Wet bulb for evaporative heat rejection (0.4% column)
Enthalpy and coincident dry bulb (0.4% column)

Outside Design Conditions

Winter

23.7F at 9.4 gr/lb

Dry bulb and humidity ratio (0.4% column)

6.2.4

Building Envelope Construction

6.2.4.1

Proposed Building
'U Values (Btu/hr-ft-F)

6.2.4.1.1

6.2.4.1.2

Roof Assembly
Wall Assembly
Glass Assembly

0.03 (R-33.3 equivalent)


0.068 (R-14.7 equivalent)
0.29 (R-3.4 equivalent)

Fenestration Performance

Glass Solar Heat Gain Coefficient (SHGC)


Equivalent Shading Coefficient (SC = SHGC/0.87)

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0.24
0.28

HVAC
PART 6-4

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PART VI
6.2.4.2

ASHRAE 90.1-2007 Baseline Compliant Building (for Baseline Energy Model)


U Values (Btu/hr-ft-F)

6.2.4.2.1

6.2.4.2.2

6.3
6.3.1

Roof Assembly
Wall Assembly
Glass Assembly

0.048 (R-20.8 equivalent)


0.151 (R-6.6 equivalent)
0.75 (R-1.3 equivalent)

Fenestration Performance

6.2.5

HVAC

Glass Solar Heat Gain Coefficient (SHGC)


Equivalent Shading Coefficient (SC = SHGC/0.87)

0.25
0.29

Indoor Design Criteria


The following parameters are used for the calculations that govern the HVAC system
design.

UFC 4-510-01, Design: Medical Military Facilities and associated Appendix are
followed for all applicable room temperature, humidity, air change rate, ventilation, and
acoustic design criteria. For any non-standard rooms that are not covered by UFC 4510-01, good standard engineering practice is applied for determination of the room
design criteria. When ASHRAE 62.1 ventilation rates are in excess of UFC 4-510-01,
the more stringent of the two is followed.

For space cooling calculations the space equipment heat loads are based on the actual
quantities and locations of equipment for all rooms including: medical related rooms (as
prescribed in UFC 4-510-01), electrical, telecom, kitchen, etc. Loads are based on
actual equipment cut sheets when available. When cut sheets are not available, heat
loads are determined using good engineering practice.

Lighting heat load information is be based on the actual lighting design for each space.
HVAC calculations are performed assuming that day lighting controls are not in use.

Occupant densities are based on estimates indicated in the program for design project
criteria or as listed in IMC-2006 or ASHRAE 62.1-2007 when other information is not
provided. Associated sensible and latent occupant loads are based on expected
personnel activity rates as listed in ASHRAE Fundamentals 2009.

System Design Standards


Airside
Equipment and terminal units are sized using the following criteria:
Service

Maximum velocity (FPM)

700 fpm
500 fpm
500 fpm
800 fpm
500 fpm
400-600 fpm

Relief or exhaust air louvers (Free area)


Outside air intake louvers (Free area)
Filters (AHU or duct mounted)
Heating coils
Cooling coils
Low wall return grille

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PART VI

HVAC

HVAC ductwork is sized using the following velocity criteria:


System

Maximum velocity (FPM)

2,000 fpm (Min: 500 fpm)


2,200 fpm
2,200 fpm
2,000 fpm
2,000 fpm
900 fpm

Grease duct exhaust (Per mechanical code)


Fume hood exhaust mains and risers
Variable volume supply air mains and risers
Constant volume supply air mains and risers
General exhaust mains
Low wall return duct

HVAC ductwork is sized using the following friction loss criteria:


System

Maximum Friction loss

0.15 inch wc/100 ft


0.25 inch wc/100 ft
0.25 inch wc/100 ft
0.15 inch wc/100 ft
0.10 inch wc/100 ft
0.10 inch wc/100 ft
0.10 inch wc/100 ft

Fume hood exhaust mains and risers


Variable volume supply air mains and risers
Constant volume supply air mains and risers
General exhaust mains
General exhaust sub mains and run outs
Transfer ducts
Supply air duct downstream of VAV or CAV terminal

(Note: Sizing criteria listed above is intended to be maximum values for system design.
Lower values are used as needed to help meet the project energy goals.)
6.3.2

Hydronic
Hydronic piping is sized using the following criteria:
Pipe size
(inch)

1
1-
2
2-
3
4
5
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
24
30

Maximum
Velocity (FPS)
3.3
3.1
4.1
4.8
6.0
6.1
8.1
8.8
10.0
10.0
10.0
10.0
10.0
10.0
10.0
10.0
10.0
10.0

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Pressure
Drop (ft/100 ft)
7.1
4.6
5.5
5.0
5.8
4.5
5.5
5.0
5.1
3.8
2.8
2.3
2.0
1.8
1.6
1.4
1.1
0.9

Maximum Flow rate


(GPM)
5
8
23
50
90
140
320
550
900
1,560
2,450
3,540
4,300
5,700
7,300
9,100
13,200
20,940

HVAC
PART 6-6

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IFC SUBMITTAL

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PART VI

HVAC

Notes on Pipe Sizing Tables:

6.3.3

Friction rates are based on: copper tubing sizes 3/4 2, Schedule 40 new steel pipe
for sizes 2 and up. (Note: actual installed steel piping is Standard Weight, therefore
pipe sizing table above is conservative.)
Sizing criteria listed above is intended to be maximum values for system design. Lower
values are used as needed to help meet the project energy goals.)

Steam
Steam piping is sized using the following criteria:
Low Pressure steam (less than 15 psig)

Maximum pipe velocity


Maximum pipe friction loss
Maximum total system friction loss

4,000 fpm
0.5 psig/100ft
3 psig

Medium Pressure steam (15 60 psig)

Maximum pipe velocity


Maximum pipe friction loss
Maximum total system friction loss

5,000 fpm
1.0 psig/100ft
10 psig

High Pressure steam (61 125 psig)

Maximum pipe velocity


Maximum pipe friction loss
Maximum total system friction loss

8,000 fpm
2.0 psig/100ft
20 psig

Steam condensate piping is sized using the following criteria:


Pumped steam condensate

1 1-1/2 pipe size


2 3 pipe size
4 10 pipe size

2 fps max.velocity
3 fps max. velocity
4 fps max. velocity

High/Medium pressure steam condensate return

3/4 2 pipe size

1000 fpm flash steam velocity

Gravity steam condensate (2% slope)

1 pipe size
1-1/4 pipe size
1-1/2 pipe size
2 pipe size
2-1/2 pipe size
3 pipe size

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1,350 pph max. flow rate


2,490 pph max. flow rate
4,080 pph max. flow rate
8,830 pph max. flow rate
15,970 pph max. flow rate
25,830 pph max. flow rate

HVAC
PART 6-7

Carl R. Darnall Army Medical Center Replacement


FORT HOOD, TEXAS / PN74650 / 74728

PART VI
6.4

IFC SUBMITTAL
DP-5
12 DECEMBER, 2012

HVAC

HVAC System Description

6.4.1

CUP
The project utilizes a remote central plant to house the major mechanical, electrical and
plumbing equipment. The remote plant was selected to segregate noisy and frequently
maintained equipment from patients and staff. A walk-able utility tunnel connects the
central plant with the main facility and enters the hospital in a central location to reduce
energy loss associated with utility distribution. The CUP building and associated piping
systems are designed to accommodate a future chiller, boiler, cooling tower and associated
equipment without building expansion or disruption of the existing systems. In addition, the
building contains ample space for the maintenance personnel to monitor, operate, and
maintain the mechanical and electrical systems for the facility.
The CUP was located to maximize the distance between the cooling towers and boilers
from the critical hospital HVAC systems while still meeting the architectural and civil needs
of the site. The closest boiler flue exhaust is over 350' away from the closest Clinic outside
air intake and over 500' away from the main Level 3 Hospital outside air intake to insure
maximum dilution and provide excellent IAQ. The closest cooling tower is 475' and 550'
away respectively. The hospital critical care outdoor air intakes are Northeast of the CUP
providing additional safety against the southern prevailing wind for the Killeen area of
Texas.

6.4.1.1

Chilled Water System


The central chilled water plant consists of (4) electric 1,305 Ton centrifugal, water-cooled
chillers(0.35 kW/Ton NPLV) (includes one standby) piped in parallel with a 268 Ton
modular heat recovery chiller(HRC) (6.0 total COP) providing an initial installed plant
capacity of 5,488 Tons for an estimated total cooling load of ~3,800 Tons. The plant is
sized to meet the full cooling load of the CUP, Clinics, and Hospital and has safety factor
built in to accommodate an enthalpy wheel being down for maintenance in each system.
Each of the centrifugal chillers is provided with a variable frequency drive (VFD) to provide
optimum part load performance and the full system is piped in a variable primary
configuration to further enhance efficiency. The heat recovery chiller is sized to carry the
base winter cooling loads and each central chiller has the ability to operate under low load
condition in the event the heat recovery chiller is down for maintenance. Sizing the heat
recovery chiller to handle the minimum winter time loads allows the centrifugal chillers,
cooling towers, and condenser water pumps to be turned off during those times. The
system is designed to supply chilled water at 44F with return water at 60.6F.
Plant floor space has been provided for an equally sized future chiller and blind flanges with
isolation valves have been provided to facilitate future tie in. Each chiller has been provided
with marine water boxes on the evaporator and condenser barrel to ease maintenance and
cleaning.

