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LABORATORY 8 POWER AMPLIFIER

OBJECTIVES

1. To study Class B power amplifier circuits.

2. To observe crossover distortion present in Class B power amplifiers.

3. To simulate Class B and Class AB power amplifier circuits using MicroCap software.

4. To design and test DC biasing and frequency response of a Class AB audio power amplifier.

INFORMATION

1. Power Amplifier Class B

Class B amplification involves using a dual voltage power supply along with two power transistors, an NPN, and its complementary PNP device. Such a circuit is shown in Figure 8.1 and its operation could be explained as following:

In the absence of an input signal, neither transistor conducts; both transistors are off.

On the positive half of the input cycle, once the input signal is greater than 0.7 V, Q1 will turn on and current flows as shown in Figure 8.1- a. Notice that the base- emitter voltage of Q1 causes Q2 to be held in the off state since Q2’s base-emitter is reverse biased.

As the input signal swings into the negative half of its cycle and exceeds 0.7V, Q2 is turned on and its base-emitter voltage reverse biases the base-emitter junction of Q1, turning it off.

FG

Vcc I C I B Q1 + ON _ I Vin E C1 Vo _
Vcc
I
C
I
B
Q1
+
ON
_
I
Vin
E
C1
Vo
_
+
RL
OFF
+
_
Q2
Vee

a) Positive half cycle operation

+ RL OFF + _ Q2 Vee a) Positive half cycle operation b) Class B output

b) Class B output waveforms

Figure 8.1. Class B power amplifier operation

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Typical output waveforms for both Q1 and Q2 BJTs and a Class B amplifier output are shown in Figure 8.1-b. The time required for the input signal to move from zero volts to +0.7 V or to -0.7 V is the time during which conduction does not occur, consequently the output sits at zero volts for this interval, producing what is called crossover distortion. Crossover distortion takes its name from the dead-time distortion occurring when the input crosses over from -0.7 V to +0.7 V or from +0.7 V to -0.7 V.

Class B has a very low (zero) Quiescent Current, and hence low standing power dissipation and optimum power efficiency. However it should be clear that in practice Class B may suffer from problems when handling low-level signals. In the absence of an input signal, a Class B power amplifier should have zero volts dc on the output terminal with respect to ground, if the transistors are well matched. Often, they are not well matched, so the student should be aware that it is quite possible to have a dc voltage present at the output. Some output loads, such as speakers, may be damaged by dc. If such

loads are to be used, they must be capacitively coupled to the output in order to block the

dc.

2. Power Amplifier Class AB

Crossover distortion could be eliminated in class AB power amplifiers by the addition of the diode circuitry shown in Figure 8.2a.

FG

Vcc R1 C1 Q1 Vin D1 I Vo D RL D2 C2 Q2 R2 Vee
Vcc
R1
C1
Q1
Vin
D1
I
Vo
D
RL
D2
C2
Q2
R2
Vee

a) Class AB circuit diagram

Vo D RL D2 C2 Q2 R2 Vee a) Class AB circuit diagram b) Class AB

b) Class AB output waveforms

Figure 8.2.Class AB power amplifier circuit

Since the diodes in Figure 8.2-a are on all the time, both Q1 and Q2 are held at the edge of the conduction mode by the diode voltages (A small but controlled Quiescent Current). When the input goes either positive or negative, very little voltage is required to put Q1 or Q2 into full conduction. Typical output waveforms for both Q1 and Q2 BJTs and a Class AB amplifier output are shown in Figure 8.2-b.

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3.

Transistors

You will be using the MJE800 NPN and the MJE700 PNP silicon Darlington pair power transistors. These transistors are a set of complimentary pair silicon power transistors. Two individual transistors connected in a Darlington configuration in each package will provide a very large short circuit current gain β which is the product of the two β’s of each internal transistor. For the transistors used here the manufacturer guarantees a minimum β of 750. The transistor diagrams and package are shown in Figure 8.A and the data sheets are attached in the appendix section of this manual.

C (2) C (2) B (3) B (3) Q1 Q1 R1 D R1 D Q2
C (2)
C (2)
B (3)
B (3)
Q1
Q1
R1
D R1
D
Q2
Q2
10k
10k
R2
R2
600
600
E (1)
E (1)
MJE800
MJE700
Q2 10k 10k R2 R2 600 600 E (1) E (1) MJE800 MJE700 b) Package Figure

b) Package

Figure 8.3. MJE800 NPN and the MJE700 PNP diagrams and package

a) MJE800 NPN and the MJE700 PNP diagrams

Note: Two resistors and a diode are integrated internally in the transistor device’s package and one of the reasons for including these components is to prevent a thermal run-away from occurring. These internal components are not shown on the circuit diagrams in Figures 8.1 and 8.2 however they should be included in the device model in your circuit simulation.

PRE-LABORATORY PREPARATION

The lab preparation must be completed before coming to the lab. Show it to your TA for checking and grading (out of 15) at the beginning of the lab and get his/her signature.

