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2016 Fire Code

Flammable and Combustible


Liquids
PRESENTED BY

Reinhard Hanselka,
PhD, PE , CRB
Presentation images provided by
International Code Council (ICC)

Description
This course provides a basic understanding of
the flammable and combustible liquid storage,
use, dispensing, handling and mixing
requirements in IFC Chapter 57 and NFPA 30,
Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code.
General fire code requirements for hazardous
materials and specialized requirements for
Laboratories, Bio-Pharm, vehicle fuel-dispensing
activities (IFC Chapter 23), dry cleaning (IFC
Chapter 12) and other specialized uses of
flammable and combustible liquids are not covered
in detail due to the time limitations of a single-day
course.

Course Outline

Definitions and classification of


flammable & combustible liquids
Above-ground vessel storage
Underground tank storage
Containers and portable tank storage

Course Outline (cont.)


Use, dispensing, mixing and handling
Biotech and Laboratory use
Special processes involving
flammable & combustible liquids
Special requirements
Spill control and secondary containment
Classified electrical locations
Ventilation

Improper Ventilation

Flammable and Combustible Liquids

How do you keep


this

from becoming this ?

Focus on Flammable & Combustible Liquids

Liquids
Flammable
Flammable
&
present
and
If vapor can
is suspended
combustible
combustible
twoliquids
liquids
in airor
in threea confined
are
may
dimension
those
beaeasily
liquids
fires (pool
space,
deflagration
that
ignitable
or
are capable
and haveof
candripping/running
occur.
supporting
high
spill)
heat
that spread
release
combustion
rates.
rapidly

Vapor can migrate


to ignition sources
remote from a
spill.
A Real Problem
with HPLCs

Classification of Flammable & Combustible


Liquids

The CFC classifies liquids that burn as


either FLAMMABLE or COMBUSTIBLE .
To classify a flammable liquid, the
flash point and boiling point must be
determined.
Flash points and boiling points are determined by
experimentation.

Combustible liquids are also classified


by flash point tests but do not require
determination of the materials boiling
point.

Understanding the Flash Point System


Section 5702.1 defines FLASH
POINT as: The minimum
temperature in degrees
Fahrenheit at which a liquid
will give off sufficient vapors
to form an ignitable mixture
with air near the surface or in
the container, but will not
sustain combustion. The flash
point of a liquid shall be
determined by appropriate test
procedure and apparatus as
specified in ASTM D 56, ASTM
D 93 or ASTM D 3278.

Understanding the Flash Point System


Section 5702.1
defines FIRE POINT
as: The lowest
temperature at
which a liquid will
ignite and achieve
sustained burning
when exposed to a
test flame in
accordance with
ASTM D 92.

Understanding the Flash Point System


All of the adopted flash point
tests are closed cup tests.
More conservative
More reproducible

Flash point testing is a LIMITED


method for determining the
ignitability of a particular liquid.
Serves better as a basis of
comparing liquids than as an
absolute measure of fire risk

The CFC defines:


Liquids with a flash point less than
100F as FLAMMABLE
Liquids with a flash point at or above
100F as COMBUSTIBLE
This differs from DOT

DOT Classification of Liquids


Flammable Liquid
Generally applies to liquids with a
flash point less than 140F
There are MANY exceptions
In some cases, a liquid with a flash
point exceeding 100F may be
reclassified as a combustible liquid

Combustible Liquid
Generally applies to liquids with a
flash point 140F to 200F
Liquids with flash points exceeding
200F are not considered
combustible under DOT regulations

FLAMMABLE

DOT Classification of Liquids


Be careful that differences
between the IFC, CMC and
DOT classification systems
dont lead to
miscommunication between
an owner (who often deals
with transportation
regulations) and a fire
inspector (who primarily deals
in fire codes) when speaking
about flammable liquids.

FLAMMABLE

FL-1B Use Open


Max. Qty.
Per
Control
Area

= 30 Gallons

= 60 Gallons

FLOOR

10

30

30

4TH FLOOR
LIMITS

30

TOTALS
120

UFC

Qty. with
4 Lab
Suites
Per Floor

= 30 Gallons

5%

50%

50%

50%

50%

60

5%

5%

50%

50%

50%

50%

60

5%

5%

50%

50%

50%

50%

60

5%

5%

50%

50%

50%

50%

60

12.50%

12.50%

15

75%

75%

75%

75%

90

12.50%

12.50%

15

75%

75%

75%

75%

90

12.50%

12.50%

15

75%

75%

75%

75%

90

50%

50%

60

100%

100%

100%

100%

120

75%

75%

75%

135

100%

100%

100%

100%

120

100%

100%

100%

240

100%

100%

100%

100%

120

Basement
Level - 1

75%

75%

75%

135

100%

100%

100%

100%

120

Basement
Level - 2

50%

50%

60

75%

75%

75%

75%

90

30

Max. Qty.
Per Floor

TOTAL

100%

IFC 2006

696

L-Occupancy

1080

CLASSIFICATION OF FLAMMABLE AND COMBUSTIBLE LIQUIDS

Class IA

Less than 73

VAPOR PRESSURE
(PSI ABSOLUTE)
Less than or equal to 40

Class IB

Less than 73

Less than or equal to 40

CLASSIFICATION1

FLASH POINT (F)

BOILING POINT
(F)
Less than 100
Greater than or
equal to 100

Greater than 73 and


Class IC
less than or equal to Less than or equal to 40
N/A
100
Greater than 100 and
Class II
N/A
N/A
less than 140
Greater than or equal to
Class IIIA
N/A
N/A
140 and less than 200
Greater than or equal to
Class IIIB
N/A
N/A
200
N/A = Not applicable to classification.
1 When heated, sprayed or mixed, Class II or III liquids can assume the characteristics of lower
flash point liquids. Under such conditions the appropriate provisions of Chapter 34 for the actual
flash point shall apply.
When flammable or combustible liquids present multiple hazards, all hazards must be addressed.

Ignition and Burning Comparison of


Two Class I Liquid Types
Heptane
Heptane is a typical flammable
liquid.
Styrene resin is viscous and has a
low vapor pressure, both important
considerations in evaluating true
fire risk.
Flash point doesnt necessarily
indicate how easily a liquid ignites
and burns. It is simply a relative
measure of ignitibility of vapors in a
test environment

Styrene Resin

Navigating the IFC


The CFC is organized into 7 parts.
Unlike some legacy codes, the parts
are
Not formally identified;
Not separated by breaks in chapter
numbering.
The CFC has 47 chapters and 10
appendices.

Chapter 57
Flammable and Combustible Liquids

Chapter 57 is largely derived from the legacy 1997


Uniform Fire Code, but it gives more deference to
NFPA 30, Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code.
Most IFC regulations are similar to provisions in
NFPA 30, but there are some differences.

Chapter 57 Major Subsections


5701 General
5702 Definitions
5703 General
requirements
5704 Storage
5704.2 Above-ground and
underground tank storage
5704.3 Indoor portable tank and
container storage
5704.4 Outdoor portable tank and
container storage

5705 Dispensing, use,


mixing and handling
5706 Special
operations

Chapter 57 Flammable and


Combustible Liquids
It should be noted that
Chapter 57 differs from
the other hazardous
material chapters in
that many of the
requirements in
Sections 5704 and 5705
apply regardless of the
indoor or outdoor
Maximum Allowable
Quantities (MAQs).