6.4.1.1.1

Chilled Water System Pumping and Distribution


The chilled water pumping system consists of (4) vertical inline pumps (includes one
standby) arranged in a variable primary pumping scheme. Vertical inline pumps were
chosen to drastically reduce pump borne vibration while providing a compact space layout
that facilitates maintenance needs. The pumping scheme has both the pumps and the
chillers connected by a common supply and return header that allow any pump to run with
any chiller to provide a higher level of redundancy. The HRC is provided in a side stream
arrangement with (2) vertical inline pumps (includes one standby) to pump from the main

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PART VI

IFC SUBMITTAL
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HVAC

return line, through the HRC, and then back to the main chilled water return line to pre-cool
the return water before it reaches the main bank of centrifugal chillers.
Plant floor space has been provided for an equally sized future chilled water pump and
blind flanges with isolation valves have been provided to facilitate future tie in to the
existing system. A life cycle cost analysis was used to optimally size the common pipe
headers to allow future growth of an equally sized chiller while still meeting the project
energy goals, limiting first costs, and meeting industry standard pipe sizing criteria.
A side stream combination air/dirt separator, expansion tanks, system relief valves, and
chemical feeder are provided in accordance with good design practice and are sized to
meet the project needs. System flow meters have been provided to allow energy efficient
control strategies, system diagnostics, and to provide real time building load data. A
minimum flow bypass line with control valve is provided to protect the pumps and meet
chiller minimum flow requirements during low demand operation.
The major consumer of chilled water is the 100% DOAS chilled water air handling units
(AHUs) located in the penthouses of the Clinics and patient Bed Tower as well as the main
Level 3 mechanical room in the Hospital. The remaining consumers of the chilled water
include fan coil units that provide space cooling for electric and telecom rooms and the
radiant floor system used to cool the Concourse, Lobby, and Dining areas. Refer to later
sections for more details on these systems.
6.4.1.1.2

Chilled Water System Piping Seismic Design


This project is categorized as Seismic Design Category A. Because of this category all
chilled water system components are exempt from seismic analysis per ASCE 7-05
Chapter 13.

6.4.1.1.3

Chilled Water System Mission Critical Provisions


To handle the mission critical needs of the facility as prescribed by the UFC, (2) main
chillers (one to standby) and (2) main chilled water pumps (one to standby) are backed up
by the emergency generator. All necessary control panels and Energy Management and
Control System (EMCS) systems are provided with UPS back up power in addition to the
emergency generator to provide continuity of service during power shifting.

6.4.1.1.4

Chilled Water System Basis of Operation


The following sections are meant to give a brief overview of the planned operational
approach for these key systems. Refer to the full sequence of operations included in the
DP-3 submission drawing package for complete detail.

6.4.1.1.4.1

6.4.1.1.4.2

Centrifugal Chillers
Chiller is enabled based on building demand and starts after its isolation valves are
proven open and condenser water and chilled water pumps are proven running.
Additional chillers are staged on/off by the EMCS. Staging is based on system cooling
load demand and current chiller loading.
Chillers use internal logic to control to a set leaving water temperature of 44F.
A low flow bypass line is provided to maintain minimum flow requirements through the
chillers at all times.
Heat Recovery Chiller

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PART VI

6.4.1.1.4.3

6.4.1.2

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Chiller is be enabled based on building demand and starts after its isolation valves are
proven open and its associated circulation evaporator and condenser pumps are
proven running.
Chiller is set to cooling mode and can be demand limited to maintain a minimum load
on the steam boiler and/or centrifugal chiller as required.
The internal chiller control panel stages on/off module sections as required to meet
demand.
A dedicated circulation pump on the evaporator and condenser side maintains a
constant flow through the chiller.
Chilled Water Pumps
Lead chilled water pump is enabled to run 24/7 and initially starts after a chiller isolation
valve is proven to be open.
Pumps are staged on/off based on system flowrate.
Active pump VFDs receive a common signal from the EMCS to maintain minimum
differential pressure setpoints at multiple sensors throughout the piping system.
Pumps are lead/lag operated based on run time.

Condenser Water System


The condenser water system consists of (4) dual cell factory packaged, counterflow cooling
towers (includes one standby) located at grade to the South of the CUP building. The
towers are sized to meet the heat rejection of the centrifugal chiller plant and are provided
with VFDs for energy efficiency at part load conditions. The system is designed for a
supply temperature of 84F and a return temperature of 97F. Temperatures were selected
using an energy model in concert with the chilled water system to provide optimum overall
plant efficiency.
The cooling towers are housed on a concrete basin which continuously drains to a concrete
sump pit directly below the CUP floor slab so no equalizer or integral basins are required.
Each tower is provided with an access ladder with associated platform for maintenance.
Additionally, a steel service platform is provided between each pair of towers to provide
additional access. The concrete basin improves system longevity, reduces maintenance,
and provides better cold weather/shutdown protection by allowing all tower water to drain to
the concrete sump pit when the towers are inactive. The basin system is shrouded from to
keep out excessive unwanted rain, sunlight, and debris from the basin. The condenser
water sump pit is split into two sections to allow annual cleaning in one section while the
other section remains online. Each section is provided with access hatch and permanent
ladder for any maintenance needs. The concrete sump has been sized to allow expansion
of the tower system to include an additional tower of equal size.
Condenser water treatment is provided by (2) chemical free magnetic pulse system
chambers installed on the two main condenser water pipes serving the cooling towers. The
system is designed to save water and eliminate the use of chemicals. Water savings is first
accomplished by allowing higher cycles of concentration to be run in the condenser water
loop than a conventional chemical system. Secondly, the absence of chemicals in the
water allows the blowdown water to be harvested and used for site irrigation, saving
valuable potable water. Each chiller has been provided with marine water boxes on the
condenser barrel to ease maintenance and cleaning.

6.4.1.2.1

Condenser Water System Pumping and Distribution

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HVAC

The condenser water pumping system consists of (4) vertical turbine condenser water
pumps (includes one standby). The condenser water pumps are floor mounted on the slab
directly above a concrete sump which stores the condenser water during operation and for
winter time non-operational drain back. The pumps, chillers, and cooling towers served by
a common supply and return header that allow any pump to run with any chiller or cooling
tower to provide a higher level of redundancy. A life cycle cost analysis was used to
optimally size the common pipe headers to allow future growth of an equally sized chiller,
pump, and cooling tower while still meeting the project energy goals, limiting first costs, and
meeting industry standard pipe sizing criteria. Isolation valves and blind flanges have been
provided at the chiller and condenser water pump headers to ease future expansion; the
cooling tower header in the tower yard is provided with a blind flange only.
A centrifugal solid separator is provided to remove excess suspended solids in the water
that are a part of the normal operation of the chemical free water treatment system. The
separator has been provided in conjunction with sump sweeper piping to keep the chemical
free system particulate waterborne such that it can be more effectively removed from the
system.
6.4.1.2.2

Condenser Water System Piping Seismic Design


This project is categorized as Seismic Design Category A. Because of this category all
condenser water system components are exempt from seismic analysis per ASCE 7-05
Chapter 13.

6.4.1.2.3

Condenser Water System Mission Critical Provisions


To handle the mission critical needs of the facility as prescribed by the UFC, (2) cooling
towers (includes standby), (2) condenser water pumps (includes standby), the chemical
free condenser water treatment system, and associated solid separator and sump sweeper
systems are backed up by the emergency generator. All necessary control panels and
EMCS systems are provided with UPS back up power in addition to the emergency
generator.

6.4.1.2.4

Condenser Water System Basis of Operation


The following sections are meant to give a brief overview of the planned operational
approach for these key systems. Refer to the full sequence of operations included in the
specifications for complete detail.

6.4.1.2.4.1

6.4.1.2.4.2

Condenser Water Pumps


Condenser water pumps are enabled when there is a call for a chiller to come online
and start once the chiller and cooling tower isolation valves are proven open.
Pumps are staged on/off based on the number of chillers operating.
Active pump VFDs receive a common signal from the EMCS to maintain design flow
through the chillers.
Pumps are be lead/lag operated based on run time.
Cooling Towers
Cooling towers are enabled when there is a call for a chiller to run.
Towers are staged based on the number of chillers in operation.
Tower fans are enabled when the isolation valve for the associated tower is proven
open and the leaving water temperature is above setpoint.

