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Layer 5 Session Layer

The sesin layer manages sesin establishment, maintenance and


termination betweeg network devices.
Example: when you log on and log of
This layer controls the name and address database for the OS
NetBIOS (Network Basic Input Output System) is a protocol that Works
at this layer

Layer 6 Presentation Layer

This layer translates the data format from sender to receiver in the
varios Oses that may be used
Presentation Layer concepts include: carcter code conversin, data
compression, and data encryption
Redirectors work on this layer, such as mapped betwork drives that
enable a computer to Access file shares on a remote computer

Layer 7 Application Layer

Serves as the window for users and application processes to Access


networkservices
This layer is where message creation begins
End-user protocols such as FTP, SMTP, Telnet and RAS work at this
layer
This layer is not the application itself, but the protocols that are
initiated by this layer

Layer
7
6
5
4
3
2

Protocol
FTP, HTTP, POP3, SMTP
Compression,
Encryption
Logon/Logof
TCP, UDP
IP, ICMP, ARP, RIP
802.3, 803.5

100BASE-T

Device
Gateway
N/A
N/A
N/A
Routers
NICs, switches,
bridges, WAPs
Hubs, Patch Panels,
RJ45 jacks

TCP Model
The TCP/IP model is similar to the OSI model
This model is composed of only four layers

Layer
Application Layer

Descriptio
Defines TCP/IP
application protocols

Protocols
HTTP, Telnet, FTP

Transport Layer

Internet Layer
Network Interface

Provides
communication sesin
management
Packages and routes
data
Details how data is
physically sent trough
the network

OSI Model
Application Layer
Presentation Layer
Session Layer
Transport Layer
Network Layer
Data Link Layer
Physical Layer

TCP, UDP, RTP

IP, ICMP, ARP, RARP


Ethernet, Token Ring,
Frame Relay

TCP Model
Application Layer
Transport Layer
Internet Layer
Network Access Layer

Twisted-pair cable
The most commonly used cable type in local rea networks
Relatively easy to work with, flexible, efficient, and fast
Contains wight wires grouped into four twisted pairs, typically orange, Green
and Brown
The twisted wires reduce crosstalk and interference

Twist pair categories


Twist-pair cables are categorized according to the frecuency at which they
transmit signals and their data transfer rate

Cable type
Category 3 (Cat-3)
Category 5 (Cat-5)
Category 5e (Cat-5e)
Category 6 (Cat 6)

Types of patch cables


Straight through cable
Most common type of patch cable

Speed
10 Mbps
100 Mbps
100 Mbps and 1000Mbps+
1000Mbps+

Used to connect a computer to a central connecting device like a switch

Crossover cable
Used to direct connect similar devices without the use of a hub

MDI and MDI-X ports


Mdium dependent interface (MDI) is a type of Ethernet port connection
using twisted pair cabling
For computer to communicate with other devices, the wires have to cross
somewhere
Instead of using crossover cables to connect computers to central
connecting devices such as switches, these central connecting devices are
equipped with MDI-X ports (mdium dependent interface crossover) which
take care of the cross

Attenuation: the quantity of information reaching the receiver as compared


to the transmitted quantity of information

Measured in decibels (dB)


According to the IEEE 802.3, twisted-pair cables can be run 100 meters
Beyond this the signal degrades to such a point that it cannot be interpreted
by the destination host.
A signal repeater, a hub, or switch can be used if a cable needs to be run
farther

Interference: anything that disrupts or modifies a signal that is traveling


along a wire

Electrical sources
Lights
Electrical outlets
Motors
Appliances

Copper-based cables and network devices should be kept away from these
electrical devices and cables if at all posible

Crosstalk
When the signal that is transmitted on one copper wire of pair of wires
creates and undesired efect on antoher wire or pair of wires

When it comes to twisted-pair cabling, crosstalk is broken down into two


categories:
Near end crosstal (NEXT) occurs when is measured interference btween two
pairs in a single cable, measured on the cable end nearest the transmitter
Far end crosstalk (FEXT) occurs when there is similar interference, measured
at the cable end farthest from the transmitter.