Section 5701 General


Provisions in this section apply to all
storage, use and handling of
flammable and combustible liquids,
exceptF

Section 5701.2 Non-applicability


Chapter 57 requirements do not apply to
the following:
Specific provisions for liquids in vehicle fueling stations,
repair garages, airports and marinas (Chapter 22).
Medicine; foodstuffs; cosmetics; commercial, institutional
and industrial products in similar packaging to the items
listed here that are maximum 50 percent by volume
water-miscible flammable or combustible liquid with the
remainder being nonflammable in retail or wholesale
storage uses.
Alcoholic beverages not exceeding 1.3 gallon containers
in retail or wholesale sales or storage uses; distilled
spirits and wines in wooden barrels and casks.

Section 5701.2 Non-applicability (cont.)

Chapter 57 requirements do not apply


to the following:
Storage and use of fuel oil tanks and containers
connected to oil-burning equipment.
Refrigerant liquids and oils in refrigeration systems.
Storage and display of aerosols.
Liquids without fire points.

Section 5701 Material Classification


Section 5701.1 Flammable
and combustible liquids with
multiple hazards must also
comply with Chapter 50.
Example: Acetic acid is a Class II combustible liquid
that is also corrosive.
Example: Methyl Ethyl Ketone Peroxide which is a
Class II or IIIA combustible liquid and a Class II or III
organic peroxide

Section 5701.5 When


combustible liquids are heated
above their flash points, they
are regulated as flammable
liquid.

Section 5703 General Requirements


5703.1 Electrical
5703.2 Fire Protection
5703.4 Spill Control
and Secondary
Containment
5703.5 Labels and
Signs
5703.6 Piping, Valves
and Fittings

Section 5703.6.2 Piping Systems


Piping systems must be designed in accordance with NFPA
30 and ASME B31.3, Process Piping.
Piping systems may be either metallic or nonmetallic.
Low melt point materials
At a minimum, the system design should indicate the:
Design temperature and ressure
Pipe and fitting specifications
Method of pipe assembly
Method of pipe erection and support
Method of testing and test medium

A Properly Designed and Installed


Piping System

And then there is thisF

Section 5704 Storage

Section 5704.2 Tank Storage


Section 5704.2
addresses tanks over
660 gallons:

Construction

Installation

Venting
Normal vents
Emergency vents

Separation requirements

Secondary containment

Protection from corrosion

Section 5704.2 Tank Storage


5704.2.2 Use of
tank vehicles and
cars for storage
5704.2.3 Labeling
and signs
5704.2.4 Sources of
ignition
5704.2.5 Explosion
control

Section 5704.2 Tank Storage (cont.)


5704.2.6 Separation
from incompatible
materials
5704.2.7 Design
and construction
3404.2.7.3 Normal venting
60 gallons!!!
3404.2.7.4 Emergency venting
3404.2.7.5 Tank openings
other than vents

5704.2.8 Vaults

Section 5704.2 Tank Storage


5704.2.9 Aboveground tanks
5704.2.9.1 Existing
noncompliant installations
5704.2.9.2 Fire protection
5704.2.9.3 Supports
5704.2.9.5 Above-ground
storage tanks in buildings
5704.2.9.6 Location of
tanks outdoors
5704.2.9.7 Protected tanks

Section 5704.2 Tank Storage (cont.)


5704.2.10 Drainage and
diking
5704.2.11 Underground
tanks
5704.2.12 Testing
5704.2.13
Abandonment of tanks

Section 5704.2.7
Design and Construction of Tanks

The IFC permits the use of the following


types of storage tanks:
Shop-fabricated tanks which can
be listed for underground or
above-ground installation
Field erected above-ground
tanks
Protected above-ground
tanks
Vaulted tanks
Special enclosures
( See Chapter 22motor
fueling)

Section 5704.2.7
Design and Construction of Tanks
Design, fabrication and construction must be in
accordance with NFPA 30s recognized standards.
UL 58 Steel Underground Tanks for Flammable & Combustible Liquids
UL 142 Steel Aboveground Tanks for Flammable & Combustible Liquids
API 620 Welded, Low-pressure Storage Tanks
API 650 Welded Steel Tanks for Oil Storage
API 2000 Venting Atmospheric & Low-pressure Storage Tanks
ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section VIII - Pressure Vessels
UL 2085 Protected Aboveground Tanks for Flammable & Combustible Liquids
UL 2245 Below-Grade Vaults for Flammable Liquid Storage

IFC Section 5704.2.7 requires a permanent marking


or nameplate on ASTs indicating the standard used
as the basis of design, fabrication and construction
(origin 1997 UFC).

Field-Erected versus Shop-Fabricated


Above-ground Storage Tanks
Field-Erected ASTs
Volume and the diameter
are unlimited.
The tank bottom is the
thickest part of the tank.
Generally constructed
inside of a containment
dike.
Are subject to a periodic
internal and external
corrosion examination.
Are approved.

Shop-Fabricated ASTs
Volume is limited to
50,000 gallons.
The tank wall is thinner
than the tank heads.
Can be constructed with
integral secondary
containment.
Are not subject to a
periodic internal
corrosion examination.
Are listed.

API 650 Field-Erected AST

UL 2245 Vaulted Below-grade AST

2,000 Gallon w.c. ASME Pressure Vessel

Section 5704.2.2 Use of Tank Vehicles


and Tank Cars for Storage

Tank vehicles and


tank cars are not
permitted to be
used as storage
tanks.
However, Section
5706.5 permits their
use for bulk
transfer and
process transfer
operations.

Use of a DOT Tanker as an Aboveground Storage Tank

Section 5704.2.9.1
Existing Noncompliant Installations
Section 5704.2.9.1 ensures
that any existing aboveground storage tank (AST)
is properly installed and
maintained.
An existing AST found to
be in violation of the IFC or
the NFPA standards
adopted by reference that
were in effect at the time of
construction must be
brought into compliance
or removed from service.

Section 5704.2.9.2 Fire Protection


The requirements for
fire protection
systems on fielderected storage tanks
are found in Section
5704.2.9.2.1 and apply
to:
Tanks operating at
atmospheric pressure.
Contents that are Class I or II
liquids or crude oil.
All tanks within a group having
a surface area > 1,500 ft.
Tanks located in relation to
fired fuel sources.
Situations when required by
the fire code official.

Section 5704.2.9.2.2
Foam Fire Protection Systems
Section 5704.2.9.2.2 requires foam
fire protection systems to be in
accordance with NFPA 11, Low-,
Medium- and High-Expansion Foam
Systems.
The requirements in NFPA 11 are
dependent on several variables
including:

Tank diameter and height,


The classification of the stored liquid,
If ATC type foam is required,
When fixed foam chambers are used, if
the roof is either fixed or floating, and
If the roof is floating, the design of the
foam dam.
Photograph courtesy of
Tyco/Ansul Products,
Marinette WI

Section 5704.2.9.2.2.1 Foam Storage


The IFC permits the storage
of AFFF on site or off site. If
off-site storage is the
selected method, it must
comply with the following:
The foam is compatible with the
hazards being protected.
Adequate material handling and
logistical resources are available.
A sufficient volume of AFFF is
accumulated before commencing the
fire attack.
Photograph courtesy of Tyco/Ansul
Products, Marinette WI

Section 5704.2.9.2.3
Fire Protection of Tank Supports
Tanks storing Class I, II or
IIIA liquids elevated more
than 12 inches above grade
require that columns or
supports have a minimum 2hour fire-resistance rating
based on the fire exposure
criteria in ASTM E 1529.
Protected ASTs, tanks
protected by a water spray
system or tanks inside of
buildings protected by an
approved automatic
sprinkler system are exempt
from the requirement.