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PART VI

6.4.1.2.4.3

6.4.1.3

IFC SUBMITTAL
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HVAC
Active tower fan VFDs receive a common signal from the EMCS to maintain leaving
water setpoint as measured by a sensor downstream of the condenser water pumps.
Tower inlet valves close and tower bypass valve opens to divert water directly to the
concrete sump pit when tower leaving water is below setpoint during low ambient
temperature conditions. The reverse occurs once leaving tower water temperature
rises to setpoint.
A leaving tower water temperature setpoint reset schedule is provided for condenser
relief to maximize energy efficiency.
Cooling towers are be lead/lag operated based on run time.
Condenser Water Treatment
The Pulse Pure chemical free water treatment system is enabled whenever a
condenser water pump is enabled.
The Pulse Pure system monitors the condenser water conductivity and open the blow
down valve as required to maintain target cycles of concentration. The blowdown
water is harvested and sent to the site irrigation tank to use for landscaping irrigation. If
the irrigation tank is full, the EMCS alternatively dumps the blowdown into the sanitary
system.
The main condenser water pumps continuously circulate flow through the solid
separator located directly behind the pumps. The filtered water then pumps down into
each sump pit and connect to a sweeper piping system to flush particulate back
towards the main system pumps. A signal from the EMCS routinely opens a blowdown
valve on the solid separator to discharge to sanitary. This small amount of blowdown is
not suitable for irrigation, as it contains high amounts of suspended solids.

Steam Boiler System


The primary heating system consists of (4) dual-fuel forced draft high pressure steam
boilers (includes one standby) that are sized to meet the heating hot water, process steam,
humidification and domestic hot water loads for the medical center. Space for a future
steam boiler of similar size and capacity is included within the boiler room. The primary
steam header, deaerator, boiler feedwater system, surge tank and blowdown separator unit
are also sized to accommodate the future boiler addition.
Each steam boiler is 350 boiler horse-power (bHP) for a total initial installed plant capacity
of 46,865 MMBH of steam (1,400 bHP) at 100 psig for a total estimated design load of
35,150 MMBH. The size of the heating plant was established through detailed load
calculations that are available in the calculations design binder submitted under separate
cover. Each fire tube boiler includes unit mounted controls, low NOx burner, and stack
economizer to achieve the 85% minimum boiler efficiency required in the RFP. The boiler
room is designed with concrete trenches to house the blowdown piping. Fuel oil, natural
gas, and other related boiler trim piping is routed overhead. This feature improves access
and maintainability of the boilers for the maintenance personnel. In addition, a steel
catwalk is provided above the boilers to provide access to the stack economizers and
isolation gate valves.

6.4.1.3.1

Steam Distribution System


High pressure steam is routed from each boiler to a common header located inside the
boiler room. The majority of the steam is then routed towards a pressure reducing station
that provides 40 psi steam for the heat exchangers that produce the heating hot water and
domestic hot water for the facility. The remaining steam is routed to a separate pressure

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reducing station also located in the boiler plant. The resulting 90 psi steam is routed
through the utility tunnel to the main facility where it is distributed and further reduced in
pressure for use with the clean steam humidification system, kitchen equipment, and
central sterile equipment. To improve the energy performance and reduce operating costs,
steam condensate is collected from the main facility and returned to the central plant for
reuse.
Pipe sloping, drip legs, steam traps, and system isolation valves are provided in
compliance with industry standards to insure proper system operation and maintenance.
6.4.1.3.2

Steam Distribution Seismic Design


This project is categorized as Seismic Design Category A. Because of this category all
mechanical steam system components are exempt from seismic analysis per ASCE 7-05
Chapter 13.

6.4.1.3.3

Steam System Piping Thermal Expansion Design


Steam system piping has been analyzed for thermal expansion control. Calculations are
provided to indicate necessary control features required to maintain piping system within
ASME B31.9 maximum allowable stresses. Piping anchors, guides, expansion loops, and
other control features are indicated on plan drawings and dimensional details are provided
as dictated by calculations.

6.4.1.3.4

Steam Boiler System Mission Critical Provisions


Two boilers (one to run, one to standby) are provided with emergency generator power
along with their associated support equipment to meet the mission critical needs of the
facility. In addition each boiler is dual fuel and is capable of running off of natural gas or #2
fuel oil. A piped portable canister for standby propane pilot ignition system facilitates the
ignition of the #2 fuel source when natural gas is not available. All EMCS control panels
are provided with UPS backed up power to provide reliable transition between normal and
emergency modes.

6.4.1.3.5

Steam Boiler Basis of Operation


The following sections are meant to give a brief overview of the planned operational
approach for these key systems. Refer to the full sequence of operations included in the
specifications for complete detail.

6.4.1.3.5.1

6.4.1.3.5.2

Boiler Operation
Upon a call for steam, one of the central boilers and all associated steam equipment
enables.
There is a plant master control panel that lead/lags boilers and interface with the
individual boiler control panels, deaerator, surge tank, and EMCS.
Each Steam Boiler has individual burner safety and capacity control panels and control
to maintain plant steam pressure setpoint.
Additional boilers are enabled by the plant master control panel to meet system
demand and maintain plant steam pressure setpoint.
Primary fuel source is natural gas (NG), in the event of a loss of NG, the secondary fuel
source is (#2 fuel oil) is enabled. See section 6.4.1.5 for fuel oil system.
Surge Tank Operation

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The condensate surge tank is sized for approximately 10 min system storage, to allow
for steady feedwater system control. The surge tank and deaerator have been
provided as a combination duo tank unit.
Transfer pumps are packaged with the surge tank, and enable to maintain water level
within the deaerator.
Deaerator Operation
The deaerator tank is sized for approximately 10 min system storage, to allow for
steady feedwater system control.
Low pressure steam is used to deaerate the low pressure condensate and makeup
water to the tank.
The level controller sends signal to allow transfer pumps to enable, and a makeup
water control valve modulates to maintain water level setpoint.
Feed water pumps are packaged with the deaerator, and enable whenever a boiler is
enabled.
Feed water control valves at each boiler modulates to maintain water level within the
boiler.

Heating Hot Water System


The heating hot water system is located in the central plant boiler room and is comprised of
(3) steam-to-heating hot water heat exchangers (includes one standby). Space for a future
heat exchanger of similar size and capacity is included within the boiler room. The heating
hot water system was specifically evaluated and chosen to remain in the central plant
(rather than distributed in the medical center) to integrate the heating hot water system with
other heat recovery features, to centralize the operation and maintenance of the heating
system equipment, and to optimize the use of the mechanical space for the facility.
The heart of the heating hot water system is the steam-to-heating hot water heat
exchangers that are each sized for 60% of the building heating load capacity. The heating
hot water system is designed at a maximum supply temperature of 140F supply to
integrate with the heat recovery chillers, for the possible future integration of a solar hot
water heating system (solar-ready), and to provide good controllability by the system
control valves.

6.4.1.4.1

Heating Hot Water System Pumping and Distribution


The heating hot water pumping system is comprised of (3) vertical inline pumps (includes
one standby) in a variable primary arrangement. Each pump is sized for 60% of the system
flow and is provided with a VFD for part load energy efficiency. The heating hot water
piping is routed to the main hospital and clinics via the walk-able utility tunnel.
The pumps and heat exchangers are served by a common supply and return header that
allows any pump to run with any heat exchanger to provide a higher level of redundancy. A
life cycle cost analysis was used to optimally size the common pipe headers to allow future
growth of an equally sized heat exchanger and pump while still meeting the project energy
goals, limiting first costs, and meeting industry standard pipe sizing criteria. Isolation
valves and blind flanges have been provided to facilitate such a future expansion.
The major consumers of the heating hot water are the reheat coils for the constant volume
terminal boxes that serve the majority of the hospital/clinic occupied spaces and the radiant
floor heating that serves the main Concourse, Lobby, and Dining areas. Each of the

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custom air handling units (AHUs) are provided with a preheat coil, but they are not used in
normal operation as the energy recovery wheels meet the preheating demands (refer to
6.4.2.6). The heating hot water system utilizes standard 2-way heating control valves along
with industry standard coil connection specialties (refer to drawings and specifications for
more details).
Upon return to the CUP a portion of the hot water return water is diverted from the main
return line to the HRC system. The HRC system has (2) vertical inline pumps (includes
one standby) to pump water from the main return hot water line through the heat recovery
chiller and back to the main return line in a side stream arrangement to preheat the return
water before it passes through the main heating hot water heat exchangers. In route to the
HRC the hot water flows through a 3-way valve where it can be diverted to a water to water
double wall shell and tube heat exchanger to preheat the domestic hot water for the facility
if the demand is present. The HRC is designed to heat the water up from 110F to 140F
while providing 268 Tons of chilled water cooling capacity on the evaporator side. By
decreasing the demand on the heating hot water and domestic hot water steam heat
exchangers, load is shed from the steam boiler system providing considerable energy
savings due to the ability of the HRC to produce heat at a much higher COP than the steam
boilers.
System flow meters have been provided to allow energy efficient control strategies, system
diagnostics, and for real time building loads. A line size dirt/air separator, expansion tanks,
system relief valves, and chemical feeder are provided in accordance with good design
practice and is sized to meet the project needs. A minimum flow bypass line with control
valve is provided to protect the pumps during low demand operations.
6.4.1.4.2

Heating Hot Water System Piping Seismic Design


This project is categorized as Seismic Design Category A. Because of this category all
heating hot water system components are exempt from seismic analysis per ASCE 7-05
Chapter 13.

6.4.1.4.3

Heating Hot Water System Piping Thermal Expansion Design


Heating Hot Water system piping has been analyzed for thermal expansion control for the
CUP and tunnel portions of the project and deemed no additional provisions required. For
the DP-5 package the heating hot water mains for the basement and the main riser to the
bed tower penthouse have been analyzed to ensure the piping system is within ASME
B31.9 maximum allowable stresses. The piping for these areas are fully coordinated in the
fabrication models to ensure accurate modeling in the stress analysis software. Piping
anchors, guides, expansion loops, and other control features are indicated on plan
drawings.

