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BEM Mandatory Course on

CODE OF ETHICS/REGULATIONS

Organized by:
Board of Engineers, Malaysia
c/o Ibu Pejabat JKR
Tingkat 17, Jalan Sultan Salahuddin
50582 Kuala Lumpur

Conducted by:
IEM Training Centre Sdn. Bhd.
No. 33-1A, Jalan 52/18
P.O. Box 224 (Jalan Sultan)
46200 Petaling Jaya
Selangor Darul Ehsan
Telephone no. 603-79586851
Fax no. 603-79582851
Email: choy.iemtc@gmail.com
linda@iemtc.com
Website: www.iemtc.com

Revised July 2012

BEM CODE OF ETHICS/REGULATIONS

FORWARD
Ethics and the Engineer
In the practice of engineering, most engineers, no matter whether they are employees or
private practitioners, or whether they are in public or private enterprise, find that in their
professional lives, they encounter problems that are far removed from the technical and the
impersonal.
Engineering is closely involved in human relations and in business and commerce. A great
many of the special problems in personal conduct met by engineers are likely to arise from
this fact.
The scale of engineering projects and the all pervading influence of engineering systems,
products and utilities on the life of the community extend the influence of what engineers do
into almost all spheres of human activity. This makes the engineer unique among
professional men.
In these circumstances, the personal attitudes, relationships and conduct of the engineer
have significance reaching far beyond the realm of purely personal morals. The Code of
Ethics therefore, assumes particular importance in the profession of engineering in
providing guidance for conduct in all aspects of professional life.
Ethics means something more than law and morals; it carries an additional connotation
of rightness. The Code, therefore, is not a list of rules to govern every problem of conduct,
nor is it a broad statement of ideals. It is a statement of the principles of rightness of broad
scope and with enough detail to enable an intelligent man to deduce for himself the course
of his own professional conduct.
The essence of all professional codes is that the professional man must be worthy through
his conduct, of the trust placed in him by the community and his colleagues. This gives rise
to a universal rule of life for every engineer who aspires to true professional status; to act in
every situation in a manner that will add to the confidence and esteem in which his
profession is held by the community.
It is also mark of our profession that there are remarkably few cases of breach of ethics
requiring disciplinary action against members. This is not an indication of laxity, rather, it
results from the fact that the engineers work and relationships are so much in the open that
are purely moral sanctions prove to be sufficient and this is a matter of pride.

Ir. Choo Kok Beng, P.Eng


Course Leader
July 2012

BEM CODE OF ETHICS/REGULATIONS

OBJECTIVES

Overview
The programme has been successfully structured and prepared to illustrate how adopting
an ETHICAL approach will bring great success, sustainable wealth and happiness for a
Professional Engineer.
An ethical professional engineer is an important asset to himself or herself, the World in
general and the Nation in particular.
Facilitators of this programme are examples of such professional engineers.

BEM CODE OF ETHICS/REGULATIONS

Course Contents
1.

The Engineering Fraternity, the route to a Professional Engineer and mobility of


engineering services.

2.

Engineers in Industry/Community.

3.

Engineers and the environment.

4.

Engineers in the Construction Industry.

5.

Case studies of unethical practices.

BEM CODE OF ETHICS/REGULATIONS

Objectives

to enhance the engineers understanding of the entire engineering industry.

to impress upon participants the relationship between ethics, professionalism and


sustainable wealth creation.

to create awareness on how ethical practice will preserve the ecosystem for the
future generations.

to inform engineers of the pitfalls that can damage the profession.

to highlight the challenges and opportunities of ethical practice.

BEM CODE OF ETHICS/REGULATIONS

Programme
Day 1

8.30

9.00 am

Registration

9.00

10.30 am

The Engineering Fraternity Part 1

10.30

11.00 am

Morning Tea

11.00

12.30 pm

The Engineering Fraternity Part 2

12.30

1.00 pm

Discussion / Case Studies

1.00

2.00 pm

Lunch

2.00

4.00 pm

Engineers in the Industry and Community

4.00

4.30 pm

Discussion / Closing

5.00 pm

Afternoon Tea
End of Day 1

4.30 pm

Day 2

9.00

10.30 am

Engineers and the Environment Part 1

10.30

11.00 am

Morning Tea

11.00

12.30 pm

Engineers and the Environment Part 2

12.30

1.00 pm

Discussion / Case studies

1.00

2.00 pm

Lunch

2.00

4.00 pm

Engineers in the Construction Industry

4.00

4.30 pm

Discussion / Closing

4.30 pm

Afternoon Tea
End of Course

BEM CODE OF ETHICS/REGULATIONS

Content of Notes
1.0

PowerPoint Presentations:1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5

The Engineering Fraternity


Engineers in the Industry and Community
Engineers and the Environment
Engineers in the Construction Industry
Unethical Case Studies

2.0
3.0
4.0
5.0
6.0
7.0
8.0
9.0
10.0
11.0
12.0
13.0
14.0

The Board of Engineers, Malaysia (BEM)


The Institution of Engineers, Malaysia (IEM)
ASEAN Federation of Engineering Organizations (AFEO)
ASEAN Engineering Register (AER)
Federation of Engineering Institutions of Islamic Countries (FEIIC)
Federation of Engineering Institutions for Asia and the Pacific (FEIAP)
APEC Engineers Register
The Technological Association of Malaysia (TAM)
ASEAN Academy of Engineering and Technology (AET)
Engineers Mobility Forum (EMF)
World Federation of Engineering Organizations (WFEO)
Coordinating Committee for the ASEAN Chartered Professional Engineer (CCACPE)
Route to a Regional Engineering Professional (ASEAN Eng., ASEAN Engineering
Technologist and ASEAN Chartered Professional Engineer)

15.0

Useful notes:15.1
15.2
15.3
15.4
15.5

Professionalism
The Professional Role of the Engineer
Code of Ethic for Engineers
Obligations of an Engineer
Engineering

BEM CODE OF ETHICS/REGULATIONS

15.1 Professionalism
The concept of professionalism the expression of the ideals by which our profession
should strive to serve the community has occupied our professional forebears a good deal.
Definition of Profession
The word profession connotes a learned calling having a special body of knowledge and
skill, distinctive functions and recognised obligations. A profession is much more than a
recognised occupation; it carries with it the idea of advanced learning a special way of life,
involving a corporate group of practitioners from which the profession is constituted.
In the highest sense, a profession is an occupation which has the following six
distinguishing marks:
(1)

A body of knowledge and art, held as a common possession and to be extended


through united effort.