Section 5704.2.9.6
Above-ground Tank Location
Section 5703.2.9.6.1 allows
the jurisdiction to establish
locations where aboveground storage of Class I
and II liquids is prohibited.
The NFPA 30 tank siting
requirements depend on the
type of tank, and the
classification and stability of
the liquid stored.

Table 22.4.1.1(a) Location of Aboveground Storage Tanks Storing Stable Liquids Internal
Pressure Not to Exceed a Gauge Pressure of 2.5 PSI (17 kPa)

Type of Tank
Floating roof

Protection
Protection from
exposuresb
None

Vertical with weak roof-to- Approved foam or


shell seam
inerting system on
tanks not exceeding
150 ft. in diameterd
Protection from
exposuresb
None

Horizontal and vertical


tanks with emergency
relief venting to limit
pressures to 2.5 PSIG
(17.2 kPa gauge)

Protected aboveground
tank

Approved foam or
inerting systemb on
the tank or approved
foam system on
vertical tanks
Protection of
exposuresb
None
None

Minimum Distance (ft)


From Property Line
From Nearest Side of
Any Public Way or from
That Is or Can Be Built
Nearest Important
Upon, Including the
Building on the Same
Opposite Side of A
Propertya
Public Waya
x diameter of tank
1/6 x diameter of tank
Diameter of tank but
need not exceed 175 ft
x diameter of tank

1/6 x diameter of tank

Diameter of tank

1/3 x diameter of tank

2 x diameter of tank but


need not exceed 350
feet
x Table 22.4.1.1(b)

1/3 x diameter of tank

Table 22.4.1.1 (b)

Table 22.4.1.1 (b)

2 x Table 22.4.1.1 (b)


x Table 22.4.1.1(b)

Table 22.4.1.1 (b)


x Table 22.4.1.1(b)

1/6 x diameter of tank

x Table 22.4.1.1(b)

a. The minimum distance cannot be less than 5 feet (1.5 m)


b. See 3.3.42, Protection for Exposures
c. See NFPA 69, Standard on Explosion Protection Systems
d. For tanks over 150 ft (45 m) in diameter, use Protection for exposures or none as applicable

Table 22.4.1.1 (b) Reference Table for Use in Tables 22.4.1.1(a), 22.4.1.3, and 22.4.1.5
Tank Capacity (gal)

275 or less
276 to 750
751 to 12,000
12,001 to 30,000
30,001 to 50,000
50,001 to 100,000
100,001 to 500,000
500,001 to 1,000,000
1,000,001 to 2,000,000
2,000,001 to 3,000,000
3,000,001 or more

Minimum Distance From


Property Line That Is or Can Be
Built Upon, Including the
Opposite Side of A Public Way
(ft)
5
10
15
20
30
50
80
100
135
165
175

Minimum Distance From


Nearest Side of Any Public
Way or from Nearest
Important Building on the
Same Property (ft)
5
5
5
5
15
25
25
35
45
55
60

Table 22.4.2.1 Minimum Shell-to-Shell Spacing of Aboveground Storage Tanks


Fixed or Horizontal Tanks
Tank Diameter

Floating Roof Tanks

All tanks not over 150 ft


(45 m) in diameter

1/6 x of adjacent tank


diameters but not less
than 3 ft (0.9 m)

Class I or II Liquids
1/6 x of adjacent tank
diameters but not less
than 3 ft (0.9 m)

Class IIIA Liquids


1/6 x of adjacent tank
diameters but not less
than 3 ft (0.9 m)

If remote impounding is
provided in accordance
with 22.11.1

1/6 x of adjacent tank


diameters

x of adjacent tank
diameters

x of adjacent tank
diameters

If open diking is
provided is provided in
accordance with
22.11.2

x of adjacent tank
diameters

1/3 x of adjacent tank


diameters

1/3 x of adjacent tank


diameters

Tanks larger than 150 ft


(45 m) in diameter:

Location of ASTs
Four 65,000-gallon
(nominal) vertical API 12F
ASTs are being installed at
a terminal.
Each tank will store Class
IC stable flammable liquids.
Each tank has an
emergency vent with an
opening pressure of 1 psig.
All four tanks are within a
single containment dike.
Protection of exposures will
be provided by a public fire
department.

AST Site Plan


NFPA 30
The distance to the
South and West
terminal Property Line
(PL)
The distance to the
Control Building,
which is an Important
Building (IB)
The Shell to Shell (SS)
tank separation
distance

SS

PL

IB

Control Building
PL
Property Line

Solution: Location of ASTs


Separation Distance to Property Lines (PL)
Apply Table 22.4.1.1 (a). Minimum PL distance is based on Table
22.4.1.1 (b). For a nominal 65,000- gallon AST, the minimum PL
separation distance is 50 feet.

Separation Distance to Important Building (IB)


The control building is on the same property as the ASTs.
Table 22.4.1.1 (a) states the separation distance is based on Table
22.4.1.1 (b). For a nominal 65,000-gallon AST the minimum IB
separation distance is 15 feet.

Tank Shell to Shell (SS) Separation Distance


Apply Table 22.4.2.1. The each tanks diameter < 150 feet. Shop
drawings indicate each tank has a nominal 14 foot diameter. The
sum diameter of the three adjacent tanks is 42 feet. (42 feet x
0.167 = Minimum 7 foot SS distance).

Section 5704.2.7
Above-ground Tank Openings
Atmospheric ASTs are
constructed with
openings to
accommodate:
Normal vent
Emergency vent
Other tank openings
Other tank openings
may be located above
or below the liquid level
of the tank, except if it
is a protected AST or is
used for motor vehicle
fuel dispensing.

Section 5704.2.7.3.3
Normal Tank Vents
Atmospheric storage tanks
require a method of
relieving the internal
pressure caused by the
introduction or withdrawal
of product.
Section 5704.2.7.3.3
requires the normal vents
for tanks that contain Class
I, II or IIIA liquids be
terminated:
At a safe point outside of buildings
Not less than 12 feet above the
adjacent ground level
Not less than 5 feet from property lines
and building openings

Normal vent
pressure vacuum type

2009 IFC Flammable and


Combustible Liquids

This SUCKEDliterally

57

If you only remember ONE THING


from this classF
Make sure that it is the
IMPORTANCE OF EMERGENCY VENTS!

Workbook Page

Practical Application

Explosive Limits

Chemical
Acetone
Acetylene
Ammonia
Gasoline
Hydrogen
Methane
Toluene

LEL
2.5%
2.5%
15%
1.4%
4.0%
5.0%
1.2%

UEL Optimal
15% 5.0%
83% 8.0%
28% 17%
7.6% 1.6%
75% 8.0%
15% 9.0%
7.1% 2.5%

Section 5704.2.7.4
Emergency Relief Venting for Tanks
Stationary ASTs require emergency relief vents to
relieve excessive internal pressures resulting from
fire exposure on or near the tank.
Incidents in Kansas City, KS, Amarillo and
Kennadale, TX and Gadsden, AL, resulted in fire
fighters deaths because adequate emergency
venting was not provided or the vents were
disabled.
Vent designs include long-bolt vents, venting by
construction or the use of direct-action
emergency vents.