1. Calculations

The purpose of this exercise is to design the output stage of an audio power amplifier that could be used with one or more of the earlier circuits to complete a power amplifier. In your design set the dual DC power supply to ± 6VDC. The amplifier should deliver approximately 500 mW of sinusoidal RMS audio power to an 8 load, over the standard audio range of 20 Hz to 20 kHz. In the laboratory you will use an 8.2 resistor. It will make the lab a lot quieter! Include the basic power amplifier (Figure 8.1) and the diode compensated circuit (Figure 8.4) in your pre-lab design and simulation. The Figure 8.4 circuit must be designed at the edge of the cut-off region. Since we are using a Darlington pairs instead of single NPN and PNP transistors, the diode compensation group should contain three diodes instead of two, as it is shown in Figure 8.4. The class AB amplifiers have a small I BIAS such that the DC quiescent operating point is just into the start of the conducting region. This will prevent a certain amount of cross over distortion.

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The class AB circuit must be designed at the edge of the cut-off region. For the circuit in Figure 8.4.calculate the values of the resistors R 1 =R 2 for a diode current of I D =5mA.

FG

Vcc R1 C1 Q1 D1 Vin I Vo D D2 RL D3 Q2 C2 R2
Vcc
R1
C1
Q1
D1
Vin
I
Vo
D D2
RL
D3
Q2
C2
R2
Vee

Figure 8.4. Real class AB power amplifier circuit.

2. MicroCap simulations

2.1. Use MicroCap to determine the DC biasing voltages and currents with no ac signal for

the class B amplifier circuit in Figure 8.1. You should obtain the following information

through the MicroCap simulations:

2.1.1. A table with the expected DC voltages when no AC input signal is applied to the

circuit (Table 8.1).

2.1.2. An input and output waveforms for a sinusoidal input signal Vin=4V p (peak) at

f=1kHz.

2.1.3. The output waveform for input voltage of Vin=8V p (peak) at 1 kHz. A comparison with the voltages observed in the lab should be made. Watch for any distortion occurring in the output waveform.

2.2. Using calculated component values for resistors R 1 and R 2 .determine the DC biasing

voltages and currents with no ac signal for the class AB amplifier circuit in Figure 8.3.

You should obtain the following information through the MicroCap simulations:

2.2.1. A table with the expected DC voltages when no AC input signal is applied to the

circuit (Table 8.2).

2.2.2.

An input and output waveforms for a sinusoidal input signal Vin = 4V p for f =1

kHz.

2.2.3.

The frequency response of class AB amplifier from 10 Hz to 100 kHz. Print the

Bode plots of the voltage gain and phase frequency response and bring these plots to the

laboratory.

MicroCap simulations tips:

To provide a power supply to the circuit use two “Battery” sources from the MicroCap library. Connect them as Vcc and Vee voltage sources with common ground and set them to a 6VDC.

You could simulate the Darlington pair as two separate transistors, each with a

You need to

typical β = 30 (BF parameter) and |V BE | = 0.7 V (VJE parameter).

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include the internal resistors in your circuit diagram. For NPN transistors you could use 2N3904 and for PNP – 2N3905 BJT models from MicroCap library. Adjust BF and VJE parameters within the BJT component data description. Because these transistors have low output currents, just for the simulations replace the load resistor R L =8,2with R L =500.

To obtain the values of all the bias currents and voltages on your schematic from Analysis menu choose the Probe AC mode and click on Node Voltages and Currents icons on the toolbar.

For a sine wave signal source use a 1MHz Sinusoidal Source from the Micro–Cap library. Set the AC Amplitude to A= 4(V) in the model description area of the signal source. Note that A=4V corresponds to V p =4V.

To obtain an input and output waveforms you must run “TRANSIENT ANALYSIS”.

To obtain the gain and phase frequency response plots for this circuit you must run “AC ANALYSIS” for frequency range from 10 Hz to 100 kHz. Note: Set parameter P to plot separate diagram for each curve.

EQUIPMENT

1. Digital multimeter (Fluke 8010A, BK PRECISION 2831B).

2. Function Generator Wavetek FG3B.

3. Digital oscilloscope Tektronix TDS 210.

4. PROTO-BOARD PB-503 (breadboard).

5. MJE800 NPN and MJE700 PNP Darlington transistors .

6. 1N4148 diodes – 3.

7. C=47 µF – 2.

8. R=8.2 / 2W.

PROCEDURE

1. You are provided with two heat sinks, which should be attached to the transistors during the lab exercise. Connect the heat sink which is electrically connected to the collector of the transistor. Be very careful you do not 'accidentally' short the heat sink to ground, it has the same effect as shorting the collector to ground. Occasionally check the temperature of the heat sink, if you cannot keep your finger of the heat sink for more than twenty seconds the transistors may be too hot. Shut the power off and check your circuit.

2. Connect the class B power amplifier shown in Figure 8.5 using MJE800 NPN and MJE700 PNP Darlington transistors instead of single BJTs. Use the R L = 8.2 resistor to simulate the loudspeaker’s load.