6.4.1.4.4

Heating Hot Water System Mission Critical Provisions


(2) Heating hot water pumps (includes one standby) are provided on the emergency
generator. One pump is capable of meeting the mission critical loads of the facility as
defined by UFC 4-510-01. All EMCS control panels are provided with UPS backed up
power to provide reliable transition between normal and emergency modes.

6.4.1.4.5

Heating Hot Water System Basis of Operation

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The following sections are meant to give a brief overview of the planned operational
approach for these key systems. Refer to the full sequence of operations included in the
specifications for complete detail.
6.4.1.4.5.1

6.4.1.4.5.2

6.4.1.5

Steam to Hot Water Heat Exchangers


All steam to hot water heat exchanger are enabled to run 24/7.
Steam temperature control valves are provided in a 1/3, 1/3, 1/3 load arrangement and
modulate in sequence to maintain leaving heating hot water temperature setpoint.
Heating Hot Water Pumps
Lead heating hot water pumps are enabled to run 24/7 and initially start after steam to
hot water isolation valve is proven to be open.
Pumps are staged on/off based on system flowrate.
Active pump VFDs receive a common signal from the EMCS to maintain minimum
differential pressure setpoints at multiple sensors throughout the piping system.
Pumps are lead/lag operated based on run time.
A low flow bypass valve is provided to maintain minimum flow through the hot water
pumps. If a hot water pump is at minimum speed and the system differential pressure
is above setpoint the control valve modulates to maintain setpoint. If the differential
setpoint drops below setpoint the valve modulates fully closed before the pump VFD
rises from its minimum.

Fuel Oil System


The onsite fuel oil system provides #2 fuel oil to the emergency generators and boilers as
prescribed in UFC-4-510 and RFP. The entire fuel system is contained within the CUP
area of the facility. The fuel storage consists of (2) 35,000 gal underground double wall
storage tanks and dedicated day tanks for each generator and one for the boiler plant.
Each main tank is equipped with (2) submersible fuel pumps (includes one standby) that
provide redundancy and eliminate the potential operational issues associated with below
atmospheric suction piping. The main tank pumps supply fuel to the day tanks upon a call
for fuel as indicated by float controllers mounted in each day tank. The boiler system has
an additional duplex pump set that provides a constant pressurized fuel supply loop to the
boiler plant when the plant is operating on the secondary fuel source. The fuel oil piping is
constructed of UL listed buried double wall flexible piping below grade and transitions to
welded steel once inside the CUP.
Each day tank is double wall construction and provided with a return/overflow system that
energizes a return pump that will pump down the day tank once the level indicator reaches
95% fill. The fuel will be returned to the main tank that is currently active for supply
pumping.
Leak detection alarms are provided for the secondary containment of each dedicated day
tank; the interstitial space of the main below grade fuel tanks; in each connection sump of
the main fuel oil tanks; in each pipe transition sump; and in the bottom of the skid for the
boiler supply and return pumps.
A dedicated gravity flow surface mounted remote fill port is provided for each below grade
tank and located outside of the CUP fuel yard in proximity to Railhead Drive to the South of
the campus. A truck pull off area is provided with a spill containment sump in compliance
with EPA CFR 112. System is provided with audible and visual overfill alarms along with a

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mechanical overfill prevention valve to prevent overfilling the main tanks. The remote fill
control panel has the ability to display of current fuel levels.
A fuel oil polishing system is provided to filter out any water or contaminants from each of
the main fuel tanks. Controls are provided to cycle through each of the tanks for an
adjustable amount of time.
System controls include a tank selection software system that manages the sequencing of
all pumps and motorized valves for the supply and return system. Fuel oil leakage alarms,
pump failure alarms, critical low and critical high fuel level alarms are all available locally to
the control package and are available to the EMCS system as well. Additionally a fuel oil
inventory system is provided that can provide reports on the current fuel storage levels.
6.4.1.5.1

Fuel Oil System Piping Seismic Design


This project is categorized as Seismic Design Category A. Because of this category all fuel
oil components are exempt from seismic analysis per ASCE 7-05 Chapter 13.

6.4.1.5.2

Fuel Oil System Mission Critical Provisions


The entire fuel oil system is backed up by the emergency generator system to allow full
operational capabilities in case of a mission critical event.

6.4.1.6

CUP HVAC Systems

6.4.1.6.1

Chiller Room
The chiller room is located in the CUP and is heated and cooled via (2) horizontal blower
coil units hung from the structure above. The blower coils are sized to handle the heat
gain of the non-hermetic York chiller motors.
The room is continuously exhausted via a roof mounted exhaust fan to meet ventilation
requirements. Outside air is drawn in from a fixed open louver to the outdoors. In the
event of a refrigerant leak a refrigerant detection system has been provided which will
increase the room exhaust to be in compliance with ASHRAE 15.

6.4.1.6.2

Boiler Room
The boiler room is cooled and ventilated via (2) roof mounted exhaust fans and fixed open
louvers to provide make up air. The intake louvers are sized per NFPA requirements for
boiler combustion air make up with one louver residing within 1' of the floor slab and the
other 1' from the roof structure. During winter operation the boiler combustion air is
tempered by (2) horizontal hot water unit heaters mounted at the louver intakes. Hot water
unit heaters are also provided as required within the room to supplement the radiated heat
from the steam boilers.
Motorized dampers are not provided for the boiler combustion air make up louvers due to
the mission critical nature of the room. Failure of actuators or end switches to operate
correctly could compromise the ability of the boilers to operate causing a dangerous
situation for the facility.

6.4.1.6.3

Generator Rooms
Each generator room is provided with fixed open louvers sized to make up the generator
radiator and combustion air requirements. Summer ventilation is provided via a roof

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mounted exhaust fan in each generator room controlled by room temperature. A hot water
unit heater is provided for each generator room and is sized to maintain the room at 55F
when the generators are not in operation.
Motorized dampers are not provided for the louvers due to the mission critical nature of the
room. Failure of actuators or end switches to operate correctly could compromise the
ability of the generators to operate causing a dangerous situation for the facility. Gravity
backdraft dampers are provided to help limit infiltration while providing a failsafe pathway
for the generator combustion and radiator cooling airflows.
6.4.1.6.4

Main Elect Rooms


The main electric rooms within the CUP are heated (where required) and cooled via blower
coil units with hot and chilled water coils. Ventilation is provided to each room as required
by ASHRAE 62.1 via a dedicated constant air valve served from P-AHU-1. The ventilation
air also serves to provide slight positive pressure relative to the outdoors.

6.4.1.6.5

Medium Voltage Switchgear Room with battery storage


One of the medium voltage switchgear rooms contains battery storage for UPS and is
provided with space conditioning, as well as code compliant ventilation provided by P-AHU1. The exhaust fan is interlocked with the charging equipment as required by the UFC.

6.4.1.6.6

CUP Program For Design Spaces


A vertical, chilled water, variable air volume (VAV) AHU with terminal reheat boxes are
provided to heat and cool the office spaces within the CUP. The system is provided with
minimum outside air, with no heat recovery, and has fully ducted returns. A roof mounted
exhaust fan is provided for toilet rooms, janitor closets, etc. as required to meet UFC
general exhaust guidelines and/or good industry practice. The hazardous materials room
and paint prep room are held at a negative pressure relative to its surroundings and
provided with dedicated exhaust fans.

6.4.2

Hospital/Clinic Building HVAC Systems

6.4.2.1

Hospital/Clinic General Spaces Supply Air System


The RFP required that an AHU be limited to a smoke zone or a department boundary,
whichever was smaller. As a result, there was a high quantity of units that would have
been required varying significantly in capacity. Each unit then would have had to be
individually ducted to the applicable zone. This would have resulted in a system that was
not ideal in regards to life cycle costs, serviceability, maintainability, and redundancy.
The design build team developed an alternative approach that provides enhancements in
each of these categories. In addition, it meets or exceeds all of the code requirements in
regards to the life safety of the occupants. Life safety is paramount in this facility, and
should not be compromised. The proposed system uses smoke dampers to isolate smoke
zones in lieu of dedicated AHUs per zone. This meets the intent of all applicable code
provisions, and provides the user with a simple, robust means of reacting to incidents within
a smoke zone.
The proposed system is much less complicated, easier to install and operate, and provides
benefits to the owner for the life of the facility. A complete white paper titled Air Handling

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Unit Configuration has been submitted in response to RFI #79 that goes into depth the
advantages of the alternative system provided.
The proposed mechanical system is a 100% DOAS with custom chilled water air handling
units with duct zoning that provides the capability to isolate each department. The system
provides the following benefits to CRDAMCR:

Improves indoor air quality by continuously exceeding the minimum outside air
ventilation standards required by the UFC and ASHRAE.
Mitigates risk associated with airborne infection by providing 100% outside air and
eliminating recirculation of air.
Maximizes system flexibility for future renovations with the capability to achieve all UFC
or ASHRAE ventilation requirements for any space type without modifications.
Exceeds the minimum USGBC energy savings and contributes to LEED Gold
Certification.
Exceeds the EPACT 2005 energy saving goal of 30% lower than ASHRAE Standard
90.1-2004 in a lifecycle cost-effective manner
Achieves the 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA 2007) energy savings
goal lower than the database for similar projects in a lifecycle cost effective manner.
Incorporates the Integrated Building Systems (IBS) design intent by utilizing identical
custom air handling units throughout the project with a headered ductwork
arrangement that allows for equipment redundancy and ease of maintenance
Provides accessible and logical distribution network throughout the interstitial zone to
meet the IBS intent.