Emergency Vent

Normal Vent

62

Graphite rupture pin on hinged vent

Emergency vents
An absolute must to prevent explosive
tank ruptures.

2009 IFC FLammable and Combustible Liquids

63

Section 5704.2.7.4
Emergency Relief Venting for Tanks
Determining the required vent capacity for an
atmospheric storage tank is based on the
tanks orientation, its wetted area, and the
minimum volume of free air discharged per
hour specified in NFPA 30, Section 22.7 and
Annex B [2008 ed.].
Three steps to determine adequacy of
emergency vent:
1. Calculating the tank wetted area
2. Determining the required discharge flow rate based
on the material stored in the tank
3. Ensuring the emergency vent will relieve enough
vapor to achieve the required flow rate

Section 5704.2.7.4
Emergency Relief Venting for Tanks
Listed shop-fabricated ASTs will often have a
nameplate specifying the minimum flow rate
required for emergency vent.
NFPA 30 Section 22.7.3.10 [2008 ed.] requires the
vent discharge capacity to be indicated on the
emergency vent.
To determine if the emergency vent is properly
sized, compare the nameplate data to the
emergency vent flow rate.
Vent device flows assume a maximum 1-foot pipe
extension based on calculations in API 2000,
Venting Atmospheric and Low Pressure Storage
Tanks: Nonrefrigerated and Refrigerated.

Section 5704.2.7.4
Emergency Relief Venting for Tanks

Hopper Model 34
Emergency Vent
198,000 SCFH @ 8 oz.
Methyl Iso Bad Karma

Emergency Vent Discharge


Rate: 233,000 SCFH

Whats Missing?
67

Pitting indicates a reused


underground tank.

68

Other ConsiderationsF
Pressure Relief for Vessels

Short on space for your tank farm?

Section 5704.2.9.7
Protected Above-ground Tanks
A protected above-ground storage tank is one
method of resolving safety concerns regarding
above-ground tanks for liquid storage
PASTs must:
Be listed to UL 2085
(2-hour temp. limited fire test)
Have impact protection
Have secondary containment
Have overfill protection
Have openings on top only

NFPA 30A fire-resistant


tanks are not recognized.

Section 5704.2.9.7
Protected Above-ground Tanks
Tanks for fuel storage are specifically regulated in
Chapter 22.
Above-ground tanks for fuel
storage are limited to a volume
of:
12,000 gallons per tank
48,000 gallons aggregate

Table 2206.2.3 specifies


tank siting requirements
based on tank volume
and exposures such as
property lines, important
buildings and adjacent tanks.

Section 5704.2.8
Tank Vaults
Vaults are used for installing
ASTs below grade.
Premanufactured vaults must be
listed in accordance with UL 2245.
Construction must be a minimum
of 6-inches of reinforced concrete.
Vaults containing Class I liquids
require mechanical ventilation.
Overfill protection, leak monitoring
and alarm systems are required.
Vaults require approved automatic
or manual means of applying a fire
suppression agent.

Section 5704.2.9.5
Stationary Tanks Inside Buildings
Typically requires a Group H
occupancy in accordance
with the IBC.
Tanks for Class I, II and IIIA
liquids require a means of
overfill protection to prevent
liquid from spilling into the
building.
Section 5704.2.7.5.6 requires
connections that are made
and broken, including fill
connections, to be outside.

Section 5704.2.10
Drainage and Diking for Tanks
An area surrounding
tanks must be provided
with drainage control or
diking to prevent
accidental discharge
from endangering other
tanks, adjoining
property or waterways.
Depending on the total
volume within the
containment basin,
intermediate diking may
be required by NFPA 30.

Section 5704.2.10
Drainage and Diking for Tanks
The IFC requires a dike to
contain the volume of the
largest tank in the dike
plus the volume displaced
by other tanks in the same
dike.
Walls to be earth, steel,
concrete or solid masonry.
Must have method to
remove excess water.

Section 5704.2.11
Underground Storage Tanks
Underground Storage
Tanks (USTs) are
constructed of carbon steel
or fiberglass reinforced
plastic.
Tanks must be located:

Photograph courtesy of the Steel Tank Institute,


Lake Zurich IL

Away from loads caused by


foundations,
At least 3 feet from nearest
wall of a basement, pit, cellar
or property line, and
At least 1 foot from other
tanks.

Section 5704.2.11
Underground Storage Tanks
Tanks must be
sufficiently covered with
earth or other coverings
to prevent damage.
Fill pipes require a spill
container and an overfill
prevention device.
Spill containers must
have a capacity of at
least 5 gallons and be
equipped with a drain
valve.

Section 5704.2.11.4
Underground Storage Tanks
An overfill prevention
system must:

Activate an audible and


visual alarm when 90%
of tank capacity is
reached,
Shut off flow when 95%
of tank capacity is
reached, or
Reduce the flow to 15
gpm, the tank will not fill
for 30 minutes and none
of the fittings is exposed
to product.

Section 5704.3
Container and Portable Tank Storage
5704.3 addresses
portable tanks 660
gallons and containers
60 gallons in volume.
Their design,
construction and
maximum volume
requirements are
established in NFPA
30.

Section 5704.3
Container and Portable Tank Storage

5704.3.1 Design, construction and capacity


5704.3.2 Liquid storage cabinets
5704.3.3 Indoor storage
5704.3.4 Quantity limits for indoor storage
5704.3.5 Storage in control areas
5704.3.6 Wholesale and retail sales
5704.3.7 Liquid storage rooms
5704.3.8 Liquid storage warehouses

Section 5704.3.1
Containers and Portable Tanks
Section 5002.1.1 defines a container as a vessel of
60 gallons or less used for transporting or storing
flammable or combustible liquids.
The IFC, by reference to NFPA 30, requires
containers storing Class I, II and IIIA liquids to be
constructed in accordance with DOT requirements.
NFPA 30 limits the volume of a container or portable
tank based on container construction materials and
the class of liquid contained.
NFPA 30 regulates storage of plastic containers in
other than Group M occupancies. Special
regulations for storage in plastic containers in
Group M occupancies are set forth in the IFC.