(2)

An educational process, based on the body of knowledge and art, and in the ordering
of which the professional group has a recognised responsibility.

(3)

A standard of personal qualification for admission, based on character, education and


proven competence.

(4)

A standard of conduct, based upon an ethical code to guide the practitioner in his
relationships with his employer or client, his colleagues and the community.

(5)

A formally recognised status, either by members of the profession or by the State.

(6)

Organisations of the profession, devoted to common advancement, social duty and


economic well-being.

A profession then, comprises a group selected through an educational process and having
the authority that sterns from the fact that the professional alone has the knowledge and
skills that are needed by members of the public of by the public at large.
Much professional service is such that only the professional can judge whether or not it is
well done. In most cases, the professional determines detailed needs of the client or
employer and how such need should be met. Thus, there is the obligation of trust and of
ethical practice.
To ensure that the professional group is competent and that only qualified persons can
claim membership, the community allows the professional group to determine the criteria for
entry to it. This is a privilege as well as an obligation but it is one of the most precious rights
of a profession; the right of self-determination.

A profession becomes of real value to society when the members of the professional group
associate with each other, learn from each other and are imbued with the spirit of service,
excellence and self-expression. The organisation of the profession, therefore, is the
keystones of professional life.
Professionalism
Professionalism is a way of thinking and living, rather than an accumulation of learning.
Professionalism cannot be taught by stating a code of ethics not by memorising a set of
rules.
A strong professional sense is of undoubted benefit to the profession concerned in terms of
morale and vocational satisfaction. It is also a fact that the community benefits when it is
served by a professional whose standing is recognised, in terms of both status and rewards.
It is through the development of a strong professional attitude that the professional man is
motivated to give his biggest contribution to the community. It is probable that professional
attitudes and professional motivation are prerequisites to community recognition and to a
reasonable level of reward, but the one depends very much upon the other.
The Professional Man
It follows from these considerations that the professional man must also bear some
distinctive marks. Again, in the highest sense, the marks of a professional man are:(1)

Professional activity of a type carrying high individual responsibility, requiring


application of special skills to activities that are predominantly intellectual and varied
rather than routine and normal.

(2)

Motivation for service takes first place over consideration of reward.

(3)

Motivation for self-expression implies joy and pride in the work to be done and selfimposed standards of excellence in its performance.

(4)

Recognition of social duty, fulfilled through guarding the ideals and standards of the
profession, by advancing it in public understanding and esteem, by sharing advances
in professional knowledge, by rendering gratuitous public service, all as a return to
society for the advantages that flow from professional education and status.

The Engineer as a Professional Man


Engineering is predominantly an employee profession. The most important way in which
engineering differs from most other professions is in the absence of a personal practitionerclient relationship. Engineers tend to practice their profession as members of teams, led and
managed by senior engineers who are employees, even though they also assume the role
of employers in many aspects of their relationships with their juniors.
The profession of law, medicine and architecture, for example, differ to a large extent in
these respects from engineering. The senior barrister is the leader of the practice of his
profession. It is he who appears at the bar and gives detailed personal guidance to his
juniors. The roles of senior physician and surgeon are similar. The senior architects in a
consulting office usually do the creative architecture work and leave the more mundane
tasks to junior professionals.

In each of these professions, senior men maintain an intimate involvement in the details of
technical practice.
It is not so in the main, with engineering. The more senior engineers tend to be concerned
with the leadership and management of large resources of men, materials and finance over
which they have control. Conversely, it is the juniors who are more involved in the detailed
technical practice of the profession, and technical direction comes from middle levels of the
organisational structure.
Therefore, in general, in the engineering profession, the direct client-practitioner
characteristic is replaced by the characteristic of management. Management implies
responsibility and in an engineering management, the professional engineer is responsible
in a very direct sense for control over the resources of the community. It is this large
element of management that adds a dimension to engineering that is absent from other
professions and perhaps, in a sense diminishes them by comparison with engineering.
This is the nature of the profession and the end result is that the criterion of success for
most engineers has less to do with the high-level technical skills of the engineer that with his
professional skills in engineering management. It is the responsibility level reached in
employment as determined by his superiors that is the criterion for high professional
standing rather than the recognition of a highly developed technical expertise as judged by
his peers.
Engineering therefore, is a unique profession in which all of the marks of the professional
man have crucial importance; he must have high-level skills and he must develop different
skills as his career advances; he must have s strong motivation for service because
everything he does impinges on the community in some way or other.
Motivations for self-expression and high professional standards must exist from junior level
upwards. Because the most senior men frequently are not in the position to give direct
technical leadership, their functions usually differ very much from those of their juniors.
Social duty must be seen as a personal obligation shared at all responsibility levels. The
whole community is the ultimate client rather than the individual clients as in the case with
other professions.