The hospital and clinic mechanical systems utilize outside air pre-conditioning sections that
recover the energy of the building exhaust air to pre-condition the outside air. These
outside air pre-conditioning sections are located in mechanical penthouses at the roof of
the clinics and patient bed tower, and in the main third floor mechanical room of the
hospital, adjacent to the air handling units. Energy recovery is achieved through the use of
enthalpy wheels with proven long term performance, minimal maintenance, and consistent
reliability. As added value to the Government and a commitment to the quality of this
product, a 10-year full service manufacturers warranty for the enthalpy wheels has been
provided.
After passing through the enthalpy wheels, the pre-conditioned outside air continues into
identical 45,000 cfm custom chilled water air-handlers manufactured by Temtrol. For each
mechanical room several air handlers are grouped together to feed a common duct header
that then route out of the mechanical room to serve each occupied smoke zone. The
headered arrangement allows for multiple levels of redundancy. Each central air handling
unit has an array of 9 supply fan cells, where 8 are active and one is standby. This
redundancy allows for an air handling unit to maintain system airflow even in the event of a
fan failure or maintenance outage. Secondly if an entire unit were to go off line for
maintenance, the other units can ramp up to help support it to allow all zones to remain
occupied until maintenance is complete.
After leaving the associated mechanical room, the ducting proceeds through the IBS level
to feed each of the building's smoke zones. The duct layout is arranged such that a single
smoke damper (or pair for some zones to enhance the duct layout) can be closed to isolate
a given smoke zone from other smoke zones served by the same system. All ductwork is
sealed to SMACNA seal class A standards and is constructed with spiral where space
permits with the remaining ductwork constructed rectangular.
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Constant volume terminal hot water reheat boxes located in the IBS level are provided for
the final distribution into the occupied spaces. These boxes are located at chest level in
the IBS for ease of maintenance and have rigid ducting downstream that penetrates the
IBS floor slab down into the connection zone. Fire stopping is provided for each duct
penetration through the IBS slab. Flex duct is provided in the connection zone to make the
final attachment to ceiling mounted supply diffusers.
General building humidification is accomplished with injection of chemical free steam at the
central air handling units, and is designed to maintain 30% RH for the building. Additional
trim humidifiers are provided for NYIC1 and NYIR1 spaces as required to meet room
design criteria in UFC 4-510-01, Appendix A.
Outside air intakes are located in compliance with both healthcare criteria and with AntiTerrorism criteria. Intakes for the main hospital building are located on the 3rd floor and
Bedtower Penthouse level. OA intakes for the Clinic buildings are located on the 2nd and
3rd floor Penthouse levels.
6.4.2.2

General Exhaust Air System


The general exhaust system for the facility is integral to the 100% DOAS system described
above. Each space is provided with exhaust grilles with ductwork that extends up through
the connection zone into the distribution zone. Once in the distribution zone, the exhaust
air is collected in sub-branch ducts then headered together in an exhaust main that serves
each smoke zone. At the boundary of each smoke zone a smoke damper is provided to
isolate the smoke zone. To control the exhaust volume for each smoke zone the smoke
damper is provided with modulation capability to exhaust the design airflow volume as
indicated by a duct mounted airflow measuring station. By controlling exhaust airflow down
to the smoke zone level the facility has the ability to make easier future modifications to
space airflows to meet future needs without having to rebalance the entire system.
Downstream of the smoke damper the exhaust main is then tied in with other exhaust
mains from other smoke zones and is routed back to its associated mechanical room.
Once to the mechanical room all the system exhaust is pulled through the enthalpy wheels
to reclaim the valuable energy to precondition the incoming outside air.
The motive force for the exhaust system is provided by large vane axial exhaust fans
mounted within custom housings. The housings are custom built for each mechanical room
and are built with double wall insulated panels for rigidity and acoustic attenuation. The
fans pull the air through the entire exhaust system and then discharges the air first through
a bank of silencers then out through exhaust louvers located in each penthouse and the
main level 3 mechanical room.
Dedicated exhaust systems such as isolation rooms, isolation anterooms, cylinder storage
rooms, hazardous materials rooms, the morgue, sterilizer hoods, cart washers, dryers,
prosthetics/lamination shops, radiology hot labs, nuclear medicine decay storage and
injection rooms, decontamination shower, the dental prosthodontics lab, and anterooms
exhaust is provided with dedicated exhaust systems per the UFC and be exhausted directly
to the outdoors without passing through the enthalpy wheels.
General building exhaust air outlets are located to exceed code minimum separation from
building outside air intakes.
General

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6.4.2.3

General Supply and Exhaust Smoke Damper Operation


Each smoke zone within the facility has the ability to be isolated via duct mounted smoke
dampers or in some cases a combination fire smoke damper. These dampers are fail
closed and are primarily controlled by the EMCS with dampers in the supply being two
position and the dampers in the exhaust being modulating to maintain constant exhaust air
volumes. The fire alarm system has a relay wired in series with the EMCS power wiring
allowing it to break the power connection when commanded by the fire alarm system
causing the damper to close. The associated duct smoke detectors are wired back to the
fire alarm system such that if a detector in the supply or exhaust senses smoke then the
fire alarm system closes all the associated supply and exhaust smoke dampers for a given
smoke zone. As an added provision the fire alarm system is programed to provide a
manual flush mode of a given smoke zone that allows the smoke detector to be overridden
off for an adjustable time frame and allow smoke to be flushed from a space after an event.
This provision is not required by code and is solely provided as an additional capability.

6.4.2.4

System Air Balancing


All medical spaces served by the 100% DOAS units are balanced to meet the UFC
guidelines for pressurization. Positive and negative rooms are hard balanced with an
appropriate airflow offset between the constant volume supply and exhaust provided to the
space. The offset provided is determined via calculation based on the details of the door
provided for a given space. Neutral rooms have the supply and exhaust volumes match
one another. Corridors are hard balanced to provide a positive offset to maintain an overall
positive pressure in each building with respect to the outdoors. An overall positive building
pressure helps save energy by limiting unwanted humidity and air infiltration.
Similar to the other medical spaces, the isolation rooms are hard balanced with an offset
between the constant volume supply and exhaust provided to the room. The offset are
based on a calculated pressure drop based on the door characteristics. The pressure
differential between the room and adjacent corridor or anteroom are monitored to ensure
safety to the patients and hospital staff. Refer to the associated sequences of operation
and P&IDs for detailed information on pressure monitoring approach, ranges, and alarm
points.
Air Balance Tables are provided in the DP-5 calculations binder. Airflows and associated
balances have been provided to coordinate with corridor door locations. Overall smoke
zone pressurization is provided by applying an offset to the exhaust air flow station volume
flow rate setpoint. See sequence of operation for more detail.

6.4.2.5

Enthalpy Wheels / Custom Housing


The heart of the 100% DOAS system is the custom enthalpy wheel housings where the
energy exchange occurs between the incoming outside air and the outgoing exhaust air
streams. These systems are located in each of the penthouses and the main level 3
mechanical room. While different in size for each mechanical room the concept is the
same for each instance. Each housing is comprised of large enthalpy wheels mounted in
the center of a housing made of double wall insulated panels. The housings are further
split by a horizontal platform that separate the exhaust deck from the outside air deck.
The lower level of the housing is the outside air deck. Outside air is pulled in through fixed
exterior louvers and then passes through a MERV 9 pre-filter before passing through the
rotating enthalpy wheels. After passing through the wheels, the air then flows through the
opposite side of the housing directly into the back of the system AHUs for further

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conditioning before feeding the distribution ductwork. Access doors are provided for entry
into both sides of the enthalpy wheels for maintenance.
The upper level of the housing is the exhaust air deck. Exhaust air is pulled into the
housing from the exhaust duct system in a counterflow direction opposite of the outside air
below. The air passes through the enthalpy wheels and once on the opposite side is drawn
into the neighboring exhaust fan housing for expulsion from the building. Access to the
exhaust deck is provided via ladders from the outside air deck below.
6.4.2.6

100% DOAS Custom Air Handling Units


A major goal of the airside design is to provide a flexible system that minimizes
maintenance complexity while providing system redundancy. To meet these goals each
Temtrol custom air handling unit is of a typical size and configuration. In lieu of providing
air handling data from two manufacturers, per Attachment H, Temtrol was determined to be
the Users preferred manufacturer at the design after award design charrettes. Each unit
contains the following components:

Low leakage inlet isolation damper


Preheat coil
Humidifier section
Cooling coil with copper tubes and aluminum fins
UVGI lights
Access sections
Direct drive supply fans installed in a fan array (Fan Wall), N+1 arrangement.
Each supply fan is provided with an integral back draft damper
Supply fan inlet airflow measuring probes
Variable frequency drives
High capacity, high efficiency MERV 14final filters
Smoke rated discharge isolation damper
Appropriate air and coil appurtenances

Acoustic analysis indicated that unit mounted silencers are not required for the AHUs that
are served by the south bank of enthalpy wheels in the Level 3 mechanical room as
assumed during preliminary design. While the main focus of the fan arrays are to provide
additional system level redundancy, a secondary benefit is the reduced overall sound
power that fan arrays provide in comparison to a typical single or dual fan AHU. The lower
sound power from these units helps mitigate downstream attenuation to help save energy.
Refer to Mechanical Calculations binder for full acoustic analysis.
6.4.2.7

Operating Room System


The Operating Room (OR) system is comprised of (4) chilled water AHUs, with each AHU
serving (2) ORs. The units are located in the main Level 3 mechanical room and are tied
into the 100% outside air preconditioning system similar to the main hospital systems. The
associated supply and exhaust ductwork to each OR is routed in the IBS space above the
ORs. Each OR is provided with a variable volume terminal box with reheat capability so
that each OR is its own independent zone. The terminal boxes are programmed to run at a
constant volume for occupied or unoccupied airflow. Final filters are provided for all supply
diffusers in the ORs and are diffuser mounted.