NFPA 30 Table 9.4.3


Table 9.4.3 Maximum Allowable Size Containers, Intermediate Bulk Containers (IBCs) and Portable Tanks
Flammable Liquids
Class IB
Class IC

Class II

Combustible Liquids
Class IIIA

Container Type

Class IA

Glass

1 pint (0.5 L)

1 quart (1 L)

1.3 gal (5 L)

1.3 gal (5 L)

5.3 gal (20 L)

Metal (other than drums)


or approved plastic

1.3 gal (5 L)

5.3 gal (20 L)

5.3 gal (20 L)

5.3 gal (20 L)

5.3 gal (20 L)

Safety cans

2.6 gal (10 L)

5.3 gal (20 L)

5.3 gal (20 L)

5.3 gal (20 L)

5.3 gal (20 L)

Metal drum (e.g., UN


1A1/1A2)

119 gal (450 L)

119 gal (450 L)

119 gal (450 L)

119 gal (450 L)

119 gal (450 L)

Approved metal portable


tanks and IBCa

793 gal (3000 L)

793 gal (3000 L)

793 gal (3000 L)

793 gal (3000 L)

793 gal (3000 L)

Rigid plastic IBCs (UN


31H1 or 31H2) and
composite IBCs with rigid
inner receptacle (UN
31HZ1)

NP

NP

NP

793 gal (3000 L)

793 gal (3000 L)

Composite IBCs with


flexible inner receptacle
(UN 31HZ2) and DOT/UN
approved flexible IBCs

NP

NP

NP

NP

NP

Non-bulk Bag-In-Box

NP

NP

NP

NP

NP

Polyethylene UN 1H1 and


UN 1H2, or as authorized
by DOT exemption

1.3 gal (5 L)

5.3 gal (20 L)

5.3 gal (20 L)

119 gal (450 L)

119 gal (450 L)

Fiber drum

NP

NP

NP

119 gal (450 L)

119 gal (450 L)

NMFC or UFC Type 2A;


Type 2a, 3B-H, or 3B-L; or
Type 4A
NP: Not permitted for the container categories so classified unless a fire protection system is provided that is
Developed in accordance with 16.3.6 and is approved for specific container and protection against static electricity is provided.

Fire Protection Issues for Containers


and Intermediate Bulk Containers
Two issues that
require special
consideration with
respect to fire
protection are:
Storage of plastic
containers of Class I and II
liquids in Group S-1
occupancies
Use of relieving-style
containers for storage

Plastic Containers
For a fire code official to approve a
container, it must comply with NFPA 30,
Table 9.4.3 and Chapter 12.

Section 12.8.4, Liquids in Plastic


Containers states:
Class I and II liquids in plastic containers shall not
be stored in general-purpose warehouses but shall
be stored in inside liquid storage areas that meet the
requirements of this chapter.

This section has two exceptions.

Plastic Containers
Exception No. 1: The following liquids, packaged
in plastic containers, are permitted to be stored in
general-purpose warehouses in accordance with
the protection and storage limitations specified in
Section 12.8 as follows:
(1) Products containing not more than 50 percent by
volume of water- miscible liquids, with the remainder
of the product consisting of components that do not
burn and where packaged in individual containers
(2) Products containing more than 50-percent watermiscible liquids in individual containers not
exceeding 16 oz (0.5 L) capacity in cartons

Plastic Containers
Exception No. 2: Class I
and II liquids in plastic
containers are
permitted to be stored
in a general-purpose
warehouse if the
packaging systems are
listed and labeled for
use with these
commodities. All other
provisions of Section
12.8 also apply.

Fire Protection of Plastic Containers


In the case of liquid storage rooms and liquid
storage warehouses, fire protection of plastic
containers containing Class I and II liquids will
generally need to be designed as an
Alternative Means and Method to Note b in
Table 5704.3.6.3(3):
In buildings protected by an automatic sprinkler system,
the storage height for containers and portable tanks shall
not exceed the maximum storage height permitted for the
fire protection scheme set forth in NFPA 30 or the
maximum storage height demonstrated in a full-scale fire
test, whichever is greater. NFPA 30 criteria and fire test
results for metallic containers and portable tanks shall not
be applied to nonmetallic containers and portable tanks.

Relieving Style Containers

Plastic caps (bungs) can


reduce the risk of rupturing a
drum in a fire event.

Have a liquid storage room?

Relieving Style Containers


Protection schemes in
NFPA 30 for liquid storage
call for relieving style
containers.
The listed plastic bungs
are designed to melt during
a fire and prevent
explosive rupture of the
vessel.
Covering plastic bungs
with a foil seal may prevent
proper operation and is not
permitted.

Pressure Relief for Vessels


Thismore
was to
styrene
Theres
sprinkler
monomerheptane
would
design than just hanging
have
leveledfrom
the building!
sprinklers
a pipe

Even plastic bungs cannot


entirely ensure that rupture
will not occur.

Pressure Relief for Vessels


This was styrene
monomerheptane would
have leveled the building!

Even plastic bungs cannot


entirely ensure that rupture
will not occur.

Venting is the desired result

Section 5704.3.1 Portable Tanks


The IFC does not define
PORTABLE TANK; however, it
is any packaging over 60
gallons that is designed to be
loaded into, onto or
temporarily attached to a
transport vehicle.
NFPA 30 requires portable
tanks to be equipped with an
emergency vent.
Portable tanks and
intermediate bulk containers
must also meet the
requirements in NFPA 30
Table 9.4.3.

Section 5704.3.1
Intermediate Bulk Containers
Intermediate Bulk Containers,
often called totes, are portable
tanks with a volume up to 793
gallons (3000 L).
They can be designed for a one-time
use or continuous duty
Normally designed for gravity
dispensing

A significant fire protection


concern is the use of plastic IBCs
for the storage liquids.

Section 5704.3.1
Intermediate Bulk Containers
The National Fire Protection
Research Foundation fire
testing of Intermediate Bulk
Containers found:
Sprinkler protection using only water
can protect plastic IBCs storing
Class II and IIIA water-miscible
liquids.

NFPA 30 does not permit


storage of Class I liquids in
nonmetallic IBCs, due to
concerns about static causing
ignition during filling.

Section 5704.3.3 Container & Portable


Tank Storage Inside of Buildings
Section 5704.3.3 applies to
containers with capacities less
than 60 gallons and portable
tanks less than 660 gallons.
Storage of liquid in vehicle fuel
tanks and liquor in wooden barrels
or casks is exempt from these
provisions.

Section 5704.3.4 Maximum Allowable


Quantity & Control Areas
A control area is an area in a building where limited
quantities of flammable or combustible liquids are
allowed to be stored or used without requiring
reclassification to more hazardous occupancy.
IBC Section 414.2 requires two or more control areas
be separated from each other by 1-hour or greater fire
barriers, with floor construction and members
supporting the floor rated for 2 hours.
The concept of the control area is to limit the Maximum
Allowable Quantity (MAQ) of hazardous materials per
control area rather than per building, and then limit the
number of control areas within each building.
Any combination of hazardous materials up to the MAQ
is allowed in a control area.