BEM CODE OF ETHICS/REGULATIONS

15.2 The Professional Role Of The Engineer


The word professional is used in many ways and has many meanings. It can be used in
the sense of the skill of a professional actor who receives pay for his/her efforts, as
distinguished from an amateur who performs more for the joy of performing. It can be used
in the sense of a type of work as in describing a professional job of house painting done by
an experienced painter. Also, it can be used merely to describe a degree of effort or line of
conduct over a period of time as used in the expression a professional beggar. However,
in the sense that engineers would employ the word professional, it should he/she
restricted to a particular and specialised group of people, identified by distinguishing
characteristics, that separate its members from non-professionals.
Within the last century, three groups have emerged with the title learned professionals.
These professional groups are law, medicine and theology. These groups came into being
gradually over a long period of time and had certain characteristics in common, among
which were higher levels of educational achievement and a sincere desire for performing a
service for people., There is no formal naming of a person or group of persons to
professional status, nor is there a schedule or procedure to follow to achieve recognition as
a professional. Rather the group itself sets standards of training, skills, achievement and
service in order to call itself a professional group and the public accepts the groups
evaluation of itself
Who is a professional? As generally used in the sense of the learned professions, a
professional person is one who applies certain knowledge and skill, usually obtained by
college education, for the service of people. In addition, a professional person observes all
acceptable code of conduct, uses discretion and judgement in dealing with people and
respects their confidences. Also, professional persons usually have legal status, use
professional titles and associate together in groups. Although engineering has met most of
these criteria for a long time, it has been only within the last few decades that legal status
has been conferred upon the engineering profession.
The Engineer as a Professional Person
Knowledge and skill above that of the average person is a characteristic of the professional
man. Where a workman will have specific skills in operating a particular machine, a
professional person is considered able to apply fundamental principles that are usually
beyond the range of the average workman. The knowledge of these principles as well as
the skills necessary to apply them distinguishes a professional man. The engineer, because
of his/her education in the basic sciences, mathematics and engineering sciences, is
capable of applying basic principles for such diverse things as improving the construction
features of buildings, developing processes that will provide new chemical compounds or
designing tunnels to bring water to arid areas.
An important concept in the minds of most persons is that a professional person will perform
a service for people. This means that service must be considered ahead of any monetary
reward that a professional man may receive. In this respect, the professional person should,
by himself, recognize a need for personal services and seek ways to provide a solution to
these needs. Almost all engineering is performed to fill a need in appliances of the

household, or to provide better transportation facilities, or to make possible a better life in


regions of unfavourable climate.
Discretion and judgement also characterize a professional person in most situation a choice
of several methods to accomplish a given task will be available. The engineer must consider
the facts available and the principles that apply and make decisions based upon these
rather than upon expediency. Consideration must be given not only to the mechanical
aspects of a solution but also to the effects that a particular decision will have upon the
persons concerned.
A professional person is one in whom confidence can be placed. This confidence is not only
in his/her skill and ability but also that his/her knowledge of his/her clients business or trade
information or personal matters will not be divulged improperly. The engineer works in a
relation of confidence to his/her client or employer no to divulge trade secrets or to take any
advantage of his/her knowledge that may harm the client or employer. The public, in
general, will have confidence that the engineers design of buildings, bridges or power
systems will be adequate and safe to use. The engineer must not find the public in this
responsibility.
All professionals adhere to a code of ethical conduct. This code of ethics outlines the
standards to which members of the group subscribe and given an understanding of what the
public can expect in its relationship with the profession. The code of ethics also serves as a
guide to the members of the profession in their conduct and relations with each other. In
engineering, the professional society is the National Society of Professional Engineers. A
general code of ethics for professional engineers has been set up by the Society.
Legal status usually is a characteristic of a professional. A medical doctor, for example, has
certain rights and privileges afforded by law. Legal recognition of a professional group is
afforded by a procedure of certification, licensing or registration. In all states, a registration
law is in effect which provides for legal registration of an engineer following submission of
evidence of education and technical ability. Registration confers the legal title of engineer
to the recipient and he/she may use the initials P.E. after his/her name to denote his/her
registration as a Professional Engineer.
Professionalism for Engineer
Professionalism is an individual state of mind. It is a way of thinking and living rather than
the development of specific skills or the acquiring of certain knowledge. While the mere
acquisition of knowledge may make a person mole skilled as a clerk or labourer, knowledge
alone does not often promote the desire within oneself to serve or be responsive to the
needs of people. It is in this realm of service that the engineer joins with members of other
learned professional groups in placing honesty and integrity of action above the legal or
minimum level allowable.
Although knowledge and skill often exist apart from professionalism, professionalism can
mature only where such competence creates a proper atmosphere. Where competence is
an impersonal quality, professionalism, in contrast, is personal. In addition to a state of
mind, it is a way of working and living a way of adding something valuable to competence.
For the engineer, professionalism implies that he/she will make maximum use of his/her skill
and knowledge and that he/she will use his/her competence to its fullest extent.
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With complete honesty and integrity.


With his/her best effort in spite of the fact that frequently neither client nor employer
is able to evaluate that effort.
With avoidance of all possible conflicts of interest.

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With the consciousness that the profession of engineering is often judged by the
performance of a single individual.

Professionalism for an engineer begins with good moral character because he/she occupies
a position of trust where he/she personally must set the standards. Consequently, he/she is
required to make decisions that sometimes differ from the preferences of his/her company
or his/her client. Professionalism for an engineer means:
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Striving to improve his/her work until it becomes a model for those in his/her field,
as a minimum using the most up-to-date techniques and procedures.
Proper credit for work done and ideas developed by subordinates.
Loyalty to his/her employer or client, always with concern for the public safety in
construction, product design, plant operation and all other phases of engineering.
Leadership of less experienced colleagues and subordinates toward personal
development and an enthusiasm for the profession.
Activity in technical societies in order to keep current in his/her field and
encouragement of those working him to improve their technical competence the
same way.
Participation in professional societies, as well as technical societies, thereby
demonstrating his/her interest in the profession and encouraging his/her co-workers
to recognise the technical and the professional as of equal-ranking importance.
Registration, not simply because it may be a legal requirement, but more particularly
as a demonstration to his/her co-workers and the public that this is one
important hallmarks of a professional, a willingness to go beyond the minimum to
help and encourage others to realise their full potential.