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The exhaust from each OR is collected via low wall exhaust grilles and is regulated by a
pressure independent variable volume exhaust valve box for each OR allowing
independent control. The supply and exhaust valves are programmed for an airflow offset
to maintain a positive space pressure. Downstream of the exhaust valves the exhaust flow
ties into (2) independent exhaust headers that route back to the north group of enthalpy
wheel housings in the Level 3 mechanical room. The exhaust is routed through a
dedicated enthalpy wheel, which is isolated from the main general exhaust system, for
energy recovery. After exiting the enthalpy wheel housing the air is ducted to (2) dedicated
inline mixed flow exhaust fans and is expelled from the building via wall louvers. Each fan
is sized to handle (4) occupied and (4) unoccupied ORs to provide additional redundancy.
Humidification is accomplished with injection of chemical free steam at each of the (4)
operating room air handling units, and are designed to maintain 30% RH for the rooms.
Each operating room is provided with a pressure monitoring system to ensure that each OR
remains pressurized to the dirty corridor. Refer to the associated sequences of operation
and P&IDs for detailed information on pressure monitoring approach, ranges, and alarm
points.
6.4.2.7.1

Operating Room NFPA 99 Smoke Purge System


A smoke exhaust fan system has been provided for the OR suite for NFPA 99 compliance.
The system is comprised of a single smoke rated fan located on the roof over the OR suite
and exhaust duct routed to each OR with a dedicated control damper for each OR. If
smoke is detected by a room area smoke detector then the smoke exhaust fan is energized
and the associated control damper is opened by the EMCS and controlled to maintain the
normally positively pressurized OR into a negatively pressurized space to prevent smoke
from spreading out of the room into adjacent spaces. The supply and exhaust system
transitions into unoccupied mode during this event.

6.4.2.7.2

Operating Room Emergency Air System Shutdown Operation


During an Emergency Air System Shutdown the UFC requires for Operating Rooms to
continue to remain active. The OR suites continue to operate, but in a 100% re-circulation
mode. In such an event the supply and exhaust terminal air valves for each OR are
temporarily put into maintenance mode. Once shutdown the exhaust fans are deenergized and their associated isolation dampers close. At the same time the exhaust fans
are de-energized the outside air dampers on the AHUs close while the emergency return
dampers on the AHUs open. Once all dampers are proven in their new positions the
temporary shutdown override is removed and ORs are allowed to go back into occupied
mode in a staged manner.

6.4.2.8

C-Section Rooms
The C-Section room is served by a dedicated chilled water variable volume AHU with back
up capability during maintenance events from the Lvl 3 central air handling system. Each
C-Section room is provided with a variable volume terminal box with reheat capability so
that each room is its own independent zone. The terminal boxes are programmed to run at
a constant volume for occupied times and constant volume but at a reduced rate for
unoccupied times. Final filters are provided for all supply diffusers in the C-Section rooms
and are diffuser mounted. To meet the UFC the C-Section AHU has the capability to go
into full recirculation mode during an ATFP event.

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The exhaust from each C-Section room is collected via low wall exhaust grilles and is
regulated by a pressure independent variable volume exhaust valve box for each room
allowing independent control. The supply and exhaust valves are programmed for an
airflow offset to maintain a positive space pressure. Downstream of the exhaust valves the
exhaust from each room is headered together and routes to a dedicated exhaust fan
located in the Lvl 3 Mech Rm. For redundancy the exhaust can be temporarily routed to
the Lvl3 North general exhaust system during times of fan maintenance..
Each C-Section room is provided with a pressure monitoring system to ensure that each
OR remains pressurized to surrounding corridor. Refer to the associated sequences of
operation and P&IDs for detailed information on pressure monitoring approach, ranges, and
alarm points.
6.4.2.8.1

C-Section Room NFPA 99 Smoke Purge System


A smoke exhaust fan system has been provided for the C-Section room suite for NFPA 99
compliance. The system is comprised of a single smoke rated fan located on the roof over
the labor and delivery area and exhaust duct routed to each C-Section room with a
dedicated control damper for each room. If smoke is detected by a room area smoke
detector then the smoke exhaust fan is energized and the associated control damper is
opened by the EMCS and controlled to maintain the normally positively pressurized OR into
a negatively pressurized space to prevent smoke from spreading out of the room into
adjacent spaces. The supply and exhaust system transition into unoccupied mode during
this event.

6.4.2.9

Pathology HVAC System


The pathology department is located on the North end of Level 2 of the main hospital and
consists of offices, BSL-2 labs and support spaces, and a BSL-3 lab and support spaces.
The entire pathology department is provided with supply air from the main 100% DOAS
system located on in the Level 3 main mechanical room. The BSL-2 general lab and office
spaces are provided with standard air terminal valves similar to the rest of the facility; with
the exception that some BSL-2 labs with hood or equipment exhaust connections are
provided with laboratory grade exhaust valves similar to the BSL-3 described next. The
BSL-3 spaces are provided with quick response, low leakage type laboratory grade valves.
Inherent redundancy is provided for the supply air system due to being fed from a main
supply header consisting of (6) AHUS, all of which have fan arrays. Due to the close
proximity of the department to its associated mechanical room the additional pressure drop
of the laboratory grade air terminal valves are not be the driver in setting the duct static
pressure setpoint to avoid penalizing the project energy goals.
The exhaust system for the pathology department is three tiered. The offices and other
clean support spaces have hard balanced exhaust air that is returned to the Level 3
mechanical room to pass through the main enthalpy wheels for energy recovery similar to
other portions of the project. The BSL-2 labs and associated support spaces are provided
with pressure independent constant volume systems with the use of standard grade
exhaust terminals in rooms without hood or equipment connections and laboratory grade
valves on any rooms with hood or equipment connections. Any UFC required pressure
relationships are provided by providing an offset between the constant volume supply and
exhaust provided for a given room. The offset is determined by calculating the pressure
drop across the associated room doors based on the door characteristics. The general lab
exhaust is routed through the IBS and then up to the roof above the pathology department
and directly exhausted to the outdoors via (2) N+1 redundant exhaust fans sized at 100%

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duty with exhaust stacks to expel the air a minimum of 20' above the roof line. The BSL-3
lab areas are provided with quick response, low leakage type laboratory grade exhaust
valves that track the supply valves to maintain the UFC mandated pressure relationships.
The exhaust is then routed to the roof above the Pathology department, pass through (2)
N+1 redundant (one standby) HEPA filter banks with associated (2) N+1 exhaust fans sized
at 100% duty each before being discharged up and out of exhaust stacks at a minimum of
20' above the roof line. Exhaust connections to any Type II A2 hood, Type II B2 hood,
grossing station, fume hood, or biological safety cabinet in the BSL-2 or BSL-3 is provided
with laboratory grade exhaust valves as described above.
The BSL-3 and portions of the BSL-2 system are provided with a pressure monitoring
system to ensure that each space maintains its design pressurization Refer to the
associated sequences of operation and P&IDs for detailed information on pressure
monitoring approach, ranges, and alarm points.
The BSL-2 and BSL-3 exhaust has been located such that it is located approximately 150 ft
to the east from the closest outside air intake. Additionally being east of the closest outside
air intake means that the north and south prevailing winds take the exhaust flow away from
the building in both instances.
6.4.2.9.1

Pathology HVAC Emergency Air System Shutdown Operation


During an Emergency Air System Shutdown the UFC requires the outside air intakes to be
closed. As a consequence the BSL-2/3 area systems shut down due to the lack of makeup air. During an event the EMCS safely shuts down the lab area so personnel can leave.
The BSL-2/3 spaces will return to a neutral pressure during this mode of operation. The
BSL-3 rooms have been designed to be tightly sealed by utilizing heavy duty door seals,
door bottoms and industrial transfer valves to ensure that there is no reversal of airflow in
BSL-3 space.