TABLE 2703.1.1(1)
a,j,m,n,p
MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITY PER CONTROL AREA OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS POSING A PHYSICAL HAZARD
b
b
b
GROUP
STORAGE
USE-CLOSED SYSTEM
USE-OPEN SYSTEM
WHEN
MAXIMUM
Gas
Solid
ALLOWABLE
Solid
Liquid
cubic
Solid
Liquid
Gas
pounds
Liquid
QUANITY IS
pounds
gallons
feet at
gallons
(cubic
pounds
cubic feet
gallons
MATERIAL
CLASS
EXCEEDED
(cubic feet) (pounds)
NTP
(cubic feet) (pounds)
at NTP
feet)
(pounds)
Combustible
Not
Not
120d
Not
Not
30d
II
H-2 or H-3
Not
120d,e
c, i
d,e
d
liquids
330
330
80d
IIIA
H-2 or H-3
Applicable
Applicable
Applicable
Applicable
Applicable
e,f
f
IIIB
Not Applicable
13,200
13,200
3,300d
c
d,e
d
Flammable liquids
IA
H-2
Not
30
Not
Not
30
Not
Not
10d
or
Applicable
Applicable
Applicable
Applicable
Applicable
IB and IC
H-3
120d,e
120d
30d
e,g
e,g
e,g
g
Organic peroxide
UD
H-1
1
(1)e,g
Not
0.25
(0.25)
Not
0.25
(0.25)g
d,e
d,e
d,e
e
I
H-2
5
1
(1)
1
(1)e
(5)d,e
Applicable
Applicable
d,e
d,e
d,e
e
II
H-3
50
50
(50)
50
(50)e
(50)d,e
d,e
d,e
d,e
e
III
H-3
125
125
(125)
125
(125)e
(125)d,e
IV
Not Applicable
Not Limited
No Limit
Not Limited
No Limit
Not Limited
No Limit
V
Not Applicable
Not Limited
No Limit
Not Limited
No Limit
Not Limited
No Limit
a. For use of control areas, see Section 2703.8.3.
b. The aggregate quantity in use and storage shall not exceed the quantity listed for storage.
c. The quantities of alcoholic beverages in retail and wholesale sales occupancies shall not be limited providing the liquids are packaged in individual containers not
exceeding 1.3 gallons. In retail and wholesale sales occupancies, the quantities of medicines, foodstuffs, consumer or industrial products, and cosmetics containing not
more than 50 percent by volume of water-miscible liquids with the remainder of the solutions not being flammable shall not be limited, provided that such materials
are packaged in individual containers not exceeding 1.3 gallons.
d. Maximum allowable quantities shall be increased 100 percent in buildings equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system in accordance with
Section 903.3.1.1.Where Note e also applies, the increase for both notes shall be applied accumulatively.
e. Maximum allowable quantities shall be increased 100 percent when stored in approved storage cabinets, day boxes, gas cabinets, exhausted enclosures or listed
safety cans. Where Note d also applies, the increase for both notes shall be applied accumulatively.
g. Allowed only in buildings equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system.
i. The maximum allowable quantity shall not apply to fuel storage complying with Section 603.3.2.
j. Quantities in parenthesis indicate quantity units in parenthesis at the head of each column.

Section 5704.3.4 Maximum Allowable


Quantity

The number of control areas in a building


is limited by IBC Table 414.2.2 and IFC
Table 5003.8.3.2.

99

Table 5003.1.1(1) Fuel Oil Systems


IFC Table 5003.1.1(1), Note
i allows up to 3,000
gallons of fuel oil when the
installation complies with
Section 603.3.2.
IMC Section 202 defines a
fuel oil as a liquid with a
flash point temperature >
100F.
Tanks inside buildings must
meet IFC Section
5704.2.9.4. Piping must
meet ASME B31.9, Building
Services Piping, in
accordance with Section
5703.6.2 and IMC Chapter
13, Fuel Oil Systems.

Table 5003.1.1(1) Safety Cans


Note e and Section 5003.9.10
require the use of listed safety cans
to increase the MAQ of Class I, II and
IIIA liquids.
Safety cans must be listed as
meeting UL 30 or Factory Mutual
Global standards.
UL listings are limited to metallic cans.
FM listings cover nonmetallic and metallic
cans.

Photograph courtesy of
Justrite Manufacturing Inc.,
LLC, Des Plaines IL

Section 5704.3.2.1
Liquid Storage Cabinets
Cabinets are required to be
listed as meeting UL 1275
or can be constructed of
metal or wood based on the
prescriptive requirements
in Section 5704.3.2.1.1.
The IFC permits up to 120
gallons of liquid inside of
each cabinet.
Doors shall be self-closing
and equipped with a 3-point
latch.
The bottom 2 inches of the
cabinet shall be liquid tight.
Photograph courtesy of
Justrite Manufacturing Inc.,
LLC, Des Plaines IL

Flammable Liquid Cabinet After Fire

Section 5704.3.3.9
Idle Combustible Pallets
Because of their heat release
and burning rates, Section
5704.3.3.9 requires a minimum
8-foot separation between idle
combustible pallets and liquid
storage.
In a sprinklered building, the
height of storage is limited by
the requirements in Section
12.1 of NFPA 13.
In an unsprinklered building,
pallets are limited to a
maximum storage height of 6
feet and a maximum pile area of
2,500 ft.

Section 5704.3.5.1
Storage in Basements
Section 5704.3.5.1 permits
basement storage of Class I
liquids.
The quantity limit is based on
the use-open system MAQ and
that the basement is protected
by a fire protection system in
accordance with IFC Chapter 9.
For Class I liquids in each of 3
control areas in a basement
located one level below the
grade plane:
Class IA MAQ: 15 gallons/CA
Class IB & IC MAQ: 45 gallons/CA

Section 5704.3.6
Group M Occupancies
Group M provisions were developed recognizing
demonstrated fire protection designs and
understanding that the density method of
regulating liquid storage and display in retail
occupancies was difficult to enforce.
Table 5704.3.4.1 allows 7,500 gallons of Class IB,
IC, II and IIIA liquids in one control area of Group
M occupancies when the automatic sprinkler
design is in accordance with Note b.
Up to 15,000 gallons can be stored when the
automatic sprinkler protection meets the criteria in
Tables 5704.3.6.3(4) through (8).

Section 5704.3.6
Group M Occupancies
To obtain the 7,500 gallon quantity limit:
Shelf storage is limited to 6 feet and cartoned, palletized,
or racked storage is limited to 4 feet, 6 inches, the height
of a typical pallet load.
The height of liquid storage is limited by Table
3404.3.6.3(1).

To assist in the enforcement of these


requirements, the code official may require a
storage plan to be developed.
Class I liquid containers in Group M
occupancies must be constructed of metal
Except for not more than 120 gallons of nonmetallic
containers not exceeding 16 ounces capacity.

Maximum container size is 5 gallons.

Section 5704.3.6
Group M Occupancies

Section 5704.3.6 Because Plastic


Containers Are Limited
Some retailers have switched to steel
packaging to make use of the increased
MAQ amounts allowed in Group M
occupancies, due to the required use of steel
containers.

Sections 5704.3.7 and 5704.3.8


Liquid Storage Rooms & Warehouses
When the MAQ is exceeded in
a control area, three options
are available: 1) reduce the
quantity below the MAQ
amount; 2) move the storage
outdoors; or 3) construct a
liquid storage room or
warehouse.
To determine if an occupancy
is a LIQUID STORAGE ROOM
or LIQUID STORAGE
WAREHOUSE, the quantity is
compared to the values in
Table 5704.3.6.3(2) for solidpile and palletized storage or
Table5704.3.6.3(3) for rack
storage.

Section 5704.3.7 Liquid Storage Rooms


A Group H-2 or H-3 occupancy
is assigned when the amount of
Class I, II or IIIA liquids exceeds
the MAQ.
Quantity limits are based on the
amount stored in containers or
portable tanks and the method
of storage.
For solid pile & palletized
storage, see the Maximum
Quantity Per Room column in
Table 5704.3.6.3 (2).
For rack storage see the
Maximum Quantity Per Room
column in Table 5704.3.6.3(3).