For engineers in various areas of work, professionalism will include special facets that are
more particularly related to a particular field. For example, engineers in industry should be
especially conscious of their responsibility in protecting company proprietary designs or
processes. It also means the establishment of performance standards and safety criteria,
which protect the purchaser while maintaining a satisfactory return to the manufacturer. For
the engineer in government or the engineer in private practice, professionalism may mean
capitalising on a special opportunity to project the profession to the public as a constructive
force in society. For the engineer in education, professionalism means practicing at the
frontier of knowledge in some field and pushing against that boundary, thus impressing on
his/her students those boundaries need not be (and are rarely) static.
Professionalism for all engineers means an active participation in community life.
Engineering cannot achieve general recognition as a profession unless engineers are
publicly visible. It is in the realm of public and social service that professionalism shows up
strongest. For this reason, service to the public and the community and to those less
fortunate is particularly significant.
Professionalism can be taught since it is an acquired condition and is not inherent in ones
nature. It is most effectively taught by example by individuals whose lives are themselves
models of integrity. The beginnings of a professional attitude for the engineering student
should be established in the formative college years since, like character, it grows stronger
with reinforcement. In laboratory work, for example, an honest reporting of facts and an
intelligent evaluation of results are important ingredients in the development of the students
professional training. Design experiences in general involve many compromise (decision)
made by the young engineer. His/her professional career will, in fact, become one of
compromise and he/she must prepare himself/herself to face the realities of such a life.

Probably the student will not have achieved a mature professional attitude by the date of
his/her graduation. However, responsibility of thought and decision should be firmly
established by this time in order that entry into employment will be a continuation rather
than the beginning of his/her professional advancement.
After graduation, opportunities for public service will present themselves. The engineer, as
part of his/her professional responsibility, should seek and accept places of service to
schools, community, government, religious organisations and charitable groups. Not only
will he/she be able to contribute his/her talents to these causes, but also he/she will
enhance his/her own outlook by contacts with both professionals and non-professional
persons. Each individual engineer should recognise within himself the need for a
professional attitude and assume the ultimate responsibility for upholding this concept.
To sum up professionalism, engineering may be considered to be a profession insofar as it
meets these characteristics of a learned professional group.
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Knowledge and skill in specialised fields above that of the general public.
A desire for public service and a willingness to share discoveries for the benefits of
others.
Exercise of discretion and judgement.
Establishment of a relation of confidence between the engineer and client or the
engineer and employer.
Acceptance of overall and specific codes of conduct.
Formation of professional groups and participation in advancing professional ideals
and knowledge.
Recognition by law as an identifiable body of knowledge.

With these as objectives, the student should pursue his/her college studies and his/her
training in his/her employment so as to meet these characteristics within their full meaning
and take his/her or his/her place as a professional engineer in our society.
Technical Societies
As suggested above, professionals band themselves together for the mutual exchange of
ideas to improve their knowledge and to learn new skills and techniques. Meeting and
discussing problems with others in the same field of endeavour affords an opportunity for
the stimulation of thought to improve learning and skills. In addition to the National Society
of Professional Engineer, which is concerned primarily with the professional aspects of the
whole field of engineering, engineers have organised a number of technical societies in their
fields of specialisation.

BEM CODE OF ETHICS/REGULATIONS

15.3 Code of Ethics for Engineers


Preamble
The Engineer, to uphold and advance the honour and dignity of the engineering profession
and in keeping with high standards of ethical conduct:
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Will be honest and impartial and will serve with devotion his/her employer, his/her
client and the public.

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Will strive to increase the competence and prestige of the engineering profession.

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Will use his/her knowledge and skill for the advancement of human welfare.

Section 1: The Engineer will be guided in all his/her professional relations by the highest
standards of integrity and will act in professional matters for each client or employer as a
faithful agent or trustee.
a. He/she will be realistic and honest in all estimates, reports, statements and
testimony.
b. He/she will admit and accept his/her own errors when proven obviously wrong and
refrain from distorting or altering the facts in an attempt to justify his/her decision.
c. He/she will advise his/her client or employer when he/she believes a project will not
be successful.
d. He/she will not accept outside employment to the detriment of his/her regular work or
interest, or without the consent of his/her employer.
e. He/she will not attempt to attract an engineer from another employer by unfair
methods.
f. He/she will not actively participate in strikes, picket lines or other collective coercive
action.
Section 2: The Engineer will have proper regard for the safety, health and welfare of the
public in the performance of his/her professional duties. If his/her engineering judgement is
overruled by non-technical authority, he/she will clearly point out the consequences. He/she
will notify the proper authority of any observed conditions which endanger public safety and
health.
a. He/she will regard his/her duty to the public welfare as paramount.
b. He/she shall seek opportunities to be of constructive service in civic affairs and work
for the advancement of the safety, health and well-being of his/her community.

c. He/she will not complete, sign or seal plans and/or specifications that are not of a
design safe to the public health and welfare and in conformity with accepted
engineering standards. If the client or employer insists on such unprofessional
conduct, he/she shall notify the proper authorities and withdraw from further service
on the project.
Section 3: The Engineer will avoid all conduct or practice likely to discredit or
unfavourably reflect upon the dignity or honour of the profession.
a. The Engineer shall not advertise his/her professional services but may utilize the
following means of identification:
1. Professional cards and listings in recognised and dignified publications provided
they are consistent in size and are in a section of the publication regularly
devoted to such professional cards and listings. The information displayed must
be restricted to firm name, address, telephone number, appropriate symbol,
names of principal participants and the fields of practice in which the firm is
qualified.
2. Signs or equipment, offices and at the site of projects for which he/she tenders
services, limited to firm name, address, telephone number and type of services,
as appropriate.
3. Brochures, business cards, letterheads and other factual representations of
experience, facilities, personnel and capacity to render services, providing the
same are not misleading relative to the extent of participation in the projects cited
and provided the same are not indiscriminately distributed.
4. Listings in the classified section of telephone directories, limited to name,
address, telephone number and specialities in which the firm is qualified.
b. The Engineer may advertise for recruitment of personnel in appropriate publications
or by special distribution. The information presented must be displayed in a dignified
manner, restricted to firm name. address, telephone number, appropriate symbol,
name of principal participants, the field of practice in which the firm is qualified and
factual descriptions of positions available, qualifications required and benefits
available.
c. The Engineer may prepare articles for the lay or technical press, which are factual,
dignified and free from ostentations on laudatory implications. Such articles shall not
imply other than his/her direct participation in the work described unless credit is
given to others for their share of the work.
d. The Engineer may extend permission for his/her name to be used in commercial
advertisements, such as may be published by manufacturers, contractors, material
suppliers, etc, only by means of a modest dignified notation acknowledging his/her
participation and the scope thereof in the project or product described. Such
permission shall not include public endorsement of proprietary products.
e. The Engineer will not allow himself/herself to be listed for employment using
exaggerated statements of his/her qualifications.

