Sie sind auf Seite 1von 16

PAKISTAN STUDIES

ASSIGNMENT
NAME-SHEEZA SUGRA
CLASS-XI COMMERCE

KHILAFAT MOVEMENT

The Khilafat Movement (191926)


was a pan-Islamic, political protest
campaign launched by Muslims in
British India to influence the British
government. The movement became

the

reason

mainland

for
India

separation
of

an

from
Islamic

Pakistan, in the process unleashing


tremendous

separation-trauma,

mainly upon ethnic Punjabis. The


subsequent murder of Gandhi in
India was also the indirect fallout of
the Khilafat Movement.
WHY DID KHILAFAT
MOVEMENT STARTED/
CAUSES?

Khilafat Movement was a religiopolitical Movement launched by the

Muslims of the British India for the


retention of the Ottoman Caliphate
or khilafat-e-usmania and for not
letting for the Muslim holy places
go under the control of the Nonst

Muslims. During the 1 World


War Turkey sided with
Germany and as Germany started
to loose Turkey also started loosing
st

its territory. By the time 1 World


War came to an end in
1918 Turkey had lost most of its
territory. Therefore the issue at that
time was how the allied powers

would treat Turkey, the Ottoman


Empire or the Khilafat-e-usmania
and most of its territory had been
occupied and this Movement was
on its peak from 1919 to 1922,
although it went on during the later
years. But Indian Muslims realized
their religious duty to help the
Muslim country. It was the extra
territorial attachments based on
Islam. Another factor same to the
first was that the Indian Muslims
considered Ottoman Caliphate a

symbol of unity of the Muslim


world as Ummah.

AIMS/ GOALS OF KHILAFAT

MOVEMENT
Ottoman Khilafat should be kept
intact.
Territorial solidarity of Turkey
should be preserved.
Control of holy places of the
Muslims should not be given to
non-Muslims that were NonMuslim powers.
To protect the holy places in
turkey.

To restore the Ottoman Empire.


OUTCOMES/ EFFECTS

The outcomes of Khilafat Movement

were huge. It left both good and bad


effects. It results in protest and rallies
on streets of subcontinent. There was
an increase in violence day by day. It
results in collapse of Hindu Muslims
alliance. A huge number of peoples
were involved in this Movement, may
be this was also a reason of civil
disobedience. Because of some violent
incidents in the country which resulted
in

the

deaths

of

many

Hindus,

Muslims and British people, Mahatma


Gandhi

called

off

his

Non-

Cooperation Movement. This was a


major jolt to the Khilafat Movement

POLITICAL

EVENTS

(1924-1937)

Simon Commission (1927)


Simon

Commission,

group

appointed in November 1927 by


the

British

Conservative

government under Stanley Baldwin


to report on the working of the

Indian constitution established by


the Government of India Act of
1919.

NEHRU REPORT (1928)


The Nehru Report in August 1928
was a memorandum outlining a
proposed new dominion status
constitution for India. It was
prepared by a committee of the All
Parties Conference chaired by
Motilal Nehru with his son
Jawaharlal acting as secretary.
There were nine other members in

this committee, including two


Muslims.
JINNAHS FOURTEEN POINTS
(1929)
Jinnah refused to accept Nehru
report

so

in

order

to

protect

Muslims point of view on political


basis he prepared a draft of guiding
principles consisting of fourteen
points

popularly

known

as

JINNAHS FOURTEEN POINTS.


ROUND TABLE CONFRENCE
The

three Round

Table

Conferences of 193032 were a

series of conferences organized by


the British Government to discuss
constitutional

reforms

in

India.

They were conducted as per the


recommendation
submitted

by

by

the
the

report
Simon

Commission in May 1930.


FIRST

ROUND

TABLE

CONFRENCE
The Round Table Conference
was opened officially by Lord
Irwin on November 12, 1930
at London and chaired by the

British Prime Minister, Ramsay


MacDonald.
The three British political
parties were represented by
sixteen delegates. There were
fifty-seven political leaders from
British India and sixteen
delegates from the princely
states. In total 89 delegates
from India attended the
Conference. However,
the Indian National Congress,
along with Indian business
leaders, kept away from the

conference. Many of them were


in jail for their participation
in Civil Disobedience
Movement.
SECOND

ROUND

TABLE

CONFRENCE
The Congress had boycotted the
first conference was requested
to come to a settlement by
Sapru, M. R. Jayakar and V. S.
Srinivasa Sastri. A settlement
between Mahatma Gandhi and
Viceroy Lord Irwin known as

the GandhiIrwin
reached

and

appointed

Pact was
Gandhi

as

the

was
sole

representative of the Congress


to the second Round Table
Conference. By this time, there
was a coalition Government in
Britain

with

Conservative

majority.
THIRD

ROUND

ABLE

CONFRENCE
.

The

third

and

last

session

assembled on November 17,

1932. Only forty-six delegates


attended since most of the main
political figures of India were
not present. The Labour Party
from Britain and the Indian
National Congress refused to
attend.
From

September

1931

until

March

1933,

under

the

supervision of the Secretary of


State

for

India, Sir

Samuel

Hoare, the proposed reforms


took the form reflected in the
Government of India Act 1935.

COMMUNAL AWARD (1932)


The Communal Award was made
by

the

British

Prime

Minister

Ramsay Macdonald on 16 August


1932 granting separate electorates
in British India for the Forward
Caste,

Lower

Caste,

Muslims,

Buddhists, Sikhs, Indian Christians,


Anglo-Indians and europeans
GOVERNMENT OF INDIA ACT
(1935)

The Government
1935 was

of

originally

India
passed

Act
in

August 1935, and is said to have


been the longest (British) Act of
Parliament ever enacted by that
time.