6.4.2.10 Lobby/Concourse/Dining Radiant Heating and Cooling System


The Lobby/Concourse/Dining areas of the CRDAMCR project are unique in nature with
respect to the rest of the facility. The area serves as the main entry point into the hospital,
a main pathway for occupants traveling between the clinic and hospital areas, as well as a
main central dining area for the campus. The main north and south walls are heavily
glazed with 30' ceilings. To provide world class comfort and help meet the project energy
goals, a radiant heating and cooling system has been provided for the entire
Lobby/Concourse/Dining area. Radiant heating and cooling is a great fit for high ceiling
areas as it allows conditioning to be focused down at the occupied level while allowing the
unoccupied high ceiling areas to stratify. During the summer months the cooled floor
absorbs the direct radiant solar heat on the South facing glazing and irradiated sky solar
radiation on the North facing glass. During the winter months the heated slab provides
great occupant warmth while being very effective at combating cool drafts from the tall
glazing. The radiant system is zoned into exterior and interior zones similar to a
conventional airside HVAC system to match space usage and exterior loads.
The radiant system is supplemented by the 100% outdoor air DOAS system that serves the
hospital portion of the facility. This system doubles as providing ventilation air for the entire
Lobby/Dining/Concourse area and also provides trim heating and cooling capacity to
supplement the radiant system in high load areas such as the South facing glazing. The
ventilation air is delivered to the space via variable air volume terminal boxes located in the
surrounding IBS that serve wall air distribution grilles. The terminal boxes have a tiered
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operational sequence that includes temperature, carbon dioxide levels, and space humidity
control. The primary control is to maintain space temperature, but the terminals have a
setpoint offset to preferentially load the radiant floor. Secondly the volume is allowed to
reset down based on space carbon dioxide levels when supplemental cooling is not
required as a part of demand controlled ventilation system to save additional energy. The
design allows modulation from the ASHRAE 62.1 minimum outside air rate down to the
area based ventilation rate. Lastly, the supply volume can be reset upwards based on
space humidity levels to ensure the dew point remains within UFC bounds and well below
the slab floor temperature. A relief fan is provided in the ceiling plenum of the dining area
and is modulated to maintain a positive pressure in the lobby area to limit infiltration.
6.4.2.11 Kitchen Exhaust System
The kitchen and servery for CRDAMCR is split between two floors with the main kitchen
located in the Basement and the main servery area located on Level 1. The basement
level also includes the pot wash and ware wash equipment that serves both levels. To help
meet the aggressive energy conservation goals for the facility, an innovative variable
exhaust system is used for the kitchen hoods over the heat and grease producing
equipment. The system modulates the exhaust flow of the hoods with UL listed volume
dampers based on an internal algorithm that takes into account exhaust temperature,
exhaust particulate, and cooking surface temperature. By modulating the exhaust airflows
to better match the actual usage, exhaust fan energy is saved year round for all partial
cooking times. Additionally for further energy savings the make up air for the kitchen
system is also set to track the exhaust volume to save both fan and cooling plant energy.
The terminal boxes for the kitchen are allowed to modulate up from the UFC minimum air
change rate to maintain space temperature or to make up the current hood exhaust
volume. When the kitchen hoods are totally off the terminal boxes go to their UFC
minimums and a general exhaust system exhausts the air to mitigate any odor spread from
the kitchen area to other portions of the building.
The terminal boxes for the servery modulate to maintain space temperature only. Because
the servery is permanently open to the Dinning/Lobby/Concourse area, the remaining make
up air for the hoods is transferred from that area. When the kitchen hoods are totally off the
terminal boxes go to their UFC minimums and any excess air is relieved out of the building
through the Lobby/Dining/Concourse relief air system.
The moisture laden air from the ware wash and pot wash hood equipment is provided with
independent constant volume systems and is enabled continuously to meet UFC air
change requirements.
6.4.2.12 Electric / Telecommunication Rooms
6.4.2.12.1 Main Electric Rooms
The main hospital/clinic electric room located on Lvl 1 of the hospital is provided with 4-pipe
chilled and hot water fan coil units that are installed above access aisles as required to
meet access and NEC requirements. Fan coil units are sized to handle the envelope
transmission loads in addition to the electrical equipment heat gains. To meet the mission
critical provisions as required by the UFC, the fan coil units and associated controls are
backed up with emergency generator power. Ventilation air is provided in compliance with
ASHRAE guidelines via wall mounted supply grilles.

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6.4.2.12.2 Branch Electric Rooms


Branch electric rooms are provided with a cooling only chilled water fan coil unit that is
installed above the door swing in each room. The associated chilled water piping drops
into the room from the IBS above while the condensate piping is run within the wall cavity of
a local wall near the unit down to an approved receptacle in the floor below. To meet the
mission critical provisions as required by the UFC the fan coil units and associated controls
for electric rooms serving mission critical areas are backed up with emergency generator
power.
6.4.2.12.3 Main Telecom Rooms
The Main Communication Room (MCR), Main Telecommunication Room (MTR), and
Telecom Head End Rm located in the basement level of the hospital are provided with
chilled water computer room air handling units (CRAHs) located within the rooms. Each of
the rooms has been provided with an allotment of 60 W/ft, 60 W/ft , and 30 W/ft
respectively to handle the current equipment provided by the DB team and the future
equipment to be provided by the government. The telecom cabinets and associated
cooling system design are arranged in a hot/cold aisle arrangement. The UFC prescribed
temperature of 68F is maintained in the cold aisle that feeds the inlet of server equipment
as recommended by ASHRAE Applications Chapter 19; temperatures in the hot aisles may
be in excess of 68F and dependent on actual telecom equipment loads. Room
dehumidification and humidification is provided from the main hospital 100% DOAS system
via wall mounted supply air grilles. The CRAH is not provided with integral humidifiers or
have reheat capability which saves energy and reduce maintenance costs. To meet the
mission critical provisions as required by the UFC the CRAHs and associated controls are
backed up with emergency generator power. A redundant standby CRAH unit is provided
for each room as required by the RFP.
6.4.2.12.4 Branch Telecom Rooms
Branch telecom rooms are provided with a cooling only chilled water fan coil unit that are
installed above the door swing in each room. The associated chilled water piping drops
into the room from the IBS above while the condensate piping is run within the wall cavity of
a local wall near the unit down to an approved receptacle in the floor below. To meet the
mission critical provisions as required by the UFC the fan coil units and associated controls
for electric rooms serving mission critical areas are backed up with emergency generator
power. Room dehumidification and humidification is provided from the main hospital 100%
DOAS system via wall mounted supply air grilles.
6.4.2.13 Life Safety Systems
6.4.2.13.1 Lobby Smoke Control System
The main entry Lobby, Dining area, and Concourse portion of the facility is considered a
two-story atrium, interconnecting the Floor 1 and Floor 2 of the Hospital and is required to
have a smoke control system per NFPA 92B and 101. To provide the required smoke
exhaust, (7) exhaust fans are provided at the top of the atrium and are to be activated by
the fire alarm control system from a signal from either smoke detector or sprinkler flow
switch. The design intent is for smoke to be pulled from these spaces in a fashion such
that fresh air is drawn in from entry doors with automatic openers commanded by the fire
alarm system in the opposite direction of egress so the fresh air can keep the egress
pathways clear while meeting the NFPA requirement of maintaining the smoke level 6'
minimum above the highest level of exit. The exhaust fans are UL listed for use in a smoke
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exhaust system and is located above the ceiling and accessible via a catwalk from the local
IBS zone. The reflected ceiling plan of the entry Lobby, Dining area, and Concourse is
designed to provide the necessary free area for smoke from the occupied areas to be
pulled vertically into the ceiling plenum where it is drawn over to the intakes of the exhaust
fans and expelled out of the building through dedicated louvered penthouses on the lobby
roof in proximity to the fans below. The calculations for required exhaust volumes and
further detail on life safety systems can be found in the associated narrative.
6.4.2.13.2 Stairwell Pressurization System
Exit stairs 02, 03, and 04 in the hospital are over 75 ft in height and, therefore, require stair
pressurization meeting NFPA 101. Each high-rise hospital stair has an independent
pressurization fan system. Stair 03 and 04 has roof mounted utility set fans that feed a
duct riser that is routed inside of each stairwell behind a chase wall to deliver pressurization
air at multiple vertical points within the stairwell. Stair 02 offsets horizontally on Levels 3
and 4 of the hospital, so to better serve this condition (1) fan is located on the roof of Lvl 6
to feed the upper floors while (1) additional fan is located on the roof of Lvl 3 to feed the
lower floors. The Stair 02 fans have direct injection into the stairwell and do not have a
ducted riser. Each stairwell is provided with barometric relief venting to maintain
appropriate pressurization levels. Further detail on life safety systems can be found in the
associated narrative.
6.4.2.13.3 IBS Manual Purge Exhaust System
UFC 4-510-01 - Section 12-14.5.3 requires a means for purging the distribution zone (IBS
level) of smoke and other products of combustion for post fire operations. The system has
to be manually enabled and have the ability to be remote controlled from the fire
emergency control center. The system is comprised with normally closed constant air
volume terminal boxes with an associated low leakage isolation damper on the supply air
system on one side of a given IBS area. On the opposite side of a given IBS zone area,
normally closed low leakage isolation dampers are installed on some of the ends of the
typical exhaust branch ducts. When the manual purge cycle is initiated the supply terminal
boxes open and provide metered 100% outside air from the DOAS system directly into the
IBS zone. The air then flush the smoke across the IBS zone and be exhausted by the main
exhaust system.
6.4.2.13.4 Patient Sleeping Room Smoke Control
Zoned smoke control is provided throughout smoke compartments with patient sleeping
rooms, in accordance with Section 12-14.5 of UFC 4-510-01. The design approach is to
isolate the zone of incidence. If a smoke event is detected in the associated areas the
supply and exhaust smoke dampers are commanded closed by the fire alarm command
system.
6.4.2.14 IBS Emergency Heating System
Low temperature maintenance of the IBS levels is provided by the terminal boxes
associated with the IBS Manual Purge Exhaust System. A small volume of supply airflow is
discharged into the IBS if at any time the IBS space reaches a low limit of 55F.
Programming is provided to modulate the hot water heating valve to maintain a minimum
temperature of 55F. Note that based on the winter design temperature, calculations
indicate the IBS will naturally remain warmer than 55F from the heat gains through the IBS
from the space below. Heating capability has been provided as an emergency back up
measure for extreme winter conditions.
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6.4.2.15 Cooling Coil Condensate Collection System