Section 4: The Engineer will endeavour to extend public knowledge and appreciation of
engineering and its achievements and to protect the engineering profession from
misrepresentation and misunderstanding.
a. He/she shall not issue statements, criticisms or arguments on matters connected with
public policy which are inspired or paid for by private interests, unless he/she
indicates on whose behalf he/she is making the statement.
Section 5: The Engineer will express an opinion of an engineering subject only when
founded on adequate knowledge and honest conviction.
a. The Engineer will insist on the use of facts in reference to an engineering project in a
group discussion, public forum or publication of articles.
Section 6: The Engineer will undertake engineering assignments for which he/she will be
responsible only when qualified by training or experience, and he/she will engage or advise
engaging experts and specialists whenever the clients or employers interests are best
served by such service.
Section 7: The Engineer will not disclose confidential information concerning the
business affairs or technical processes of any present or former client or employer without
his/her consent.
a. While in the employ of others, he/she will not enter promotional efforts or negotiations
for work or make arrangements for other employment as a principal or to practice in
connection with a specific project for which he/she has gained particular and
specialised knowledge without the consent of all interested parties.
Section 8: The Engineer will endeavour to avoid a conflict of interest with his/her
employer or client, but when unavoidable, the Engineer shall fully disclose the
circumstances to his/her employer or client.
a. The Engineer will inform his/her client or employer of any business connections,
interests or circumstances which may be deemed as influencing his/her judgement or
the quality of his/her services to his/her client or employer.
b. When in public service as a member, adviser or employee of a government body or
department, an engineer shall not participate in considerations or actions with
respect to services provided by him/her or his/her organisation in private engineering
practice.
c. An Engineer shall not solicit or accept an engineering contract from a government
body on which a principal or officer or his/her organisation services as a member.
Section 9: The Engineer will uphold the principle of appropriate and adequate
compensation for those engaged in engineering work.
a. He/she will not undertake or agree to perform any engineering service on a free
basis, except for civic, charitable, religious or eleemosynary non-profit organisations
when the professional services are advisory in nature.
b. He/she will not undertake work at a fee or salary below the accepted standards of the
profession in the area.

c. He/she will not accept remuneration from either an employee or employment agency
for giving employment.
d. When hiring other engineers, he/she shall offer a salary according to the engineers
qualifications and the recognised standards in the particular geographical area.
e. If, in sales employ, he/she will not offer or give engineering consultation or designs or
advice other than specifically applying to the equipment being sold.
Section 10: The Engineer will not accept compensation, financial or otherwise, from more
than one interested party for the same service or for services pertaining to the same work
unless there is full disclosure to and consent of all interested parties.
a. He/she will not accept financial or other considerations including free engineering
designs form material or equipment suppliers for specifying their products.
b. He/she will not accept commissions or allowances directly or indirectly from
contractors of other parties dealing with his/her clients or employer in connection with
work for which he/she is responsible.
Section 11: The Engineer will not compete unfairly with another engineer by attempting to
obtain employment or advancement or professional engagements by competitive bidding,
by taking advantage of a salaried position, by criticising other engineers or by other
improper or questionable methods.
a. The Engineer will not attempt to supplant another engineer in a particular
employment after becoming aware that definite steps have been taken toward the
others employment.
b. He/she will not offer to pay, either directly or indirectly, any commission, political
contribution, or a gift or other consideration in order to secure work, exclusive of
securing salaried positions through employment agencies.
c. He/she shall not solicit or submit engineering proposals on the basis of competitive
bidding. Competitive bidding for professional engineering services is defined as the
formal or informal submission, or receipt of verbal or written estimates of cost or
proposals in terms of dollars, man days of work required, percentage of construction
cost, or any other measure of compensation whereby the prospective client may
compare engineering services on a price basis prior to the time that one engineer or
one engineering organisation has been selected for negotiations. The disclosure of
recommended fee schedules prepared by various engineering societies is not
considered to constitute competitive bidding. An engineer requested to submit a fee
proposal or bid prior to the selection of an engineer or firm subject to the negotiation
of a satisfactory contract, shall attempt to have the procedure changed to conform to
ethical practice but is not successful, he/she shall withdraw from consideration for the
proposed work. These principles shall be applied by the Engineer in obtaining the
services of other professionals.
d. An Engineer shall not request, propose or accept a professional commission on a
contingent basis under circumstances in which his/her professional judgement may
be compromised or when a contingency provision is used as a device for promoting
or securing a professional commission.
e. While in a salaried position, he/she will accept part-time engineering work only at a
salary or fee not less than that recognised as standard in the area

