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Table ??

: hazard analysis table


Critical
point
Health of
cow

Receiving of
Raw Milk

Pasteurizatio
n of milk

Transportati
on and
contribution
to costumers

Potential
hazard
High Microbial
load

Microbiologica
l growth
Microbiologica
l
contamination
-Incomplete
pasteurization
-Growth of
pathogen
microbes
-Unsuitable
conditions of
transport and
distribution
operations
that may
causes
products to
degrade

Monitorin
g object
Antibiotics
Contaminat
ion
Diseases

Critical
limit
Absence

Bacteria
Contaminat
ion
pH

Absence

Temperatur
e

<10

Temperatur
e
Time

72C

Phosphates
Peroxidases
Temperatur
e
Time

Corrective measures
-Discard milk
containing abnormal
amount of antibiotics
-Sanitize teat cups
before milking
-The temperature and
PH of raw will must
keep in constant value

6.5-6.8

12-15
seconds
Absent
Present
<4C
<72
hours(shel
f life)
<within
48
hours(deli
very time)

-Reject and discard


milk that is out of
specifications

-Transferring products
appropriately with
measuring the
products safety and
hygiene
-Check cooler
temperature regularly

-Delay of the
delivery

From table ??, After conduct the identification of CCP, there are 4 CCPs that was
identified. The first CCP is the health of cow. It is vital for the cow to be healthy
when the milking process happens. Presence of antibiotic indicates the cow is
suffering mastitis infections. Cows under antibiotic treatment for mastitis
infections may have antibiotic residues in their milk, therefore, milk from treated
cows is either discarded or collected into a separate tank. It is illegal to have
antibiotics in the milk. Every milk truck that leaves the dairy is tested to ensure

there are no antibiotics in the milk. Then when the milk gets to the milk
processing plant, the milk is checked again to ensure there are no antibiotics in
the milk. If milk is contaminated with antibiotics, the entire load must be thrown
away.
Second CCP is the receiving or raw milk. The milk received may be
contaminated by any harmful bacteria such as Salmonella. Any infections of this
bacterium can lead to illness and the product may harm other people who
consume it. Received milk must be at 6.5-6.8 pH at all times. Higher pH indicates
the milk is degrading. Milks temperature must also be constant, below <10C to
ensure enzymes that causes milk to degrade inactive. The persistence of
peroxidase activity in pasteurized milk provides a good indication of the quality
of a product, because only a raw milk of good microbiological quality can be put
through a mild pasteurization process in order to not inactivate this enzyme. The
chemical and physical properties of phosphate can precipitate in the processing
equipment causing problems of fouling.
The third step of CCP is during pasteurization process. Pasteurization
involves heating every particle of milk to a specific temperature for a specified
period of time and cooling it again without allowing recontamination. Salmonella
bacteria may growth and contaminated the milk if the temperature is below
1350C for at least 2 seconds. High temperature kills the bacteria and other
contaminants. It will also kill major degrading enzymes because most enzymes
will die if the temperature is more than 36C. If the temperature is more or less,
microbiological will grow and contaminated the milk.
The fourth CCP is the transportation and contribution to costumers. After
the milk processing, the products are stored below 5C and not more than 48
hours. For transporting fresh raw milk, a cooler or ice chest is needed in order to
keep the milk at a cool 4C at all times.

Table??: Table 1: CCP Identification


As already mention in the principles of HACCP, CCP can be defined as factor,
procedure, practice, process or location that can be controlled in order to control,
eliminate, prevent, and reduce a hazard to an acceptable level. If the CCP is not
control carefully, the food has high probability to contaminate. The table below
shows the identification of CCP.

Process step

Potential
hazard
Biological
(B)
Physical(P)
Chemical(C)
Biological
Microbial load

Is the
potential
significant?

Justification for
inclusion/exclusi
on as significant
hazard

Yes

Receiving of
Raw Milk

Biological
Microbiological
growth
Microbiological
contamination

Yes.

Storage (Raw
Milk)

Biological
-Alteration of
milk growth of
pathogen
microbes
-High acidity
Physical
-Incomplete
pasteurization

No.

Diseased cows will


cause alteration of
milk and growth of
pathogenic
microbes.
Conducted of
chemical test is
needed to ensure
the PH and the
temperature is
correct. If not,
bacterial will
growth and
contaminate the
milk.
Hazard can control
by working
procedure.

Health of cow

Pasteurization
of milk

Biological
-Growth of
pathogen
microbes

Yes

Hazard can control


by working
procedure.

Critical
control
point for
food
safety
(yes,no)
Yes

Yes

No

Yes

Storage
(Milk Product)

Packaging

Biological
Microbiological
growth
Microbiological
survival
Biological

No.

Hazard can control


by working
procedure

No

No.

Hazard can control

No

by working

Microbiological

procedure. ;

contamination

packaging box is
put under
ultraviolet rays to

Transportation
and
contribution
to costumers

Biological
-Delay and
unsuitable
conditions of
the delivery
activates
enzymes to
cause milk to
degrade

Yes

kill microbials
Unsuitable
conditions of
transport and
distribution
operations that
may causes
products to
degrade

Yes