Section 5704.3.8
Liquid Storage Warehouse
Required when quantities
exceed those for liquid storage
rooms.
Liquid storage warehouses are
classified as Group H-2 or H-3
occupancies, and must meet the
same requirements of the IBC
and IFC for liquid storage
rooms.
Warehouses must also have occupantuse hose lines to reach all portions of the
storage areas.

Pile arrangements and aisle


spacing are limited, but
quantities are not.

Sections 5704.3.7 and 5704.3.8


Liquid Storage Rooms
Liquid storage rooms and
warehouses are classified as
Group H-3 or H-2 occupancies.
Rooms or warehouses must
meet the requirements of IBC
Sections 307, 414 and 415.
Automatic sprinkler protection
must comply with IFC Chapter
57 and NFPA 30.
Rooms require spill control,
secondary containment and
mechanical ventilation in
accordance with CMC Section
505.

Laboratory Fires
1/11/02 University of California at Santa Cruz
A three-alarm fire Friday on the fourth floor of Sinsheimer
Laboratories injured no one but gutted two large research
labs, damaged other areas of the building, and closed
several other buildings in the Science Hill area of campusF

Fire Protection of Flammable &


Combustible Liquids
In comparison to other
stored commodities and
goods, designing
automatic sprinkler
systems for the protection
of flammable and
combustible liquids
represents a challenge.
Fire protection for these
hazardous materials is an
either/or proposition.

Automatic sprinkler systems for


liquid storage rooms and
warehouses must also comply
with NFPA 30 (see Sections
5704.3.7.5 and 5704.3.8.4).
The following variables must be
evaluated:

Container, portable tank or IBC?


Container material of construction
Miscibility of the stored liquid
Viscosity of the stored liquid
Pressure-relieving construction
Solid-pile, palletized or rack
storage?
Classification and chemical stability
of the stored liquid

Weight (percent flammable or combustible liquid component)

Fire Protection of Flammable &


Combustible Liquids

100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
20

40

60

80

100

Viscosity at room temperature [in thousands of centipoise (cp)]

Fire Protection of Flammable &


Combustible Liquids
In many cases the only
viable protection option is
the use of rack storage.
When rack storage is
selected NFPA 30, Chapter
16 commonly specifies fire
protection based on four
various design schemes.
Schemes A through D
all require the construction
of horizontal barriers and
the installation of in-rack or
in-rack and face sprinklers.

Containers and Portable Tanks Inside


of Buildings

1. A sprinklered Group F occupancy


contains 90 gallons of Class IB liquids
stored in two approved liquid cabinets
(split 45 gallons in each cabinet). The
9,000-square-foot building is
considered as one control area. What
is the MAQ for this control area?
2. What is minimum air exchange rate
required for a ventilation system in a
Group H, Division 3, liquid storage
room?

Containers and Portable Tanks Inside


of Buildings
3. What is the maximum amount of liquid
permitted in a single control area of
Group M occupancy which contains rack
storage of Class IB, IC, II and IIIA liquids
protected in accordance with Table
5704.3.6.3(4)?
4. How many gallons of Class IC flammable
liquids can be stored in an unsprinklered
basement located one level below the
grade plane?

Section 5704.4 Outdoor Storage of


Containers and Portable Tanks
5704.4.1 Plans
5704.4.2 Location on
property
5704.4.3 Spill control and
containment
5704.4.4 Security
5704.4.5 Protection from
vehicles
5704.4.6 Clearance from
combustibles
5704.4.7 Weather protection
5704.4.8 Empty container
and tank storage

Section 5704.4
Outdoor Container & Portable Tank Storage
Storage requirements and
pile volume limits in Table
5704.4.2 are based on the
classification of the liquid
and if it is stored in
containers or portable
tanks.
Quantity/pile limits are
based on the most
hazardous class of liquid
present.
Limited quantities are
permitted adjacent to
buildings.

Section 5705
Dispensing, Use, Mixing and Handling

Section 5705
Dispensing, Use, Mixing and Handling
When flammable and
combustible liquids are
taken out of storage and
put into use, the fire risk
increases.
Because product
transfer, dispensing,
mixing, blending and a
variety of other
processes may liberate
flammable vapors into
the atmosphere, where
they can be ignited,
additional safeguards
and protection methods
are often required.

Section 5705
Dispensing, Use, Mixing and Handling
Section 5705 sets forth
minimum safety
requirements to prevent
or control fires and
explosions associated
with the use of
flammable and
combustible liquids.

Section 5705
Dispensing, Use, Mixing and Handling
Permitted liquid transfer
methods
Cleaning with flammable and
combustible liquids
Solvent distillation units
Use, dispensing, mixing rooms
Explosion control
Special ventilation for open
systems

Section 5705.2.4
Liquid Transfer
Class I liquids and Class II and
IIIA liquids heated above their
flash point in containers
exceeding 5.3 gallons must be
transferred:
From UL 30 listed safety cans,
Through approved closed piping
system,
From containers or tanks by a pump
taking suction from the top,
By gravity through an approved self-or
automatic closing valve when spill
control and secondary containment are
provided and only Class IB, IC, II or III
liquids are used, or
Using approved engineered systems.

127

Section 5705.3.5.2
Maximum Allowable Quantities
Quantities per control area are limited to
those in Table 5003.1.1(1) and occupancy
limits of Section 5705.3.5.2.
Quantities are limited in open or closed
systems.
The MAQ may be increased 100% in
sprinklered buildings.
When the MAQ is exceeded the use must
occur in a Group H, Division 2 or 3, liquid
use, dispensing and (UDM) mixing room.
(See IBC Section 414.5 and IFC Section
5705.3.5.3.)

Section 5705.3.6 Cleaning Operations


Cleaning with flammable and
combustible liquids is only
permitted in a:
Code-compliant Group H-2 or H-3
UDM room, or
Listed parts cleaning machine.
Listed machines must use a solvent
that is approved for use in the
cleaning machine and not exceed
the quantity limits in Section
5705.3.6.2.1.
Multiple machines require
separation in accordance with
Section 5705.3.6.2.5.

Photograph courtesy of Safety


Kleen Corporation, Plano TX

Section 5705.3.7
Closed System UDM Rooms
Mechanical ventilation
designed to exhaust not less
than 1 cfm per square foot.
Explosion control in
accordance with the IBC is
required for:
Class IA liquids, and
Otherwise where an explosive
environment can occur as a result
of the process.

Spill control and secondary


containment are required when:
Individual container volume
exceeds 55 gallons, or
The aggregate capacity of
containers is greater than 1,000
gallons.

Section 5705.3.7
Open System UDM Rooms
Requirements for useopen systems are more
restrictive because of
the ease that vapor can
be ignited:
Explosion control is required for
Class IA and IB liquids.
Spill control is required when
liquids are dispensed into
containers greater than 1.1
gallon capacity, or liquids are
used and mixed in open
containers greater than 5.3
gallon capacity.

Section 5705.3.8 Dispensing, Use,


Mixing & Handling Outside Buildings
Refer to Chapter 23 for
motor-vehicle fuel
dispensing.
Spill control and drainage
control are required.
Location on property
must satisfy the distances
in Section 5705.3.8.2.
Table 5705.3.8.2 specifies
dispensing MAQ for
outdoor areas. These
MAQs are much lower
than those in Chapter 50.