f. An Engineer will not use equipment, supplies, laboratory or office facilities or his/her
employer to carry on outside private practice without consent.
Section 12: The Engineer will not attempt to injure, maliciously or falsely, directly or
indirectly, the professional reputation, prospects, practice or employment of another
engineer, nor will he/she discriminately criticise another engineer work in public. If he/she
believes that another engineer is guilty of unethical or illegal practice, he/she shall present
such information to the proper authority for action.
a. An Engineer in private practice will not review the work of another engineer for the
same client, except with the knowledge of such engineer or unless the connection of
such engineer with the work has been terminated,
b. An Engineer in government, industrial or education employ is entitled to review and
evaluate the work of other engineers when so required by his/her employment duties.
c. An Engineer in sales or industrial employ is entitled to make engineering
comparisons of his/her products with products by other suppliers.
Section 13: The Engineer will not associate with or allow the use of his/her name by an
enterprise of questionable character, or will he/she become professionally associated with
engineers who do not conform to ethical practices or with persons not legally qualified to
render the professional services for which the association is intended.
a. He/she will conform with registration laws in his/her practice of engineering.
b. He/she will not use association with a non-engineer, a corporation or partnership as a
cloak for unethical acts, but must accept personal responsibility for his/her
professional acts.
Section 14: The Engineer will give credit for engineering work to who credit is due and will
recognise the proprietary interests of others.
a. Whenever possible, he/she will name the person or persons who may be individually
responsible for designs, inventions, writing or other accomplishments.
b. When an engineer uses designs supplied to him/her by a client, the designs remain
the property of the client and should not be duplicated by the engineer for others
without express permission.
c. Before undertaking work for others in connection with which he/she may make
improvements, plans, designs, inventions or other records which may justify copyrights or patents, the engineer should enter into a positive agreement regarding the
ownership.
d. Designs, data, records and notes made by an engineer and referring exclusively to
his/her employers work are his/her employers property.
Section 15: The Engineer will cooperate in extending the effectiveness of the profession
by interchanging information and experience with other engineers and students and will
endeavour to provide opportunity for the professional development and advancement of
engineers under his/her supervision.

a. He/she will encourage his/her engineering employees effort to improve their


education.
b. He/she will encourage engineering employees to attend and present papers at
professional and technical society meetings.
c. He/she will urge his/her engineering employees to become registered at the earliest
possible date.
d. He/she will assign professional engineer duties of a nature to utilise his/her full
training and experience, insofar as possible, and delegate lesser function to subprofessionals or to technicians.
e. He/she will provide a prospective engineering employee with complete information on
working conditions and his/her proposed status of employment and after employment
will keep him informed of any changes in them.

BEM CODE OF ETHICS/REGULATIONS

15.4 Obligation of An Engineer


I am an Engineer. In my profession, I take deep pride. To it I owe solemn obligations. Since
the Stone Age, human progress has been spurred by the engineering genius. Engineers
have made usable Natures vast resources of material and energy for Mankinds benefit.
Engineers have vitalised and turned to practical use the principles of science and the means
of technology. Were it not for this heritage of accumulated experience, my efforts would be
feeble.
As an Engineer, I pledge to practice integrity and fair dealing, tolerance and respect and to
uphold devotion to the standards and the dignity of my profession, conscious always that
my skill carries with it the obligation to serve humanity by making the best use of Earths
precious wealth.
As an Engineer, in humility and with the need for Divine Guidance, I shall participate in none
but honest enterprises. When needed, my skill and knowledge shall be given without
reservation for the public good. In the performance of duty and in fidelity to my profession, I
shall give the utmost,
In the presence of your fellow engineers, please sign your name to the Obligation of the
Engineer.

BEM CODE OF ETHICS/REGULATIONS

15.5 Engineering
What is engineering? It can simply be defined as the application of Science and
Mathematics to the solving of practical problems.
Engineering is both a science and an art. Scientists explore the mysteries of nature and
seek knowledge of the behaviour and properties of matter. Engineers use this knowledge to
create technology to serve the needs of man. Engineering is an art because it involves
creativity. Every bridge, automatic telephone exchange, aircraft and tractor, which you see
and perhaps use is the product of engineering creativity.
In fact, engineers have a hand in the shaping of anything in use anywhere from chips to
chairs; TV to toys; highways to kidney machines; robots to milk bottles. They are the wealth
creators without whom the countrys economy cannot improve. By designing irrigation and
similar schemes for the rural people, they reduce famine and poverty. Hence, engineering
can be the right choice for the person who wants to improve the quality of life around us and
contribute to the countrys economic growth as well as for those who want a prestigious top
management or professional post.
As with all man-made things, engineering creations are subject to wear and tear in use and
to the onslaught of weather, Thus having created, the engineer is called upon to maintain
and keep in good condition that which he has created. It is in this role in the maintenance
of machinery and structures, the engineer is most frequently seen by the public because it is
in this role that the engineer most frequently interacts with the public.
In the pursuit of his work, many resources are put at the disposal of the engineer. These
include human, material and capital resources. The engineer is responsible for the optimum
use of these resources, that is, he is responsible for the competent management of these
resources. Thus, the practising engineer is also a manager.
All ideas and creations by engineers may eventually be commercially exploited. As
engineers are the ones who have in-depth knowledge of the product, they are in the best
position to promote and market the product. Thus, an engineer can also be very much
involved in the sales and marketing of engineering products.
Various Engineering Disciplines
Since engineering activities cover such a wide scope, it is physically impossible for any one
engineer to acquire the knowledge and expertise demanded by the various activities. To
cope with this demand, engineers have to specialise.
Thus, there are different kinds of engineers. The variety of engineers in any country is, to a
degree, a reflection of the industrial development in that country. In Malaysia, the 5 main
groups of engineers today are the civil, mechanical, electrical, chemical and agricultural
engineers. There are also increasing numbers of electronic, instrumentation,
telecommunications, mining, structural and other engineers.

