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Manufacturing Methods

MAE 4500

Chapter 7 - Metal Casting

FIG. 6-5

FIG. 7-1

FIG. 7-3

FIG. 7-4

Casting Properties
Fundamental Properties:
Viscosity
The flow of the liquid metal inside the
mold is controlled by its viscosity.
a. T>Tm
Viscosity is a function of superheat.
Superheat = (T - Tm) / Tm

b. TS < T < TL
Viscosity is a function of the structure
and hence a function of the freezing
range.
Freezing range = (TL - TS) / TL

Viscosity low

Viscosity high

Variation of viscosity in an eutectic system

FIG. 7-5

Gases and Solidification

Alloy
S

Pg1/2

Solid
Liquid

Solubility

Tm
Similar to FIG. 6-17

Pg is the partial
pressure of the
gas over the melt

To eliminate:
1. Reduce pg ----> vacuum
2. Melting with insoluble gas
(inert gas such as argon)
3. Adding elements that react with the
gas
and form oxides
Al, Si, Ca
with steels
Phosphorus with Cu and
bronze

Technological Properties
Fluidity:
This term indicates the capability of the molten
metal to flow into the cavities of the system
before freezing.
Fluidity is a function of:
a. Fluid flow (viscosity)
Heat transfer
Superheat
Mold temperature
Mold type

b.

Solidification mechanism

Pure metals
and eutectic
alloys

Solid solution
alloys

Improved
fluidity

Fluidity Evaluation

FIG. 7-6

Fluidity index
It is measured by the length of the solidified
spiral or length of the solidified thin plate.

Heat Extraction and Solidification


Progressive vs. Directional Solidification
Directional solidification is important for the
quality of the casting (solidification proceeds from
the most remote section to the points of feeding).
1. Feeder heads (risers)
They serve as wells of liquid metal to
compensate for shrinkage during
solidification.
2. Chills
They are heat-absorbing devices for fast
freezing.

Directional
solidification

Progressive
solidification

Aids to directional
solidification

Improper positioning
of riser

Chill

Risers (feeder heads) should have a high


volume-to-area ratio compared to the product.

Effect of Process Parameters


on Product Properties
(Grain size, porosity, and homogeneity control)
1. Mold temperature
2. Nucleating agents
3. Breaking dendrites
a. Vibration during solidification
b. Centrifuging
c. Forced flow (pressure die casting)
d. Shearing (rheocasting)
e. Pressure application during solidification
(squeeze casting)

Fluidity

Effect of mold temperature on properties


and production rate

FIG. 7-7

Classification of casting processes

FIG. 7-12

Sequence of Operations of Sand Casting

FIG. 7-19

Similar to FIG. 7-15

(a) Pattern Design

Match Plate

Cope and Drag Plates

Characteristics of a Sand Mold

Similar to FIG. 7-17

FIG. 7-14

Investment Casting (Lost-wax Process)

FIG. 7-22

Centrifugal Casting

FIG. 7-26

Permanent molds

SIMILAR TO FIG. 7-24 and FIG. 7-25

Hot Chamber Die Casting

Cold Chamber Die Casting

Illustration of a Die Casting Machine