To maximize the water usage efficiency of the facility a cooling coil condensate collection
system has been provided. The system collects condensate from each of the main 100%
OA DOAS units located in the penthouse of each clinic and the penthouse and level 3
mechanical room of the hospital. Condensate from each building is gravity drained to a
receiver located on an associated lower floor and is then pumped back to the CUP where it
is deposited into the cooling tower basin. This system diverts water from the sanitary
and/or storm system and harvests it for use as make up water for the cooling towers.
6.4.2.16 Misc Systems
6.4.2.16.1 Stairwells
Stairwells with external exposures are provided with a floor mounted console type unit
heater at the bottom of the riser. Stairwells that serve the roof additionally have a propeller
type unit heater located at the top landing of the roof. Stairwells located on the interior of
the building do not require heating.
6.4.2.16.2 Entry Vestibules
Main entry vestibules are provided with a heat only fan coil to combat any wind driven
infiltration during the winter cooling season. The building is designed for a slight positive
pressure to minimize infiltration for both the heating and cooling season and keep the
vestibules cool during the summer.
6.4.2.16.3 Elevator Machine Rooms
Elevator machine rooms are conditioned with chilled water (and hot water when the room
has an exterior wall) fan coil units. These units are located within the room and have power
backed up by the emergency generator.
6.4.2.16.4 CUP Tunnel Ventilation
The CUP tunnel is ventilated with transfer air from the Plumbing/Med Gas room located in
the hospital. Air is delivered to the Plumbing Room, passes through a fire damper into the
tunnel, passes through the tunnel, and is exhausted through a fire/smoke damper at the
CUP end and discharged up and out the building via a roof mounted exhaust fan.
6.4.2.16.5 Kitchen Water Cooled Compressors
Many of the major refrigeration systems within food service department are cooled via
water cooled compressors. Many of the main compressors have been ganged together in
a common rack with a central chilled water supply and return connection while others are
single isolated ice makers. Each compressor has its own head pressure control valve that
is provided integral with the kitchen equipment. The scope of the chilled water system is to
provide chilled water with a minimum pressure differential of 20 psi between the supply and
return connections. There are no control valves or EMCS tie ins for this system.
6.4.3

Parking Garage HVAC Systems


The electrical equipment rooms and elevator machine rooms located in the Clinic, Hospital,
and Staff Parking Garages are conditioned to maintain temperatures as required per
electrical equipment manufacturer requirements with through the wall DX air-conditioning
units. The units are wall-mounted on the exterior wall and ducted into the room. The units
have self-contained controls that arent monitored by the BAS.

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6.4.4

Ambulance Garage HVAC Systems


The Ambulance Garage are provided conditioned air by a DX split system unit. The indoor
unit is located in the mechanical/electrical closet within the shelter and ducted into the
space. Outside air enters the unit through a louver on the south side of the shelter and
feed into a mixing plenum with the return air. A relief damper and louver release excess air
while maintaining a positive pressure in the shelter. The outdoor condensing unit is located
on the west side of the shelter on an equipment pad. The condensate is sloped to the west
side of the building and terminated over a splash block. The four roll-up garage doors are
provided air curtains (air doors) to reduce infiltration/exfiltration as required by the UFC.
The air curtains are provided with stand-alone controls based on the door position and
arent monitored by the BAS. The DX AHU and condensing unit are provided with standalone controls and arent monitored by the BAS. Recommended room set point, 80F
(ADJ) during normal operation minimizes energy waste when garage doors are open.
HVAC system designed to condition space to 78F during mass casualty usage mode.
There is no RFP requirement for vehicle exhaust removal system. The ambulance shelter
design assumes that the Ambulances do not idle inside the ambulance shelter rather they
are parked in the area.

6.4.5

Building Automatic Temperature Control Systems


Per the RFP, the Energy Management and Control System (EMCS) serving the existing
hospital is a dedicated TAC Invensys system that provides HVAC controls and monitoring
for existing main hospital building and for over twelve other medical facilities throughout the
base. A complete EMCS suitable for control and monitoring of the HVAC systems and
other building level system is provided for the Replacement Hospital Building and for the
Central Utility Plant (CUP) Building.
The head end workstations are provided in the CUP control room, basement security office
and level 6 Emergency Operations Center.
The existing remote clinic systems remain in operation to support building current tenants
and has the capability to be monitored by the Replacement Hospital EMCS.
Additional detailed information regarding the system architecture is provided in the controls
sub-contractor shop drawings.
Information regarding the HVAC system operation
approach and functionality can be found in the HM8-XXX series drawings in the form of
sequences of operation, P&IDs, and F&IDs.

6.4.6

Heat Load and Airflow Calculation Process


The supply and exhaust airflows for the entire hospital, bed tower, and three clinic buildings
were calculated using a combination of design tools. These calculations are all formatted
in an excel file to clearly communicate how the design team reached the final supply and
exhaust flows.

6.4.6.1

Model Extraction
An extraction from the Revit model produces a database of all the rooms and spaces in the
model with their corresponding equipment and JSN numbers. Other information extracted
includes room area in square feet, department name, UFC room code, unique room
identifier, and floor reference.

BALFOUR BEATTY : McCARTHY Joint Venture


HKS, Inc. / WINGLER & SHARP

HVAC
PART 6-30

Carl R. Darnall Army Medical Center Replacement


FORT HOOD, TEXAS / PN74650 / 74728

IFC SUBMITTAL
DP-5
12 DECEMBER, 2012

PART VI

HVAC

6.4.6.2

Shell Loads
TRACE version 6.2.6.5 was utilized to model all the exterior exposure types in the building.
All aspects of the building were modeled including shading, various types of glass and
walls, and all of the unique exposure orientations. Room by room take-offs were completed
to get an accurate representation of wall and window square footages for each room.
These square footages were used in conjunction with the TRACE model outputs to
calculate a total heat gain for each space from the building skin.

6.4.6.3

Internal Loads
The load calculation process accounts for the following internal space loads:

6.4.6.4

Equipment Load: The Revit Model extraction process allows for every piece of heat
generating equipment in the building to be associated with a specific room. Utilizing
the MILST1691 document in conjunction with ASHRAE standards and the UFC code
allows for an accurate equipment load calculation to be completed for each room in the
building.
Lighting Load: Information provided by the electrical contractor and UFC minimum
requirements for each space are utilized and compared to calculate the heat gain from
lighting.
Occupant Load: A room by room evaluation is used to determine the number of
occupants for each space to ensure that a proper sensible and latent heat gain is
applied to each space.

Airflow Calculation and Comparison


Four separate airflow calculations were performed for each space to ensure that the proper
supply and exhaust airflows were applied.

Sensible Cooling Airflow: This calculation utilizes the UFC required temperatures for
each space along with the equipment load, shell load, and all other internal loads to
calculate the airflow required for cooling.
Sensible Heating Airflow: This calculation utilizes the exposure data and the UFC
required heating temperature to calculate the required airflow to heat the space with the
integrated heating coil in each CAV box.
UFC Minimum Air Change Airflow: This calculation utilizes the UFC minimum air
change rate specified in Appendix A along with the space data to calculate the airflow
required to achieve the minimum number of air changes required.
ASHRAE Minimum OA Airflow: When applicable, ASHRAE standard 62.1-2007
Outdoor Airflow Rates are calculated to ensure that industry standard ventilation rates
are being met.

The calculations described above are all compared and the highest calculated airflow is
chosen to ensure that all space requirements are met. Microsoft Excel was chosen for the
final output as it allows for formatting that clearly displays the driving factors for each room
airflow in a layout that is easy to review.
6.4.7

Integrated Building System (IBS) design


The approach to the IBS design is described in a separate narrative section titled Basic
IBS Design Concepts.

BALFOUR BEATTY : McCARTHY Joint Venture


HKS, Inc. / WINGLER & SHARP

HVAC
PART 6-31