Most engineering projects require the services of engineering specialists of more than one
discipline. For example, in the construction of a power station, the massive construction
work is undertaken by the civil engineers; while mechanical engineers design and
commission the boilers, turbines, fuel handling systems and other associated equipment;
electrical engineers are responsible for the alternators and transmission equipment; and
instrumentations and control engineers are responsible for the control and safety of the
shutdown system.
Civil Engineering
Civil engineers are concerned with the design, planning and construction of highways,
bridges, dams, building structures, sewage plants, off-shore structures, etc. They design
and construct the biggest (and longest lasting) single physical undertaking for which man is
responsible. A career in civil engineering can satisfy many tastes. These include outdoor
work on site, indoor on design or preparation of contracts, schemes which are breath-taking
in their overall concept or mundane but at least equally valuable in service to the
community. More than any other branch of engineering, civil engineers tend to be
consultants, called in by local authorities or architects for whom they plan and design
projects.
In Malaysia, most civil engineers work in consultancy firms, public services departments and
with contracting companies. They design and supervise construction projects and various
infrastructure schemes dealing with the architects, contractors and project proponents.
Electrical and Electronic Engineering
These two overlap. Broadly speaking, electrical engineering is concerned with the use and
generation of electricity to produce heat, light and mechanical power. Electrical engineers
work in generating stations, distribution systems and on the manufacturing of all kinds of
electrical machinery from tiny motors for refrigerators to heavy motors for industrial plants.
The invention of thermionic valve gives rise to electronics which is mainly concerned with
computers, telecommunication, automation/instrumentation and control. Electronics have
since become the fastest expanding area in engineering around the world and in Malaysia,
it has brought an impact to virtually every industrial, commercial, scientific and professional
activity.
(a) Computers The electronic engineering industry produces the hardware which
houses the software the programs and other components which computer system
need to enable it to perform its task. The computer system includes microprocessors,
visual display units, printers, mainframes, mini and micro-printers.
(b) Telecommunications This is concerned with communication facilities between
several participants in different locations, sometimes as far away as thousands of
miles across the oceans. Some of the telecommunication advances made possible
by electronic engineers include telex, telefax, radio networks, satellite, TV, etc.
Thanks to telecommunication technologies, we are now able to watch live telecast of
events held thousands of miles away, something our ancestors have never dreamt
of.
(c) Automation, Instrumentation and Control Automation is concerned with the
operation of automatic control devices, such as automatic ovens and cookers,
computer controlled gadgets on the mass production line at factories, traffic light
control , robotics, etc.

Instrumentation is concerned with the techniques of accurate measurement of physical


variables, often in difficult environmental conditions and the display of such information in
the best possible manner. Examples are the measurement and display of:
-

Altitude, speed, engine temperature of an aircraft.


Pressure, temperature, flow, etc of a chemical plant.
Blood pressure, heart rate, temperature of a patient in an intensive care unit.

On the other hand, control is the study of how individual elements can best be organised
and operated to produce optimum performance, for example, the computer control of a
machine, control an aircraft, etc.
Mechanical Engineering
Mechanical engineers are concerned with all forms of prime movers, vehicles and handling
equipment, indeed anything which has moving parts. The hoist and cranes which lift heavy
weights and the lorries which transport heavy loads over long distances, the big factory
machinery which manufacture and package the millions of articles upon which we all
depend; the petrol and diesel engines which convert the captive energy in fuel oils into
useful energy for driving our cars and other industrial equipment; these are all in the domain
of mechanical engineering.
Some mechanical engineers specialise further and become industrial and production
engineers. They are more concerned with manufacturing activities. The industrial engineer
is more involved in the management of the subsystems of the enterprise, while the
production engineer is more involved in the design of products and processes to achieve
quality and value.
Chemical Engineering
The chemical engineer deals with all aspects of processing raw materials into useful
products. This involves the flow and transfer of large quantities of materials and their
conversion from one form to another. Conversion can be physical as in distillation; by other
chemical reaction often at high temperatures and pressures as in ammonia production; or
even biochemical where organisms are used to produce useful chemicals as in penicillin
production.
Chemical engineers work in a wide range of industries. They provide technical support and
manage plants which process oil, coal, minerals, petrochemicals, plastics, metal, ceramic,
food, drugs, textiles, etc. Locally, the palm oil, petroleum and food industries employ a
considerable number of chemical engineers.
Agricultural Engineering
Agricultural engineering deals with the application of the fundamental principles of
engineering to the particular conditions and requirements of agriculture as an industry and
as a field of applied science. As the name denotes, an agricultural engineer is one who has
been trained in both engineering and agriculture. Combing the knowledge of the two, he
develops, designs, organises and directs engineering work in the agriculture and closely
allied industries, in order to strive for maximum efficiency and productivity. He may
incorporate new technologies in the design, manufacture and maintenance of agricultural
equipment, provide right housing for livestock or be involved in product mechanizing
procedures and crop storage and processing.

Career Prospects
Engineering is not so much a career, more an expertise which opens doors into a vast
range of jobs. Their specific knowledge can be useful in an age when technology has a
bearing on virtually any type of business. Besides, their analytical approach to problem
solving is invariably useful, even when the problem is not technical. As such, employers
often prefer science and engineering graduates to art graduates. An engineering
qualification can also lead to marketing, industrial management, journalism and other
graduate employment. It is, in fact, very much a transferable skill. A choice in engineering is
useful at a time when everybody is likely to change jobs several times in his working life.
With Malaysia moving into industrialisation, engineers will be playing a key role in nation
building. A large number of engineers and technicians with advanced skills are needed in
the manufacturing industry. There is a need to shift emphasis away from the production of
civil engineering graduates and technicians towards the production of graduates with skills
suitable for industry, in particular, chemical, electronic and industrial engineering.
Nature of Job
In each engineering discipline, an engineer can be involved in one or more of the following
activities:a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.

Technical Services
Production/Manufacturing
Research and Development
Education and Training
Maintenance
Management
Trading and Marketing

Technical Services
Technical services include most of the public sector activities such as in the generation and
distribution of electricity, telecommunications, sewage and waterworks, public transport
system, roads and highways and drainage and irrigation. This sector provides employment
for the largest number of engineers in Malaysia.
The employing agencies include the Jabatan Kerja Raya (JKR), Jabatan Pengairan dan
Saliran (JPS), Tenaga Nasional Berhad (TNB), Telekom Malaysia Berhad (TM), Keretapi
Tanah Melayu Berhad (KTMB) and the Armed Forces. These agencies overall employ a
majority of civil engineers followed by electrical and mechanical engineers. Most of the civil
engineers are concentrated in JKR and JPS, while TNB and TM employ most of the
electrical engineers in this sector. The mechanical engineers account for a much smaller
proportion and are mainly employed in the maintenance units of these departments.
A specialised area of technical services is in the field on engineering consultancy. There is a
significant number of engineering consultants in Malaysia who offer technical expertise in
building construction, road building, air-conditioning design, factory and layout planning,
design of fire protection systems and so on. Consultants are generally engaged by both the
private and public sector when these organisations need special skills in particular area of
engineering for specific periods of time when either their own staff are tied down with other
projects or when it is uneconomical to engage a suitable staff on a permanent basis.