Section 5705.4
Solvent Distillation Units
SDUs are an appliance that
receives contaminated
flammable or combustible
liquids and distills the contents
to remove contaminants and
recover the solvents.
Section 5705.4.1 limits SDUs to
a maximum capacity of 60
gallons and requires they be
listed in accordance with UL
2208.

Closed Cup Flash Point and Boiling


Point Temperatures for 4 Solvents

250
200
150
100
50
Tbp (F)
Tfp (F)
Toluene

Methyl Ethyl
Ketone

Hexane

Acetone

0
-50

Section 5705.4
Solvent Distillation Units
SDUs that exceed 60 gallons
are treated by Section
5705.4.2 as process vessels.
SDUs are prohibited in
basements and must be listed
for processing any liquids that
are also classified as unstable
(reactive), including
nitrocellulose.
These appliances require
labeling and a manufacturers
instruction manual.
135

Section 5706 Special Operations

Section 5706 Special Operations


5706.2 Farms and
construction sites
5706.3 Well drilling and
operations
5706.4 Bulk plants or
terminals
5706.5 Bulk transfer and
process transfer
operations
5706.6 Tank vehicles and
vehicle operation
5706.7 Refineries
5706.8 Vapor recovery and
vapor-processing systems

Special Controls for


Flammable and Combustible Liquids

Spill Control and Secondary


Containment
From Chapter 50
Spill control
Largest single container

Secondary containment
Largest container + 20 minutes of sprinkler water discharge
(indoor)
Unlike other hazardous materials, additional free board for
rainwater accumulation is not required for outdoor tank dikes or
outdoor tank car and tank vehicle loading and unloading areas

For storage and closed use, thresholds are 55-gallon


individual container and 1,000-gallon aggregate
(aggregate for secondary containment only)
For open use, thresholds are 1.3-gallon individual
container and 5.3-gallon aggregate

Section 5004.2 Spill Control and


Secondary Containment

Secondary Containment
A 600-gallon tank of a flammable liquid is stored in a room
classified as a Group H, Division 3-Occupancy. The 1,000square-foot room is protected by the building sprinkler
system which has been hydraulically calculated to provide
0.45 gallon per minute over the most remote 4,000 square
feet.
Using the IFC answer the following questions:

Hazardous (Classified) Locations

Hazardous (Classified) Locations


Hazardous locations are those locations, areas or spaces
where fire or explosion hazards may exist due to the
presence of flammable gases or vapors, flammable liquids,
combustible dusts or ignitable fibers or flyings.
An area is classified as a hazardous location when a
flammable gas or vapor may be present in explosive or
ignitable quantities under normal or abnormal conditions.
The presence or likelihood of flammable gases, liquids or
vapors in process vessels or piping does not imply that
classification outside of the vessel or piping is required.
For classification to occur, there must be a means for
leakage or release outside of the system.

Classified Electrical Locations


The IFCs classified electrical location
requirements are set forth in Section
5703.1.
Section 5703.1.1 requires classified
electrical equipment in locations using
or handling Class I liquids when
specified in Table 5703.1.1.
The fire code official can eliminate
classified location electrical
equipment when it is demonstrated
that the atmosphere can be
maintained at less than 25% LFL.

Classified Electrical Locations


For specific applications, the
NEC references NFPA 497,
Recommended Practice for the
Classification of Flammable
Liquids, Gases, or Vapors and
of Hazardous (Classified)
Locations for Electrical
Installations in Chemical
Process Areas, and NFPA 496,
Standard for Purged and
Pressurized Enclosures for
Electrical Equipment

Electrical Equipment in Hazardous


(Classified) Locations
The conventional method of classification is
contained in NEC Section 500-2. The requirements
for classifying electrical equipment are based on
the ignitability of a material and whether a
flammable atmosphere is or can be present.
The three elements of the system are
The class of material
The group of material
The likelihood of a flammable concentration being present
(Division)

Hazardous (Classified) Locations


The class designation is
assigned based on the type of
material. Class I materials are
flammable liquids, gases or
vapors.
For a hazardous (classified)
location to be properly
identified, the material group
must be assigned.
Flammable liquids applied as
flammable finishes are
classified as Group D materials.

Division 1 Locations
Open process equipment and inadequate
ventilation are conditions that will require a
Division 1 area classification.
Locations where flammable liquids or liquefied gases are
transferred from one container to another
Open vats or tanks
Inadequately ventilated pump rooms
Interior of a spray booth or spraying room

Class I, Division 1, Location Example

Liquid Limit
Switch
1-Pentanol

Class I, Group D,
Division 1

Division 2 Locations
Locations where flammables are contained in
closed piping systems for which leaks or releases
can occur only due to accidental breakdown,
rupture or abnormal operation of equipment.
Locations adjacent to Division 1 locations where
transmission of gases or vapors can occur but is
prevented by positive pressure ventilation.
Adequately ventilated areas where flammable
liquids are handled but the potential for leakage
exists.

Class I, Division 2, Location Example

Adequate Mechanical Ventilation

Flammable
Liquid Pump
The pump room is most
likely a Class I, Group
D, Division 2 location.

Hazardous (Classified) Locations


The NEC requires all
listed equipment to
contain markings
indicating that it can be
installed in a given
hazardous (classified)
location based on its:

Class
Division
Group
Equipment Temperature
Ambient Temperature Range

Photo courtesy of Cooper Industries, Crouse


Hinds Electrical Division

Changing Classified Locations


Reduce or eliminate leak sources and open
process equipment.
Change facility from indoors to outdoors.
Do not erect small buildings around compressors
or other equipment that process flammables.
Reduce process temperatures to below the flash
points for the liquids.
Inside of a building, provide adequate mechanical
ventilation with safeguards to ensure operation.
Construct vapor barriers or unpierced walls to
limit the area of classified locations for vapors
and gases.
Change to a pneumatic or hydraulic source of
power.

Section 5003.7.3
Powered Industrial Trucks

Electrical classification also impacts


requirements for powered industrial
trucks.

Section 5003.7.3
Powered Industrial Trucks

Powered industrial trucks shall be listed


and labeled for their environment.
LPS

Section 5003.7.3
Powered Industrial Trucks
Powered industrial trucks are regulated by
NFPA 505.
Types that may be approved for classified
locations are:
-X
-Y
-E
-S

For example:
LPS
ES
EX

LPS

157

Section 5004.3 Exhaust Ventilation


For liquid storage rooms, liquid storage
warehouses, use dispensing and mixing
rooms and other hazardous uses, special
ventilation is required that:
Exhausts 1 cfm per square foot of floor space
Operates continuously, except for emergency shutoff,
unless otherwise approved
Has makeup air provided
Has intakes not more than 12 inches above the floor for
heavier-than-air vapors
Provides for air movement across the entire floor
Is provided with legally required standby power (Section
5004.7)

2009 IFC Flammable and


Combustible Liquids

Special
exhaust
ventilation
159

A little planning can


help prevent running
air around in a circleF
Yes, thats a tank
car outside !!!
160

161

Makeup air for exhaust ventilation


is essential for proper operation.

Summary
This provides a basic familiarity with the
requirements for flammable and combustible
liquids in the CFC, including:
Hazards and classification of flammable and combustible
liquids
Above-ground stationary tanks
Underground tanks
Containers and portable tanks
Use, dispensing, mixing and handling
Special requirements
Spill control and secondary containment
Classified electrical locations
Ventilation and Mitigation

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