3. Use a dual voltage Power Supply and connect its POS terminal as Vcc, NEG terminal as Vee and COM terminal as a common ground. Set the power supply voltage to 6V DC. Measure the DC quiescent point values. Compare the voltages and currents from simulation with the experimental data in a Table 8.1. If your

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results are significantly different (more than 15%) from your simulated values, try to find out and eliminate the reason for that discrepancy.

   

Q1

   

Q2

 

V

CE

V

BE

I

C

V

CE

V

BE

I

C

[V]

[V]

[A]

[V]

[V]

[A]

Simulation

           

Experiment

           

Table 8.1. Class B power amplifier DC biasing

4. Once you are satisfied that your circuit is biased correctly, then connect the signal generator to the input. Set the signal generator to a frequency of 1 kHz. For the input signal level of Vin = 4Vp sketch the output voltage across the 8.2 load on top of your MicroCap simulation plot. Compare the simulated and experimental waveforms and explain the differences if any.

5. Increase the input sinusoidal voltage until you notice a clipping in the output voltage. For these readings you can use the Fluke meter to measure the AC input current (Fluke measures the RMS value), measure the input voltage after the Fluke meter (scope) as it is shown in Figure 8.5. For two settings of the input signal below this maximum signal calculate the input AC power P in , the output AC power P o , the DC input power from the DC supply P DC . Also calculate the AC voltage gain A V [dB] (Equation (8.1)), the AC power gain [dB] (Equation (8.2.)) and the amplifier efficiency η (Equation (8.3)) of the class B power amplifier.

Vcc I DC Q1 I in Vo C1 A I o RL Vin Q2 CH1
Vcc
I
DC
Q1
I in
Vo
C1
A
I
o RL
Vin
Q2
CH1
Vee
CH2 CH1 CH2
CH2
CH1
CH2

FG

Figure 8.5. Class B power amplifier measurements.

A

V [dB] = 20 log

V o V in
V
o
V
in

A

P [dB ] = 10 log

η =

P

o

P

DC

P o P in
P
o
P
in

Equation (8.1)

Equation (8.2)

Equation (8.3)

Record your measurements and calculations in Table 8.2. Determine if your amplifier is capable of delivering 500 mW of audio power without distortion. If your circuit can

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not deliver this power, do not lay the sole blame on the DC power supply, the maximum current it can deliver is 200 mA.

 

AC input

   

AC output

   

DC

input

 

Gain calculations

measurements

measurements

 

measurements

 

V

in

I

in

P

in

V

o

I

o

P

o

V

DC

I

DC

 

P

DC

A

V

A

P

η

[V]

[A]

[W]

[V]

[A]

[W]

[V]

 

[A]

[W]

[dB]

[dB]

2

                     

4

                     

Table 8.2. Class B power amplifier measurements.

6. Connect the class AB power amplifier in Figure 8.4. Use the calculated values of R 1 and R 2 . Repeat the DC biasing measurements from point 2 and collect all data in Table 8.3.

   

Q1

   

Q2

 

V

CE

V

BE

I

C

V

CE

V

BE

I

C

[V]

[V]

[A]

[V]

[V]

[A]

Simulation

           

Experiment

           

Table 8.3. Class AB power amplifier DC biasing

7.

Repeat all measurements from points 3 and 4 and collect all data in Table 8.4.

 

AC input

   

AC output

   

DC

input

 

Gain calculations

measurements

measurements

 

measurements

 

V

in

I

in

P

in

V

o

I

o

P

o

V

DC

I

DC

 

P

DC

A

V

A

P

η

[V]

[A]

[W]

[V]

[A]

[W]

[V]

 

[A]

[W]

[dB]

[dB]

2

                     

4

                     

Table 8.4. Class AB power amplifier AC measurements.

8. Determine the frequency response of the AC sinusoidal voltage gain of the compensated amplifier over the range of 20 Hz to 30 kHz.

f [Hz]

V in [V]

V o [V]

Θ[deg]

A

v [dB]

20

       

50

       

100

       

200

       

500

       

800

       

1k

       

5k

       

10k

       

20k

       

30k

       

Table 8.5 Frequency response of a class AB power amplifier.

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9.

Plot obtained voltage gain and phase data on top of your simulated Bode plots and compare the results.

REPORT

Your Lab report is due one week later. Please submit it to your TA in the beginning of your next lab session.

Note: You must copy/print the Signature and Marking Sheet from your manual before coming to the lab session.

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SIGNATURE AND MARKING SHEET – LAB 8

To be completed by TA during your lab session

Student Name:

Student # :

TA Name:

Check

Task

Max.

Granted

TA

boxes

Marks

Marks

Signature

     

Pre-lab completed

15

   
     

Class B Amplifier Test completed

10

   
     

Class AB Amplifier Test completed

10

   
     

Overall Report Preparation

65

   
TOTAL MARKS 100
TOTAL MARKS
100

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