Production and Manufacturing


Manufacturing activities range from unit production where large, single units such as mutlistorey buildings, bridges and ships are made one at a time, through batch and mass
production, to process industries which handle chemicals such as in refineries and chemical
plants. Most of our everyday goods such as motor cars, radios, air conditioners, shoes and
pencils fall into mass and batch production methods of manufacture. In the unit production
end of this activity scale, one finds a majority of civil engineers; in the intermediate batch
and mass production area majority of mechanical engineers; and at the process end, a
majority of chemical engineers. Electrical engineers invariably provide service and
maintenance facilities over this range of activities.
The manufacturing sector has been growing spectacularly in recent years, contributed for
more than 50% of the countrys gross export, putting primary commodities to the second
position. The main items of exports being electrical and electronic products, textiles, clothing
and footwear, iron, steel and mineral products, rubber and wood products.
This strong growth is of great significance both to the national economic development as
well as to employment in Malaysia which is traditionally an agricultural country. One ton of
rubber processed into even a simple product such as slippers is worth 3 times the price of
raw rubber. Again, an estate producing 10 tons of rubber per year needs only one direct
employee, while a factory processing 10 tons of rubber per year requires at least 4 direct
workers. As many engineers are required in manufacturing and production line, this
development augurs well for the employment opportunities of the engineers. It can also be
envisaged that there will be a shift of employment of engineers from the traditional
maintenance and technical services area towards production and manufacturing.
Research and Development
Engineering art is never static. As new discoveries are made by scientists, engineers search
for more economic applications of these discoveries to improve the quality of life of people.
At the forefront of this area of activity are the engineers engaged in research and
development.
Traditionally, most of the engineers actively engaged in research are either in the
Government sponsored research organisations such as SIRIM or the universities with
engineering faculties. With the country moving towards industrialisation, a gradual shift to
the private sector can be envisaged.
There is some glamour attached to this work, at least in the public eye. But in the pragmatic
world of engineers, most research and development work is just plain and meticulous hard
work, that is, test and more tests of concept and product. There is very little opportunity for
the frontiers-of-knowledge kind of research.
Some of the bigger manufacturing organisations in the country have one or more engineers
performing this function. Most of the research at these organisations is aimed at maximising
sales and profits. For example, a research and development department may be asked to
try to come up with a better-selling product than a companys competitor; or to investigate
why there is a recurrent fault in a particular production process or product; or to test and
study the properties of a new material before using it for production.

Education and Training


To supply the demand for engineering manpower, a large number of engineers are involved
in engineering education and training. The lecturers are found in the engineering faculties of
our universities, technical colleges, polytechnics, industrial training institutes and trade
schools.
The on-the-job training of fresh engineering graduates is a responsibility shared by all
professional engineers. An apprenticeship is invariably adopted and new engineering
graduates work under the supervision of more senior engineers for a period of three years.
This period of guided application of the theory gained through their formal education
courses serve to provide a grounding in the art of engineering.
Maintenance
It is in the role of Mr. Fix-it or the maintenance engineer, that the public is most aware of the
engineer because it is in this role that there is perhaps maximum contact with nonengineers. Maintenance engineers in the public sector maintain the public utilities such as
roads, railways, waterworks and electricity supply.
Maintenance engineers in the manufacturing sector maintain the enormous investments in
machinery and equipment essential to basic production process.
Maintenance engineering demands a thorough and detailed understanding of the processes
involved as well as the associated structures and machinery. All kinds of engineers are
involved in this activity civil engineers in he maintenance of buildings, roads and
waterways, electrical engineers in the maintenance of electricity generating and distribution
systems, mechanical engineers in the maintenance of plant and machinery, agricultural
engineers in the maintenance of crop production and processing equipment and chemical
engineers in the maintenance of control and production systems in the process industries.
Management
With age and experience, most engineers progress from raw engineering to management.
This is a common trend in all branches of engineering. Top executive positions in many
large organisations involved in engineering activities are held by engineers. This is because
management positions in such organisations demand a sound background in engineering
matters to make decisions in areas which on the surface may appear as purely
administrative or financial. There are degrees which combine engineering with
management, economics, languages and other subjects. There are postgraduate courses in
business management, systems analysis which may either be taken locally or overseas and
usually immediately after the first degree or a few years later so as to strengthen ones
managerial skills.
Trading and Marketing
With their specialised technical knowledge, engineers with a flair for marketing may be
involved in technical sales and marketing such as marketing of computers (by electronic
engineers), agricultural equipment (by agriculture engineers), scientific instrument and other
engineering products.
Engineers involved in sales spend most of their time away selling anything from machine
tools to domestic freezers and motor cars. Customers may be laymen to whom virtues of a
product have to be explained or professionals who ask searching questions about its

performance and properties. Sales of equipment involving very large investments may take
months of meetings and negotiations.
Engineers involved in marketing and trading also act as a link between prospective
customers and manufacturers. They convey criticisms and suggestions of customers to the
top management.
With experience and capital, some engineers initiate their own enterprise, selling a whole
range of engineering products. Thus, an engineering qualification can also lead to a career
in business.
Work Environment and Conditions
An engineer probably has a wider choice of the types of work to do than any other
profession. They me be based in one or more of the following places: a factory, a
laboratory, an office or outdoor on site. The amount of time an engineer spent at the
drawing board or using a light pen or desktop computer or involve in fieldwork outdoor
varies with each particular job, but it is estimated that most engineers spend about 1/3 of
their time discussing work with colleagues or clients. Team-work is paramount to the
engineers. With team-work, difficult and seemingly impossible tasks are made simple.
Engineers should also be prepared to spend some time away from home and depending on
the job, hours can be irregular and may involve evening and weekend work.
Personal Characteristics
If you are interested in electronics, dismantling and assembling cards, working with timber
and metals, being inquisitive and having a high standard in Mathematics and Science in
school, a career as an engineer would likely suit you.