Shielded twisted-pair (STP) cables


Stp cables have an aluminum shield inside the plastic jacket that surrounds
the pairs of wires

Fiber optic cables


Transmits light (photons) instead of electricity over glass or plastic fibers

Very good for high-speed, high-capacity data transmission due to lack of


attenuation
Single-mode
Meant to carry a single ray of light-one ray of light, one mode
This type of cable is normally used for higher-bandwith, longer-distance
runs, generally 10-80km
More expensive equipment

Multi-mode
Cable with a larger fiber core, capable of carrying multiple rays of light
This type of cable is used for shorter distance runs, up to 600 meters
Though much shorter tan single mode diber runs, this is still six times the
distance of twisted-pair cable runs.
Less expensive equipment

Wireless Access Point

A wireless Access point (WAP) enables wireless devices to connect to a wired


network
A wireless router can also acts as a router, firewall, and IP proxy

Wireless modes
There are several diferent methods to connecto to a wireless network
Infraestructura the mode used when wireless clients connect to and are
authenticated by a wireless Access point
Ad-hoc used when all of the clients communicate directly each other

Other wireless devices


Wireless repeater
Used to extende the coverage of a wireless network
Wireless bridge
A wireless bridge is similar to a wireless repeater, but the bridge can
connect diferent 802.11 standards together; this is know as bridge mode

IEEE 802.11 Standard


802.11a
801.11b
802.11g
802.11n
802.11ac

Data transfer rate


(Max.)
54 Mbps
11 Mpbs
54 Mbps
600 Mbps
866.7 Mbps

Frequency
5Ghz
2.4Ghz
2.4Ghz
2.4Ghz and 5 Ghz
5Ghz

Wireless encryption options


Wireless encryption
protocol
WEP
WPA y WPA2
TKIP
AES

Description
Wired Equivalent
Privacy
WI-fi Protected Access
Temporal Key Integrity
Protocol
Advanced Encryption
Standar

Encryption Level (key


Size)
64-bit
256-bit
128-bit
128-, 192- and 256-bit

Service Set Identifier (SSI)


When utilizing infraestructura mode, the base unit (normally a WAP) will be
configured with a service set identifier (SSID)

The SSID is the name of the wireless network, and it is broadcast over the
airwaves
When clients want to connect to the WAP, they can identify it by the SSID
For security, the SSID can be hidden from public discovery

IPv4
Internet Protocol versin 4 (IPv4) is the fourth versin of the Internet
Protocol and the first versin to be widely deployed
IPv4 is a frequently used communications protocol and is one of the core
protocols for the Internet
IP resides on the network layer of the OSI model

IP Addresses
IP addresses consist of four octets (8-bits), each between 0 and 255.
Examples include:
12.5.24.2
127.0.0.1
192.168.3.54
208.32.56.232
In order for an IP address to function, there must be a properly configured IP
address and compatible subnet mask
To connect to the Internet (or any remote network), you will also need a
Gateway address and optionally a DNS server address

Loopback testing
The range for class A is 0-127
The 127 network number isnt used by hosts as a logical IP address instead,
this network is used for loopback IP addresses, allowing for testing

Usable addresses
Usable addresses are always going to be two less than the mathematical
amount
The first and last addresses cannot be used
For network 172.24.3.x
The 0 (in binary) for the host address is the entire network
172.24.3.0
The 1s (in binary) for the host address is the broadcast address
172.24.3.255
Class D and Class E are not used by regular hosts
Class D is used for what is known as multicasting-transmitting data to
multiple computers (or routers)
Class E was reserved for future use, but this has given way to IPv6 instead

Ip conflicto
IP conflicts occur when two devices have been assigned the same IP address

Windows Error: there is an IP address conflicto with another system on the


network
If there ir an IP address conflicto, the devices will have problems sending
and receiving data

APIPIA
APIPA is an acronym for Automatic Private IP Addressing
It uses a single Class B network number: 169.254.0.0
If a Windows client cannot get an IP address from a DHCP server and has not
been configured statically, it will auto-assign a number on this network

Default Gateway and DNS server


For a device to communicate on the internet, a default Gateway and DNS
server must be assigned
Default Gateway Provides a default route for TCP/IP hosts to use when
communicating with hosts on remote networks. The first IP address of the
device that a client computer will look for when attempting to gain acces
outside the local network
DNS Server The server that provides name resolution of domain names to
IP addresses

Associate the name to the adress

Network Address Translation


Provides a method for translating IPv4 addresses of devices on one network
into IPv4 addresses of devices on a diferent network
NAT was developed to provide a temporary solution to the IPv4 address
issue
Enables one address space (private) to be re-maped to another address
space, or perhaps re-mapped to a single public IP address